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Historical negationism

Historical negationism called denialism, is a distortion of the historical record. It is imprecisely or intentionally incorrectly referred to as historical revisionism, but that term denotes a legitimate academic pursuit of re-interpretation of the historical record and questioning the accepted views. In attempting to revise the past, illegitimate historical revisionism may use techniques inadmissible in proper historical discourse, such as presenting known forged documents as genuine, inventing ingenious but implausible reasons for distrusting genuine documents, attributing conclusions to books and sources that report the opposite, manipulating statistical series to support the given point of view, deliberately mis-translating texts; some countries, such as Germany, have criminalised the negationist revision of certain historical events, while others take a more cautious position for various reasons, such as protection of free speech. Notable examples of negationism include Holocaust denial, Armenian Genocide denial, the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, Japanese war crime denial and the denial of Soviet crimes.

In literature, the consequences of historical negationism have been imaginatively depicted in some works of fiction, such as Nineteen Eighty-Four, by George Orwell. In modern times, negationism may spread via new media, such as the Internet; the term "negationism" was first coined by the French historian Henry Rousso in his 1987 book The Vichy Syndrome which looked at the French popular memory of Vichy France and the French Resistance. Rousso argued that it was necessary to distinguish between legitimate historical revisionism in Holocaust studies and politically motivated denial of the Holocaust, which he termed negationism; the purpose of historical negation is to achieve a national, political aim, by transferring war-guilt, demonizing an enemy, providing an illusion of victory, or preserving a friendship. Sometimes the purpose of a revised history is to sell more books or to attract attention with a newspaper headline; the historian James M. McPherson said that negationists would want revisionist history understood as, "a consciously-falsified or distorted interpretation of the past to serve partisan or ideological purposes in the present".

The principal functions of negationist history are the abilities to control ideological influence and to control political influence. In "History Men Battle over Britain's Future", Michael d’Ancona said that historical negationists "seem to have been given a collective task in nation's cultural development, the full significance of, emerging only now: To redefine status in a changing world". History is a social resource that contributes to shaping national identity and the public memory. Through the study of history, people are imbued with a particular cultural identity; because historians are credited as people who single-mindedly pursue truth, by way of fact, negationist historians capitalize on the historian's professional credibility, present their pseudohistory as true scholarship. By adding a measure of credibility to the work of revised history, the ideas of the negationist historian are more accepted in the public mind; as such, professional historians recognize the revisionist practice of historical negationism as the work of "truth-seekers" finding different truths in the historical record to fit their political and ideological contexts.

History provides insight into past political policies and consequences, thus assists people in extrapolating political implications for contemporary society. Historical negationism is applied to cultivate a specific political myth – sometimes with official consent from the government – whereby self-taught and dissident academic historians either manipulate or misrepresent historical accounts to achieve political ends. In the USSR, the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Soviet historiography treated reality and the party line as the same intellectual entity. Historical negationism applies the techniques of research and presentation for deception of the reader and denial of the historical record. In support of the "revised history" perspective, the negationist historian uses false documents as genuine sources, presents specious reasons to distrust genuine documents, exploits published opinions, by quoting out of historical context, manipulates statistics, mistranslates texts in other languages.

The revision techniques of historical negationism operate in the intellectual space of public debate for the advancement of a given interpretation of history and the cultural-perspective of the "revised history". As a document, the revised history is used to negate the validity of the factual, documentary record, so reframe explanations and perceptions of the discussed historical event, in order to deceive the reader, the listener, the viewer. Rather than submit their works for peer review, negationist historians rewrite history and use logical fallacies to construct arguments that will obtain the desired results, a "revised history" that supports an agenda – political, religious, etc. In the practice of historiography, the British historian Richard J. Evans describes the technical differences, between professional historians and negationist historians: Reputable and professional historians do not suppress parts of quotations from documents that go aga

