Historical reliability of the Gospels

The historical reliability of the Gospels refers to the reliability and historic character of the four New Testament gospels as historical documents. While all four canonical gospels contain some sayings and events which may meet one or more of the five criteria for historical reliability, the assessment and evaluation of these elements is a matter of ongoing debate. All scholars of antiquity agree that a human Jesus existed, but scholars differ on the historicity of specific episodes described in the Biblical accounts of Jesus, the only two events subject to "almost universal assent" are that Jesus was baptized by John the Baptist and was crucified by the order of the Roman Prefect Pontius Pilate. Elements whose historical authenticity is disputed include the two accounts of the Nativity of Jesus, the miraculous events including the resurrection, certain details about the crucifixion. According to the majority viewpoint, the gospels of Matthew and Luke, collectively referred to as the Synoptic Gospels, are the primary sources of historical information about Jesus and of the religious movement he founded.

The fourth gospel, the Gospel of John, differs from the first three gospels. Historians study the historical reliability of the Acts of the Apostles when studying the reliability of the gospels, as Acts was written by the same author as the Gospel of Luke. Historians subject the gospels to critical analysis, attempting to differentiate, rather than authenticate, reliable information from possible inventions and alterations. Since there are more than 15,000 New Testament manuscripts which present hundreds of thousands of textual variants, scholars use textual criticism to determine which gospel variants could theoretically be taken as'original'. To answer this question, scholars have to ask who wrote the gospels, when they wrote them, what was their objective in writing them, what sources the authors used, how reliable these sources were, how far removed in time the sources were from the stories they narrate, or if they were altered later. Scholars can look into the internal evidence of the documents, to see if, for example, the document is misquoting texts from the Hebrew Tanakh, is making claims about geography that were incorrect, if the author appears to be hiding information, or if the author has made up a certain prophecy.

Scholars turn to external sources, including the testimony of early church leaders, writers outside the church who would have been more to have criticized the early churches, to archaeological evidence. When judging the historical reliability of the gospels, scholars ask if the accounts in the gospels are, when judged using normal standards that historians use on other ancient writings, reliable or not; the main issues are what are the'original' gospels, whether the original gospel works were accurate eyewitness accounts, whether those original versions have been transmitted through the ages to us. In evaluating the historical reliability of the Gospels, scholars consider authorship and date of composition and genre, gospel sources and oral tradition, textual criticism, historical authenticity of specific sayings and narrative events. "Gospel" or "gospels" is the standard term for the four New Testament books carrying the names of Matthew, Mark and John, each telling of the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth (including his dealings with John the Baptist, his trial and execution, the discovery of his empty tomb, and, at least for three of them, his appearances to his disciples following his death.

The genre of the gospels is essential in understanding the intentions of the authors regarding the historical value of the texts. New Testament scholar Graham Stanton states that "the gospels are now considered to be a sub-set of the broad ancient literary genre of biographies." Charles H. Talbert agrees that the gospels should be grouped with the Graeco-Roman biographies, but adds that such biographies included an element of mythology, that the synoptic gospels included elements of mythology. E. P. Sanders states that "these Gospels were written with the intention of glorifying Jesus and are not biographical in nature." Ingrid Maisch and Anton Vögtle writing for Karl Rahner in his encyclopedia of theological terms indicate that the gospels were written as theological, not historical items. Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis notes that "we must conclude that the genre of the Gospel is not that of pure'history'. In fact,'gospel' constitutes a genre all its own, a surprising novelty in the literature of the ancient world."Scholars tend to consider Luke's works to be closer in genre to "pure" history, although they note that "This is not to say that he was always reliably informed, or that – any more than modern historians – he always presented a factual account of events."

New Testament scholar, James D. G. Dunn believes that "the earliest tradents within the Christian churches preservers more than innovators...seeking to transmit, explain, elaborate, but not create de novo... Through the main body of the Synoptic tradition, I believe, we have in most cases direct access to the teaching and ministry of Jesus as it was remembered from the beginning of the transmission process and so direct access to the ministry and teaching of Jesus through the eyes and ears of those who went about with him." David Jenkins, a former Anglican Bishop of Durham and university professor, has stated that "Certainly not! There is no certainty in the New Testament about anything of importance." Critical scholars have devel

