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Historic roads and trails

Historic roads are paths or routes that "have great historical importance or fame". Examples exist from prehistoric times until the early 20th century, they include ancient trackways and roads that existed in "the period of history before the fall of the Western Roman Empire" in 476 AD. "The first roads were paths made by animals and adapted by humans." Many historic routes, such as the Silk Road, the Amber Road, the Royal Road of the Persian Empire, existed before the Christian era and covered great distances. The Post Track, a prehistoric causeway in the valley of the River Brue in the Somerset Levels, England, is one of the oldest known constructed trackways and dates from around 3838 BCE; the world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. The Romans were the most significant road builders of the ancient world. At the peak of the Roman Empire there were more than 400,000 kilometres of roads, of which over 80,000 kilometres were stone-paved. Another empire, that of the Incas of pre-Columbian South America built an extensive and advanced transportation system.

Much historic roads include the Red River Trails between Canada and the US, from the 19th century. However, such pioneer trails in these countries made use of ancient routes created by indigenous people; the Silk Road was a major trade route between China and India and Arabia. It derives its name from the lucrative trade in silk carried out along its length, beginning in the Han dynasty; the Han dynasty expanded the Central Asian section of the trade routes around 114 BCE through the missions and explorations of the Chinese imperial envoy Zhang Qian. The Chinese took great interest in the safety of their trade products and extended the Great Wall of China to ensure the protection of the trade route. Prior to the Silk Road an ancient overland route existed through the Eurasian Steppe. Silk and horses were traded as key commodities; this route extended for 10,000 km. Trans-Eurasian trade through the Steppe Route precedes the conventional date for the origins of the Silk Road by at least two millennia.

See the Northern Silk Road, the Southern Silk Road: Through Khotan, Tea Horse Road. The Shudao, or the "Road to Shu", is a system of mountain roads linking the Chinese province of Shaanxi with Sichuan and maintained since the 4th century BC. Technical highlights were the gallery roads, consisting of wooden planks erected on wooden or stone beams slotted into holes cut into the sides of cliffs; the roads join three adjacent basins surrounded by high mountains. Like many ancient road systems, the Shu Roads formed a network of major and minor roads with different roads being used at different historical times. However, a number of roads are identified as the main routes. Kaidō were roads in Japan dating from the Edo period, they act important roles in transportation like the Appian way of ancient Roman roads. Major examples include the Edo Five Routes. Minor examples include sub-routes such as the Hokuriku Kaidō and the Nagasaki Kaidō. Kaidō, however, do not include San'yōdō, San'indō, Nankaidō and Saikaidō, which were part of the more ancient system of Yamato government called Gokishichidō.

This was the name for ancient administrative units and the roads within these units, organized in Japan during the Asuka period, as part of a legal and governmental system borrowed from the Chinese. Many highways and railway lines in modern Japan carry the same names; the early roads radiated from the capital at Kyoto. Edo was the reference, today Japan reckons directions and measures distances along its highways from Nihonbashi in Chūō, Tokyo; the Grand Trunk Road in South Asia was the main road from modern day Bangladesh to northern Pakistan and Afghanistan. A route since antiquity, it was constructed into a coherent highway by the Maurya Empire in 300BC. Soon after, the Greek diplomat Megasthenes wrote of his travels along the road to reach Hindu kingdoms in the 3rd century BC. After invading India over 1,500 years Mughals extended the Grand Trunk Road westwards from Lahore to Kabul crossing the Khyber Pass; the road was improved and extended from Calcutta to Peshawar by the British rulers of colonial India.

For many centuries, the road has acted as a major trade route and facilitated travel and postal communication. The Grand Trunk Road remains under use for transportation in India; the Khyber Pass was an all-season mountain pass connecting Afghanistan to western Pakistan. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. Except for Roman roads, European pathways were in good shape and depended on the geography of the region. In the early Middle Ages, people preferred to travel along elevated drainage divides rather than in the valleys; this was due to other natural obstacles in valleys. The Amber Road was an ancient trade route for the transfer of amber from coastal areas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. Prehistoric trade routes between Northern and Southern Europe were defined by the amber trade; as an important commodity, sometimes dubbed "the gold of the north", amber was transported overland by way of the Vistula and Dnieper rivers to the Mediterranean area from at least the 16th century BC.