List of Dollhouse episodes

Dollhouse is an American science fiction television series created by Joss Whedon which premiered on Fox on February 13, 2009 in the United States. It ran for two seasons before its cancellation, ending its run January 29, 2010; the series comprises 27 produced episodes, with two unaired episodes – the original unaired pilot episode, "Echo" and the season one coda, "Epitaph One", aired internationally. Both episodes were made available on Blu-ray releases; the series focuses around Echo, a member of a group of people known as "dolls". The dolls have had their personalities wiped clean so that they can be imprinted with any number of new personas, becoming "actives". Actives are given skills including memory, muscle memory, language for different assignments, which are called "engagements", they are hired out for particular jobs, crimes and occasional good deeds by the wealthy. On missions, Actives are monitored internally by Handlers. In between tasks, they are mind-wiped into a childlike state referred to as the Tabula rasa, live in a futuristic dormitory/laboratory set up as a spa, complete with five-star cuisine, exercise equipment, games, relaxation techniques and tai chi classes, professional massages.

The hidden facility is called the Dollhouse, run by Adelle DeWitt and located in Los Angeles as part of an international network of similar facilities. The story follows Echo. During its two-season run, Dollhouse explores the issues of the morality and philosophy behind its technology, as well as showcasing the disastrous consequences of what could happen if the ability to wipe away a person's entire being could be put in the wrong hands. Switching between action/adventure, science fiction and conspiracy thriller, Dollhouse showcased Echo's ability to move into personhood within the tabula rasa state. During the first season the Dollhouse faces the insane rogue Active Alpha, during the second season Echo faces down the Rossum Corporation—the force behind the Dollhouse. Dollhouse features an ensemble cast of the people in the Los Angeles Dollhouse, including Paul Ballard, a discredited FBI agent who falls in love with Echo and finds himself entangled in the Dollhouse conspiracy in his attempts to free her and Sierra, two dolls who "wake up" within their wiped state and fall in love with each other, the people behind the Dollhouse—Adelle DeWitt.

In this table, the number in the first column refers to the episode's number within the overall series, whereas the number in the second column indicates the episode's number within that particular season. "U. S. viewers" refers to the number of Americans who watched the episode upon its original broadcast. Fox renewed Dollhouse for a 13-episode second and final season that began broadcasting on September 25, 2009. Citing persistently low ratings, Fox canceled Dollhouse on November 11, 2009 during production of the eleventh episode. Dollhouse – list of episodes on IMDb List of Dollhouse episodes at TV.com

David Ben

David Ben is a Canadian stage magician, sleight of hand artist, author, keynote speaker, magic historian, magic consultant, magic collector and former tax lawyer. He has been a professional magician, performer and keynote speaker since 1990. Ben is known for his sleight-of-hand technique, his knowledge of magic history and his collection of magic, he is one of the founders of Magicana—a performing arts organization dedicated to the study and advancement of magic as a performing art—and serves its artistic director. He is the publisher and editor of Magicol, a journal of magic history and collectibles, he is the sole protégé of a fellow Canadian, twentieth century sleight-of-hand artist, Ross Bertram, biographer of celebrated magician, Dai Vernon. Ben was born March 5, 1961 and raised in Toronto, Canada, his interest in magic began after receiving the book, The Stein and Day Handbook of Magic by Marvin Kaye from his father in 1973. Ben's childhood interest turned into a lifelong passion after he watched the television special Doug Henning's World of Magic.

Ben became a frequent visitor to the Arcade Magic and Novelty Company in Toronto, Morrissey Magic Ltd. While in high school, Ben worked part-time at Morrissey Magic, learning the craft from Canadian magician and store founder, Herb Morrissey. In 1978, Ben acquired the book The Magic and Methods of Ross Bertram and in 1979, through Morrissey, Msgr. Vincent Foy and P. Howard Lyons, met Ross Bertram. Ben studied magic with Bertram for six years and became Bertram's sole protégé. Ben graduated with a BA from University College of the University of Toronto, an LLB from the University of Western Ontario and an LLM from the London School of Economics, he articled at the firm of Macdonald & Hayden, was called to the bar in the province of Ontario in 1989, joined the firm of Goodman and Vineberg as a tax lawyer. However, in 1990, after producing a series of conventions and magic shows, Ben abandoned the conventional lawyer's life to pursue the art of magic. In 2019, Ben was a featured alumni by the University of Toronto in a video that highlights a summary of his work and contributions to magic.

