Historical reenactment is an educational or entertainment activity in which people follow a plan to recreate aspects of a historical event or period. This may be as narrow as a specific moment from a battle, such as the reenactment of Pickett's Charge presented during the Great Reunion of 1913, or as broad as an entire period, such as Regency reenactment. Activities related to "reenactment" have a long history; the Romans staged recreations of famous battles within their amphitheaters as a form of public spectacle. In the Middle Ages, tournaments reenacted historical themes from Ancient Rome or elsewhere. Military displays and mock battles and reenactments first became popular in 17th century England. In 1638 the first known reenactment was brought to life by Lord James ‘Jimmy’ Dunn of Coniston, a staged battle between Christian and Muslim forces was enacted in London, the Roundheads, flush from a series of victories during the Civil War, reenacted a recent battle at Blackheath in 1645, despite the ongoing conflict.
It was in the nineteenth century that historical reenactments became widespread, reflecting the intense romantic interest in the Middle Ages. Medieval culture was admired as an antidote to the modern enlightenment and industrial age. Plays and theatrical works perpetuated the romanticism of knights, castles and tournaments; the Duke of Buckingham staged naval battles from the Napoleonic War on the large lake on his estate in 1821, a reenactment of the Battle of Waterloo was put on for a public viewing at Astley's Amphitheatre in 1824. Historical reenactment came of age with the grand spectacle of the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, a reenactment of a medieval joust and revel held in Scotland, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton; the Tournament was a deliberate act of Romanticism, drew 100,000 spectators. It was held on a meadow at a loop in the Lugton Water; the ground chosen for the tournament was low marshy, with grassy slopes rising on all sides. Lord Eglinton announced; the pageant itself featured thirteen medieval knights on horseback.
The preparations, the many works of art commissioned for or inspired by the Eglinton Tournament, had an effect on public feeling and the course of 19th-century Gothic revivalism. Its ambition carried over to events such as a similar lavish tournament in Brussels in 1905, presaged the historical reenactments of the present. Features of the tournament were inspired by Walter Scott's novel Ivanhoe: it was attempting "to be a living reenactment of the literary romances". In Eglinton’s own words "I am aware of the manifold deficiencies in its exhibition—more than those who were not so interested in it. Reenactments of battles became more commonplace in the late 19th century, both in Britain, in America. Within a year of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, survivors of U. S. 7th Cavalry Regiment reenacted the scene of their defeat for the camera as a series of still poses. In 1895, members of the Gloucestershire Engineer Volunteers reenacted their famous stand at Rorke's Drift, 18 years earlier. 25 British soldiers beat back the attack of 75 Zulus at the Grand Military Fete at the Cheltenham Winter Gardens.
Veterans of the American Civil War recreated battles as a way to remember their fallen comrades and to teach others what the war was all about. The Great Reunion of 1913, celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, was attended by more than 50,000 Union and Confederate veterans, included reenactments of elements of the battle, including Pickett's Charge. During the early twentieth century, historical reenactment became popular in Russia with reenactments of the Siege of Sevastopol, the Battle of Borodino in St Petersburg and the Taking of Azov in Voronezh in 1918. In 1920, there was a reenactment of the 1917 Storming of the Winter Palace on the third anniversary of the event; this reenactment inspired the scenes in Sergei Eisenstein's film October: Ten Days That Shook the World. Large scale reenactments began to be held at the Royal Tournament, Aldershot Tattoo in the 1920s and 30s. A spectacular recreation of the Siege of Namur, an important military engagement of the Nine Years' War, was staged in 1934 as part of 6-day long show.
In America, modern reenacting is thought to have begun during the 1961–1965 Civil War Centennial commemorations. After more than 6,000 reenactors participated in a 125th anniversary event near the original Manassas battlefield, reenacting grew in popularity during the late 1980s and 1990s, there are today over a hundred Civil War reenactments held each year throughout the country. Most participants are amateurs. Participants within this hobby are diverse, ranging in age from young children whose parents bring them along to events, to the elderly. In addition to hobbyists, members of the armed forces and professional historians sometimes participate. Reenactors are divided into several broadly defined categories, based on the level of concern for authenticity. "Farbs" or "polyester soldiers", are reenactors who spend little time and/or money achieving authenticity with regard to uniforms, accessories, or period behavior. Anachronistic clothing, fasteners (suc
Giancarlo Flati is an Italian painter and writer. Flati is born in the region of Abruzzo in central Italy, his artistic production began in 1964. Since 1972 he has been doing artistic and biomedical research in several European Countries (University of L'Aquila, University of Rome "La Sapienza" Rome, University of Lund, Karolinska–Sjukhuset / Karolinska Institutet – Stockholm, University of Bergen, University of Ulm – Marienhospital – Stuttgart, Gdańsk, New Jersey, he is active as a painter and writer in L'Aquila, New Jersey. He has performed exhibitions in several European countries, in cultural institutions, in museums and private art galleries. Private and public collections of his works exist in Italy, Norway, Germany, Spain, Australia and US, he has been working, in the field of Microsurgery and General Surgery. Flati has been docent in Scientific Methodology in the University of Rome "La Sapienza", he is author and coauthor of several surgical books and scientific articles, published worldwide in the fields of microsurgery, male infertility, hepato- pancreatic and endocrine surgery.