The breast ornament of the Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamen


Osečná is a town in the Liberec District of the Liberec Region in the Czech Republic. Osečná lies on the Ploučnice River; the river flows into the Elbe at Děčín. It has 1075 inhabitants, it lies 15 kilometres from Liberec, on the foot of Ještěd. The town has a primary school, post office, several shops and one of the oldest spas in Bohemia, Lázně Kundratice, founded in 1881; the moor is used here as a natural resource. Osečná appears to have been founded in the middle of the 13th century, along the trade route which led from the town of Český Dub to the Děvín castle; the name of the town might originate from the word “truncate”, which people had to do before they can build the town – truncate the forest. The founders of Osečná were Vartenbergs. In 1234, Osečná became property of the king Ottokar II. Then after his death, his son Wenceslaus II. Inherited his property. In 1306, Osečná returned to the Vartenbergs. In 1516, the Biebersteins bought Děvín Castle. On April 8, 1563, Charles the Bieberstein laid the foundation stone for the construction of a new, stone church.

Construction took three years. In 1548, the chronicle city was developed. On the end of the 16th century, Charles the Bieberstein sold Osečná and the other villages to Jan Oprsstof; the year 1576 was important, when emperor Rudolf II. Elevated Osečná to a town and it got the law to use the urban character and the seal; the griffin with the golden crown and with the golden armor on the red background is on the Osečná’s urban character. On the bottom was a sign “Sigilium oppidi ossensis 1576“. Osečná had the right to brew the beer too and the law of executions, which existed until 1769; the executions were held on the hill, called “the Gallows hill.”Today, the monument of Friedrich Schiller is located here and the name is “Schiller’s Height." Zikmund Smiřický, who bought Osečná in 1591, donated the brewery to the town in 1598. So Osečná could brew its own beer. In 1618, Albrecht Jan Smiřický protested against Emperor Ferdinand II. What had serious consequences. After the Battle of White Mountain, Albrecht von Wallenstein, who had the Duchy of Frýdlant, got this property.

The inhabitants of Osečná had to accept Catholicism and they had to pay for a parson from Český Dub too, but they refused. In 1653, the people from Osečná announced the recatholisation, what means they converted back to the Roman Catholic faith. In 1634, when Albrecht von Wallenstein was killed, his property reverted to Emperor Ferdinand II. Who bequeathed it to General Jan Ludvík Hektor in recognition of his military service; when he died, his daughter Regina inherited his property, which went to Vienna's Saint Jacob Convent in 1643, where she became Mother Superior, donated her manor to this monastery. So Osečná belonged for the next 130 years to this convent in Wien. On November 5, 1643, the Swedish army arrived to the Osečná and it destroyed much of the town, they destroyed the town hall, robbed the church, burned the brewery. It never been restored. A new town hall was opened in the middle of square in 1704. Osečná suffered many fires during its history; the largest fire broke in the town on June 11, 1825 when the entire city burnt.

25 houses, town hall and the tower of church succumbed to the fire, all of five bells in the tower melted. Nowadays, two bells are located here; this fire was significant: if the town couldn’t burn down it could be larger than Liberec. On August 6, 1838, a Duke from Sychrov Kamil Rohan bought Manor of Český Dub. In 1870, he had the family blazon installed above the entryway to the church, still on the same place. On this blazon is written one of the main mottos of the Rohans: „Potius mori quam foedar”, what means: “Is better to die than to betray”. On October 10, 2006, the town status was returned to Osečná. A lookout is now under construction in Osečná, it will be 25 metres high and stand on Jiránek’s hill upon the Jeníškovský pond, the source of the Ploučnice River. St. Vitus Church Plague Column Monument of Friedrich Schiller, German writer and poet Statue of the Three Saints Devil’s rock – the remains of the basalt vein from tertiary, the devil built it according to legend, national natural monument Millennia’s linden in Kotel – height 25 m and the trunk circuit 9, 25 m, the most massive tree in the Liberec region Waterfall on the Ploučnice River Spring of the Ploučnice River Lázně Kundratice – one of the oldest spas in Bohemia Municipal website

Excite Ballpark

Excite Ballpark known as San Jose Municipal Stadium or Muni Stadium, is a baseball park in San Jose, California. It is the home of the Minor League Baseball San Jose Giants, the Class A-Advanced affiliate of the San Francisco Giants; the team plays in the Northern Division of the California League. The stadium is home to the San Jose State University Spartans college baseball team. Local high school baseball divisions use the ballpark as their championship field; the stadium hosts concerts, car shows, many other community events. It has been the home field for the San Jose Owls, San Jose Red Sox, San Jose Jo Sox, San Jose Pirates, San Jose Missions, San Jose Bees, the San Jose Expos minor league teams; the facility is located one block from Spartan Stadium, home to the San Jose State Spartans football team. The area across Alma Avenue from Excite is home to the San Jose State practice fields for soccer and softball. Additionally part of the stadium's parking lot was converted into an indoor ice area, Solar4America Ice, the practice venue for the San Jose Sharks National Hockey League hockey team.