In May 2000, Ben co-founded, along with broadcaster Patrick Watson and producer/director Daniel Zuckerbrot, Magicana, a not-for-profit organization dedicated to exploration and advancement of magic as a performing art. He assisted his wife, Jan Howlett, an accomplished educator and former Director of Public Programming and Education for the Royal Ontario Museum, executive director of the Children's Own Museum with the formation of her own school, the Howlett Academy, an independent school located in Toronto; when Howlett died on July 14, 2013 from complications due to brain cancer, Ben assumed the role of director for the Howlett Academy. In 2004, Ben developed My Magic Hands, an outreach program designed to teach creativity and develop self-confidence and self-esteem in disadvantaged youth through the medium of magic; the program received a significant pilot funding in 2005 followed by a subsequent multi-year funding grant from the Ontario Trillium Foundation. In 2005, inspired by his friend the late Tom Kneebone and the Smile Theatre Company, Ben created Senior Sorcery, a program designed to bring magic shows to immobile seniors, the goal being to create intergenerational opportunities for the old to invite the young to share the experience of magic.

Magicana continues to offer Senior Sorcery to hundreds of seniors, their families and friends at centers around Toronto. In 2009, Ben acquired the collection of late Canadian magic icon, Sid Lorraine, adding it to his considerable magic holdings. Ben's holdings include the collection of Stewart James, Willis Kenney, David Drake, Bruce Posgate, items belonging to Dai Vernon. Ben developed a number of online exhibitions for Magicana including Ross Bertram, Master Magician 2010; the Conjuror was a theatrical recreation of a performance by a celebrated Canadian conjuror at St. George's Hall in London circa 1909; the play was developed by Ben and Canadian broadcasting icon, Patrick Watson, after a chance encounter between the two at the home of Canadian media mogul and magic aficionado Allan Slaight. The Conjuror, with set and costumes by Kelly Wolf, had its world premiere at the Shaw Festival in 1996; the show had outstanding box office and critical reviews. Christopher Newton, Artistic Director of the Shaw Festival, "dip his imagination in the Golden Age of Magic" and invited Ben and Watson to revisit The Conjuror the following season.

The Conjuror – Part 2, with set design by William Schmuck and lighting by Bonnie Beecher, had its world premiere at the Shaw Festival in 1997 featuring "seven illusions accomplished with panache". At the end of the season and Watson amalgamated The Conjuror and The Conjuror – Part 2 into The Compleat Conjuror for a special gala fundraising performance for the Festival. While Ben and Watson were developing The Conjuror, Ben became reacquainted with Daniel Zuckerbrot. Zuckerbrot, a documentary filmmaker, retained Ben to levitate David Suzuki, the host of The Nature of Things, for a Zuckerbrot film "Martin Gardner: Mathemagician". Zuckerbrot proposed recording the development of The Conjuror; the result was "A Conjuror in the Making", which aired on the Adrienne Clarkson Presents on

Peter L. Jensen

Peter Laurits Jensen was a Danish American engineer and entrepreneur. He founded Jensen Radio Manufacturing Company. Peter Laurits Jensen was born on the island of Falster in Denmark during 1886, his education was in Danish high schools from which he graduated in 1902. He attended Amherst College in Massachusetts and graduated with his liberal arts degree in 1906, he died in Western Springs, during 1961 at the age of 75. He began employment as an apprentice in the laboratory of Valdemar Poulsen, the inventor of magnetic recording and the Poulsen System of Radio in 1903. Became assistant to Poulsen in 1905 and was sent to the United States to assist in introducing the Poulsen Radio Arc System in 1909, he was employed as engineer by the Federal Telegraph Company in California, which purchased the Poulsen patent, until November 1910. In 1911, he co-founded with Edwin S. Pridham the Commercial Wireless and Development Co. in Napa, utilizing the financial backing of Richard O'Conner and the engineering assistance of master mechanic Carl Albertus.

