A historic house museum is a house, transformed into a museum. Historic furnishings may be displayed in a way that reflects their original placement and usage in a home. Historic house museums are held to a variety of standards, including those of the International Council of Museums; the International Council of Museums defines a museum as: "A museum as a non profit-making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, open to the public, which acquires, researches and exhibits, for purpose of study and enjoyment, the tangible and intangible evidence of people and their environment." Houses are transformed into museums for a number of different reasons. For example, the homes of famous writers are turned into writer's home museums to support literary tourism. Known as a ‘memory museum’, a term used to suggest that historic house museum contains a collection of the traces of memory of the people who once lived there, it is made up of the inhabitants’ belongings and objects – this approach is concerned with authenticity.
Some museums are organised around the social role the house had. Other historic house museums may be or reconstructed in order to tell the story of a particular area, social-class or historical period; the ‘narrative’ of the people who lived there guides this approach, dictates the manner in which it is completed. In each kind of museum visitors learn about the previous inhabitants through an explanation and exploration of Social History; the idea of a historic house museum derives from a branch of history called Social History, based on people and their way of living. It became popular in the mid-twentieth century among scholars who were interested in the history of people, as opposed to political and economical issues. Social history remains an influential branch of history. Philip J. Ethington is a Professor of history and political science, further adds to social history and its relationship to locations by saying – "All human action takes and makes place; the past is the set of places made by human action.
History is a map of these places." Following this historical movement, the concept of ‘Open Air Museums’ became prominent. These particular types of museums had interpreters in costume re-enact the lives of communities in earlier eras, which would be performed to modern audiences, they occupied large wooden architecture buildings or outdoor sites and landscapes, that were true to the era adding to authenticity. Collective memory is sometimes used in the resurrection of historic house museums; the notion of Collective Memory originated from philosopher and sociologist Maurice Halbwachs, in ‘La memoire collective’. This extended thesis examines the role of people and place, how collective memory is not only associated with the individual but is a shared experience, it focused on the way individual memory is influenced by social structures, as a way of continuing socialisation by producing memory as collective experience. "Each aspect, each detail, of this place has a meaning intelligent only to members of the group, for each portion of its space corresponds to various and different aspects of the structure and life of their society, at least of what is stable in it."An example of a site that utilizes collective memory is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park in Japan.
It was restored and is based on the dialectics of memory, however it has the inclusion of joyous festivals to mask the turmoil. The ‘Hiroshima Traces’ text takes a look the importance of collective memory and how it is embedded in culture and place. Thus, collective memory does not only reside in a house or building, but it resonates in outdoor space – when a monumental event has occurred, such as war. "The taming of memory that can be observed in the city’s redevelopment projects reveals local mediations and manifestations of transnational as well as national structural forces."Problematic creation of collective memory occurs within historic house museums when the narrative of non-family members is dismissed, ignored, or rejected. Within the Southern United States, Plantation Museums constitute a significant portion of the museum community and contribute to the racialized collective memory of the United States; because museums are responsible for “the building of identity, cultural memory and community,” neglecting to include the narrative of ALL people who lived there is dangerous.
While some Plantation museum narratives have changed following an outcry from the public and the academy, “plantation museums reflect and contribute to racialized ways of understanding and organizing the world,” by eliminating and limiting the narrative of the enslaved inhabitants. A degree of authenticity is to be considered in the restoration and creation of a historic house museum; the space must be authentic in terms of replicating and representing the way it once stood in its original form and appear to be untouched and left in time. There are three steps when declaring if a space is authentic: Proof of identity must be presented and certified by a credible individual The attributes of the object or person must be compared to the existing knowledge about it Documentation and credentials must be used to support it and thus declare if it is authentic. There are a number of Organizations around the world that dedicate themselves to the preservation, resurrection or promotion of historic house museums.
They include: Historic Houses Association Historic House Trust of New York City Historic Houses Trust of Ne
The Christmas Conference was an historic founding conference of the newly independent Methodists within the United States held just after the American Revolution at Lovely Lane Chapel in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1784. Prior to the revolution, American Methodism consisted of itinerant preachers commissioned by John Wesley the founder of the Methodist societies in England. Wesley had been sending preacher/missionaries since the 1760s. With the outbreak of war, most of these returned to England, with the exception of Francis Asbury and James Dempster. Asbury began to be looked upon as the leader of the groups, whereas Dempster moved to upstate New York, where he ministered locally, his activities were restricted because, as an Englishman, he was suspected of not being sympathetic to the patriot cause. During the war, he ceased his circuit riding and stayed at the residence of his friend, Judge Thomas White of Delaware. Before the war, the Methodist itinerant preachers were appointed to form societies, but they were expected by Wesley to work within the Anglican Church, as they were not ordained.