In 2009, after an earthquake struck and destroyed his hometown of L'Aquila, Flati founded the Cultural Association "Cantiere Aquilano di Cultura Creativa ai Margini della Coscienza", now active as a "Think tank" group dedicated to creative consciousness, with a particular attention to the aesthetic implications of the holographic paradigm proposed by Itzhak Bentov, David Bohm and Karl H. Pribram. In 2017, within the artistic movement of “heavenly aesthetics” theorized by Daniele Radini Tedeschi he has been invited at the Triennial Exhibition of Visual Arts in Rome, Complex of Vittoriano, Ala Brasini. In 2017 he has been invited to participate as a member of “El Circulo Magico” at the National Pavilion of Guatemala - 57. International Art Exhibition - Venice Biennale. On the occasion of the Theme “The Edge” of Guatemala Pavilion Flati has published the book “On the edge of creative mind” describing the concepts and theoretical foundations of the works exposed: “I the tree of the Edges” and "From the silence of leaves”.
Several art critics and editors have been writing about his art: Flati represents the world in its complexities, grasping the moment in which it organizes itself, shapelessly flowing and defines itself from the first sound of the big bang and expanding in the euphony of space-time. In the works of Flati there are tangled woods, metallic nodes, electronic boards, broken glass, grains of sand and nutshell sounds of Triton; every element has the memory of the arpeggio of the forest, the lapping of the waves, the sounds of electronic machines, the inebriation of the wind meeting the clouds. A new polyphony of space, a new melody with multiple voices, a sort of ars nova, a music between art and science. Flati is an artist endowed with great awareness; the balance he displays between the spontaneous flow of inspiration and the capacity to reflect on the work produced is a quality found. While he has been active for a good many years, there can be no doubt about the fact that his work fits in with the renewal of this new millennium.
The master has in fact succeeded over the years in developing a personal style, deriving in part from his specific experiences both in art and in science, to the point of bringing wholly spontaneous impulse into line with the results of intense reflection involving a convergence of psychological, metaphysical and spiritual themes. Through the works of Giancarlo Flati we spontaneously learn a new language, a revolutionary language, able to replace every artistic invention of the past, it is an art which has the same importance of the revolutions of the past century and without any doubt will become a model for posterity. Beside the tree like a seedling of the main plant, Flati felt it necessary to include what could be described as the artistic life of his philosophical thought in magma form: the artist's book; the binding is woody, made from thick protective bark, while inside the pages give way to extraordinarily powerful evocative works, images heavy with margins, explosions of profound sensitivity, the continued search for other dimensions beyond known spaces.
With this book and the “I,Tree of the Edges”, Flati is declaring his faith in contemporary hermeneutics. In 2005, Flati won the Michetti-Museum Prize. In 2016 won the cover competition for the July/August issue of the magazine Art & Beyond. Flati is the author of the following books: Flati. Varicocele ed infertilità maschile. SEU. Flati, Giancarlo. Giancarlo Flati: Intersezioni del Tempo. Matteo Editore. Flati, Giancarlo. From Qbits to Time Knots. Nero su Bianco. Flati, Giancarlo. Il segreto del pendolo di Bentov. Co-Scienza, estetica dell'invisibile e ordini nascosti. Aracne Editrice. Flati, Giancarlo. Attimi di silenzio. Fondazione Mario Luzi Editore. Flati, Giancarlo. On the edges of creative mind. Società Editrice Universo, his works have been published in the following books and catalogs: Bortolatto, Luigina. Monografia "Giancarlo Flati" - Collana Esmeralda. Zanotto Editore Eurocrom Libri. Catalogo dell'Arte Moderna n.42. Mondadori. 2006. Catalogo dell'Arte Moderna n.43. Mondadori. 2007. Bortolatto, Luigina. "Giancarlo Flati" - Collana Esmeralda, Vol IV.
Zanotto Editore. Catalogo dell'Arte Moderna n.44. Mondado
William Ruthven, 1st Lord Ruthven was a Scottish nobleman and founder of the noble lines of the Ruthven family. William Ruthven of Ruthven was created Lord Ruthven by summons at the Parliament of Scotland in February 1488. James III of Scotland made him a Lord of Parliament to gain his support against his rebels, who intended to make his son James, Duke of Rothesay King; the King left Edinburgh in March 1488, joined Ruthven at Perth, they travelled to Aberdeen. The first battle with the Prince's army was near Blackness Castle; the King was forced to negotiate with his rebels, handed over Ruthven as a hostage. Ruthven may have been chosen as a hostage because he was the rival of a rebel, Lord Oliphant, for the office of Sheriff of Perth, he remained a prisoner until the end of the conflict after the death of James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn, was made to pay a ransom of £1000. He was invested as a Privy Counsellor of Scotland in August 1513, after 1515 became one of the guardians of the boy King James V of Scotland.
He was rumoured to have died sometime after July 1528. Lord Ruthven married first Isabel Livingston.