San Jose Municipal Stadium was built from 1941 to 1942 as a WPA project at a cost of US$80,000. It was one of the first stadiums to be built of reinforced concrete, it opened in 1942 with a game. Fans sit close to the field in four distinct seating areas; the first seven rows of the main grandstand are numbered box seats. General admission seating is available in the upper rows of the main grandstand on straight-backed benches. Down the left and right field lines are several bleachers that are accessible for general admission use. There is table seating down the third base line as part of "Turkey Mike's BBQ Area"; the stadium has remained unchanged from its original configuration. However, renovations to the bathroom facilities and clubhouse were done in 1994 and three extra rows of box seating were added in 1996. In 1999, the dugouts were expanded toward the field; the outfield walls are lined with advertisements, much like the stadiums of the 1930s. Over the scoreboard in right field is a Diamond Vision video screen.

The out of town scoreboard provides scores for other California League games. Fans are treated to a variety of entertainment in-between innings; such activities include a tire toss, a child footrace around the bases and a fan favorite, "Smash 4 Cash", a competition where players attempt to smash the headlights of an old delivery truck to split a $50 prize with a fan. Each year's Independence Day celebration, complete with fireworks, draws some of the stadium's largest crowds and sees the foul line seating turned into standing room only. In 1997, the bullpens moved from along the foul lines to the outfield; the visitor and home bullpens create artificial home run porches in left and right field respectively. In 2007, the outfield fence was replaced and moved in 10 to 20 feet in some areas and bullpens moved once again. Many major league players over the years have called San Jose Municipal Stadium home including, George Brett, Rod Beck, Joe Nathan, Chad Zerbe, Ron Hassey, Shawn Estes, Tim Lincecum, Matt Cain, Madison Bumgarner, Buster Posey, Brandon Crawford.

Stadium features include: the San Jose Giants Dugout Store, group spaces such as the Martinelli's VIP Deck, City National Futures Club and First Base Party Patio, the Astro Jump Family Fun Zone, Turkey Mike's BBQ, a 36-foot HD video board. The San Jose Giants mascot, Gigante, is found having fun with fans at the ballpark and throughout the community. In 2019, the San Jose Giants entered into a three-year naming rights agreement with Excite Credit Union to rename the facility Excite Ballpark. List of NCAA Division I baseball venues San Jose Municipal StadiumSan Jose Arena Authority San Jose Municipal Stadium View – Ball Parks of the Minor Leagues San Jose Giants San Jose State Spartans

Kevin's Heart

"Kevin's Heart" is a song by American rapper J. Cole, released on April 20, 2018, from his fifth studio album, KOD, was produced by T-Minus and Mark Pelli, making it the only track on the album not to be produced by Cole. Vice said; the fact that the song goes its entirety without the offender once blaming his spouse for his actions is a serious "whew" moment. Here, Cole frames temptation as a habit that needs kicking." Billboard mentioned that "the song tells the tale of fighting off the urge to cheat." On April 24, 2018, Cole released the music video for the song, "Kevin's Heart". The video features comedian Kevin Hart, was directed by Cole and Scott Lazer. Pitchfork called the song a standout saying "Cole uses the pint-sized comedian's public infidelities to reflect on the challenge of monogamy: "My phone be blowing up/Temptations on my line/I stare at the screen a while before I press decline." Cole is most effective when he keeps things personal rather than turning up his nose at the choices of others."