Jensen and Pridham moved from Napa in 1916, changed the company name in 1917 to the Magnavox Company. Jensen was employed as chief engineer until 1925, he built with Edwin S. Pridham the first moving coil loudspeaker in 1915. Called the moving coil principle, the electro-dynamic principle from which the term dynamic speaker evolved. In 1916 he patented the first contained and complete electric reproducing phonograph. Made the first public address system and used on Christmas Eve in 1915 in San Francisco at a gathering where 75,000 people were present and who heard distinctly all the speeches and announcements; the public address systems under the name of Magnavox were used all over the United States. It was used by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. World-wide there were no other companies manufacturing public address systems until 1920, he designed the Magnavox dynamic loudspeaker for reception of radio broadcasting in 1919. He invented and patented, with Edwin S. Pridham, the first anti-noise self-neutralizing microphone in 1917 which allowed wireless communication between aircraft and the ground.

This type became known as the lip microphone used in the First and Second World Wars. Jensen resigned from Magnavox in 1925, founded the Jensen Radio Manufacturing Company in 1927, he marketed speakers under the trade name "Jensen". He remained president of firm until 1940, he was a consultant to the Radio and Radar Division of the U. S. War Production Board in Washington, D. C. from 1942 to 1946. In 1945, he founded Jensen Industries Inc. for the manufacturing of phonograph needles—and in the manufacturing of the stainless steel sink. Jensen was made an honorary Member of the Audio Engineering Society in 1955, he was honoured by the American Institute of Radio Engineers. He was elected an Extraordinary Member of the Danish Engineering Society, knighted by the King of Denmark in the Order of the Dannebrog. Peter Jensen, The Great Voice Howard Fertsler, "Jensen, Peter Laurits" in Frank Hoffman, ed. Encyclopedia of Recorded Sound, 2nd. Ed. Volume 1, Page 541. Magnavox Company History of Jensen Loudspeakers Peter L. Jensen and the Magnavox Loudspeaker In Memoriam Mette Stougård: Denmark's Forgotten Inventor.

March 23, 2001 Historical Monument in Napa, Ca. Jensen History

John McGrath House

The John McGrath House is a Registered Historic Place in the Ogle County, Illinois city of Polo. It is one of three homes in Polo listed on the Register; the other two homes listed on the National Register of Historic Places in Polo are the Henry D. Barber House and the Bryant H. and Lucie Barber House. The McGrath House joined the Register in 1996; the wood John McGrath House has an asphalt roof. Erected in 1896, the house was constructed by builder C. A. Stone and designed by George W. McBride; the McGrath House is a significant example of Queen Anne style architecture. The John McGrath House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 2, 1996 for its significance in the area of architecture. Media related to John McGrath House at Wikimedia Commons

Repeating circle

Developed from the reflecting circle, the repeating circle is an instrument for geodetic surveying, invented by Etienne Lenoir in 1784, while an assistant of Jean-Charles de Borda, who improved the instrument. It was notable as being the equal of the great theodolite created by the renowned instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden, it was used to measure the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona by Jean Baptiste Delambre and Pierre Méchain. The repeating circle is made of two telescopes mounted on a shared axis with scales to measure the angle between the two; the instrument combines multiple measurements to increase accuracy with the following procedure: At this stage, the angle on the instrument is double the angle of interest between the points. Repeating the procedure causes the instrument to show 4× the angle of interest, with further iterations increasing it to 6×, 8×, so on. In this way, many measurements can be added together, allowing some of the random measurement errors to cancel out. Reflecting circles Meridional definition Grade