They were not allowed to administer the sacraments. This produced some difficulty as Anglican Churches were limited to the coastal cities, the itinerant preachers were moving westward and inland; the Anglican clergy all left for England with the outbreak of war. Asbury had come to America in 1771. Under his leadership, conferences were formed and American preachers appointed, but this did not solve the problem of the administration of the sacraments. During the war, the societies continued to grow, albeit more due to all the disruptions. Following the war, there was a move to locally ordain the preachers, but Asbury counselled patience until Wesley gave direction. In England, at the Methodist Conference in Leeds in July 1784, Wesley himself ordained Richard Whatcoat and Thomas Vasey as elders, appointing them to go, along with a group of itinerant preachers to America. Wesley ordained Thomas Coke to go as superintendent of the American church, he gave Coke instructions to ordain Francis Asbury as co-superintendent.
Wesley was reluctant to take this action, but he had asked for the Bishop of London to ordain a bishop for America, had been rebuffed. Meeting with Asbury on November 14, 1784, Coke explained Wesley's intentions and proposed to ordain him. Asbury, catching the spirit of democracy in the new country, refrained from accepting the ordination until approved by the American connexion. Messengers were sent, calling the American itinerants to Baltimore on December 24. Eighty one preachers were entitled to membership. During the six weeks while waiting for the conference and Asbury went on a preaching tour that covered at least 900 miles. With the Christmas Conference's unanimous approval, Asbury was ordained and appointed as co-superintendent, he was ordained deacon on Christmas Day by laying on of hands. Asbury's friend Philip William Otterbein, pastor of the German Reformed Church of Baltimore laid hands on Asbury to assist in the ordination. Coke said of Asbury, "In the presence of Mr. Asbury, I feel myself a child.
He is in my estimation, the most apostolic man I saw, except Mr. Wesley." Coke preached Asbury's ordination sermon, published and caused some stir in England because he emphasized the need to ordain only godly men, pointed to England for an example of immoral and unconverted men to orders. This conference, which became known as the first General Conference of the new church, abridged the 39 Articles of Religion of the Anglican Church into 24, added one additional one about civic duties as US citizens, adopted them as its governing principles known as the Discipline, they received a modified prayer book sent by Wesley. John Dickins a pastor in New York proposed the name of the fledgeling church: the Methodist Episcopal Church; the conference ordained 12 preachers to orders, setting a precedent for the American church that ordinations were to be approved by the conference. After the ten-day conference, Asbury set out circuit riding as he had before the war, his first destination was Charleston, South Carolina which he deemed the city most in need of spiritual enlightenment.
The American church held another General Conference in every four years after. Richard Allen bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, one of two non-voting black attendees at the conference "Black Harry" Hosier, the other The Asbury Triptych Series: book series on Francis Asbury and the Methodist movement. Christmas conference is found in'Ordination, book three of the series
Aloysius Arabao Iyomogo Edrick Amwano is a Nauruan politician. Amwano started his parliamentary career in 1998, when he won a vacated seat in a by-election for the Ubenide Constituency following the resignation of former president Lagumot Harris. In the 2000 general elections he was re-elected, he was the Speaker of the Parliament of Nauru from 29 March 2001 to 30 March 2001. After the 2003 general elections he lost his seat to Fabian Ribauw. In 2008 he was re-elected to parliament, he became part of President Marcus Stephen's parliamentary majority, before switching over to the opposition in 2010. He was one of three non-Cabinet government MPs to switch to the opposition after benefiting from a trip to Singapore organised and paid for by the Australian company Getax, which buys Nauruan phosphate. Getax had just sought, unsuccessfully, to propose a loan to the Stephen government, with contractual clauses enabling it to take over Nauru's phosphate industry in the event that the government defaulted in repaying.
Following the Getax-funded trip and two other MPs withdrew their support for the government, joining the opposition and causing Parliament to be evenly split between government and opposition MPs. This resulted in fresh parliamentary elections in April 2010. On 30 June 2010, he was elected Speaker, demanded that Stephen stand down as president. On 6 July, opposition MP Rykers Solomon joined the government giving it the numbers to re-elect Stephen, or to elect a new president from within its ranks; as Speaker, Amwano refused to allow the election for president to be held. Amwano refused to relinquish his post. In a short parliamentary session held on 9 July, Deputy Speaker Landon Deireragea announced that he had assumed the Speaker's position in Amwano's place. In October, the Nauruan government accused Getax of having paid significant sums of money to opposition MPs, of having funded the opposition's election campaign; the Australian Federal Police investigated the allegations that Getax had bribed Nauruan MPs "to influence the political regime in Nauru in order to increase their stake in the country's phosphate".
Amwano spoke up to defend Getax, denying any wrongdoing and adding that he "would be happy for the Australian Federal Police to investigate". Amwano was defeated in the 2013 elections, was replaced by Ranin Akua. Politics of Nauru Elections in Nauru 2008 Nauruan parliamentary election April 2010 Nauruan parliamentary election