Upon its first week of release, "Kevin's Heart" debuted at number eight on the US Billboard Hot 100

Peanut paste

Peanut paste is a product of peanuts used in sauces, crackers, breakfast cereals and ice cream. Peanut paste is the main ingredient in some peanut butter recipes. Peanut paste is obtained by several methods in which raw peanuts are roasted and ground to create the peanut paste; the distinction between peanut paste and peanut butter is not always clear cut in ordinary use. The term has been used in rural Australia, as a synonym for peanut butter; this followed pressure from dairy farmers who did not want peanut butter competing with butter for market share. The product was known in Western Australia and South Australia for many years as peanut paste because, by definition, butter is a dairy product; the same product was available in other states as peanut butter. Manufacturers complained about having to produce different labels for different states and the Western Australian government changed the rules on the use of the word butter to allow for one set of labels. Peanut butter may be made from peanut paste mixed with a stabilizing agent, a sweetening agent and optionally, an emulsifying agent.

In such formulas, peanut paste acts as the main ingredient in peanut butter, from 75% to as much as 99% of the recipe. Peanut butter is known for being sold as a spread, peanut paste is sold to be used as an ingredient in cookies, cakes and a number of other retail food products. List of peanut dishes

Hamtramck Disneyland

Hamtramck Disneyland is a yard art folk art located in Hamtramck, Michigan begun by a man named Dmytro Szylak. Hamtramck Disneyland was started in 1992 and came to be finished in 1999, it is built on a 30-foot backyard on top of two adjacent garages. Dmytro was born in Ukraine, once lived in Germany. After immigrating to the United States, he worked for General Motors, but soon after his retirement he felt the need to find a hobby. Dmytro began piling together different objects—some old, some new, some bought, while others were hand crafted; this towering structure stands tall above his garage. Over the course of 12 years, Dmytro continued to add different pieces to his work, which grew to be a collage; the notion of building his artwork began when Dmytro Szylak, a Ukrainian immigrant, retired from General Motors. After working 32 years, Szylak began to search for a hobby, which led to the creative idea of building Hamtramck Disneyland. To utilize his spare time, with the idea of bringing something new to the city, Szylak began to convert his own backyard into a piece of art.

It is a homemade construction built on top of two adjacent garages. Collage filled with pictures of Elvis and other pop stars, year-round Christmas lights, wooden soldiers armed with toy guns, American flags, among many other things. In 1992, when Szylak started building his work in his backyard, he endured many difficulties. Neighbors and city officials were against Szylak’s idea of constructing artwork in his garage rooftop. Szylak was honored by the mayor of Hamtramck and his works have been displayed in many local art shows. In 2006 Bruce Weber shot a photo shoot with Kate Moss for Women’s Wear magazine in the site and around various other places in Detroit. Dmytro Syzlak died on 1 May 2015 at the age of 92; as of June 2015, the future of the work was uncertain—his estate was still tied up in probate court. The site went on the market on 3 March 2016 and was bought by a local group, Hatch Art, for $100,000; the houses consist of four apartments—three are rented out to defray costs and the other is for an artist in residence.

The work is a collaboration of various ordinary objects put together to form a towering structure. The creator of this collage, Dmytro Szylak, used these objects to create his own interpretation of Disneyland, it is decorated with various objects ranging from mechanical fan propellers to plastic horses and a massive handmade jet aircraft. The major theme that seems much evident throughout the collage is that of a carnival. One will notice, he used plastic horses for a carousel. The primary colors he chose to use were yellow and red; these three colors were on many of the structures. Dmytro was a native Ukrainian and he used the yellow and blue colors on his project to show his pride for his home country, he used yellow and red for some of his propellers, seeing as he once resided in Germany before immigrating to America. Dmytro used many handcrafted cutouts of men in uniform; the wooden cutouts of men were placed under what seemed to be missiles that were intensely decorated with Christmas lights.

The men had one eye painted in the middle of their heads. On the other side of the yard, there stands a windmill which has different cutouts of men and women who appear to be doing manual labor such as cutting a log with a saw and cooking. Toward the back of the structure, which can be seen through the alley, the structure takes a different turn with more vivid colors and paintings placed next to each other. There are framed newspapers featuring Dmytro's work, as well as a collage of pictures of him with his artwork; the back of the structure covers. From the back the fans and propellers are seen next to each other, giving the structure a flying movement. On the back side there sits a sign saying “Welcome to Art Show”, it is an art exhibition. Way above all the rest of the objects are a carousel. On that side you can see the distinct connection between his American and German heritage; the collaboration of all these objects was just Dmytro's way of self-expression through a form of art. Dmytro said everything he made with this “Disneyland” was unplanned, it fell together on its own.

He had no blueprint of how it should look. The exhibition is located in an alley between Klinger and Sobieski Streets, south of Carpenter Avenue, in Hamtramck, Michigan