Nika Turković

Nika Turković is a Croatian singer. She is best known for representing Croatia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2004 with the song "Hej mali", she placed third. Turković was born on 7 June 1995 in the capital of Croatia, her mother Gordana Turković, is a dentist, her father Petar Turković, is a psychologist and technical director of the Nanbudo Association of Croatia and secretary of the "Gradec" Nanbudo Club of Zagreb, the first to be organised in Croatia. She lives with her sister Kiara and her maternal grandmother Biserka, she is fluent in English, Spanish and Slovene in addition to her native Croatian. In 2004, Turković was chosen to represent Croatia in the Junior Eurovision Song Contest 2004 held in Lillehammer, Norway, she placed third in the competition. In 2006, she released her debut album, titled Alien, her live performances include joining Dina Rizvić for some songs in the opening concert of the 2014 Labin Jazz Festival. Turković is in a relationship with Croatian singer Matija Cvek.


Shindō Munen-ryū

Shindō Munen-ryū or Shintō Munen-ryū is a Japanese koryū martial art school founded by Fukui Hyōemon Yoshihira in the early 18th century. The style gained popularity throughout Japan due to the efforts of Togasaki Kumataro, Okada Junmatsu, Saito Yakuro, his sons Shintaro and Kannosuke. Fukui Hyōemon was born in Shimano no Kuni and learned Shin Shinkage Ichiden Ryu under Nonaka Gonnai received Menkyo Kaiden at a young age. Hyōemon, traveled Japan taking part in shinken shobu and honing his skills, he became so reputed that he was listed on Imperial and Tokugawa Bakufu records as one of the best swordsmen of his time. Hyoemon continued to travel through Japan until he encountered a small shrine in the Inazuma Mountains. There he found the Izuna-Gongen Shrine where he trained in isolation for 50 days. On the 50th night he achieved enlightenment; the resulting enlightenment was organized into a rather large syllabus of techniques codified as "Shindō Munen-ryū". Hyōemon thereafter traveled to Edo. There he trained a small number of dedicated students until his retirement.

Hyōemon passed the ryu onto his successor Togasaki Kumataro. His grave can be found in present-day Saitama not too far from his protoge's; the fourth successor of Shindō Munen-ryū, Saitō Yakuro Yoshimichi, established the dojo called Renpeikan in Edo. Shindō Munen-ryū reached the pinnacle of its popularity towards the end of the Edo period. In this politically unstable time, Shindō Munen-ryū swordsmen participated in both the political and physical battles that came to define the Bakumatsu, it was not uncommon for Shindō Munen-ryū swordsmen of different or the same dojo to engage each other in combat. Politically active members like Katsura Kogoro and Ito Hirobumi took active leadership roles in the Meiji Government. Today the Kanto ha Shindō Munen-ryū is one of the remaining branch of Shindō Munen-ryū. Negishi Shingorō was the last headmaster. Shingorō received the licence Menkyo Kaiden in Edo Den from Saitō Shintaro. Shingoro, however felt the loss of idealism and passion that surrounded him during the closing days of the Tokugawa Bakufu.

He acknowledged this fact by closing the Renpeikan's doors and opening the Yushinkan Dojo and founding the Kanto Ha. Prior to the fall of the Tokugawa Bakufu there were many Shindō Munen-ryū branches all over Japan; these branches prospered. The dawn of the Meiji in 1868, however brought many new hardships with it and most of the branches Shindō Munen-ryū were forced to close their doors due to lack of patronage and the Meiji Sword Ban. Most surviving branches opened their doors again. Most, however lost the majority of their kata as a result. In present-day branches like Choshu Han Den, Hachinohe Han Den, Saitō Ha only practice a small portion of the Iaijutsu curriculum. Most of these Iaijutsu kata were reconstructed from written descriptions, so may not be true to the original forms; the style itself survived the Meiji period intact however due to the efforts of Negishi Shingorō who taught swordsmanship to the Tokyo Police Force. Shingorō's successor Nakayama Hakudō continued to preserve Shindō Munen-ryū throughout the Taisho and Showa Periods by producing some of the notable swordsmen in modern history.

Examples are Nakayama Zendo, Hashimoto Toyo, Kiyoshi Nakakura, Haga Junichi, Nakashima Gorozo. The Nihon Kobudō Kyokai and Shinkyokai have recognized Kanto ha of Shindō Munen-ryū as the branch that preserves most of Shindō Munen-ryū; the current headmaster of this branch is Ogawa Takeshi. The Sanshinkai organization teaches a style of Iaijustu called Shindō Munen-ryū; the style was propagated by Mitsuzuka Takeshi, a student of Nakayama Hakudo's school, from a makimono that described a set of tachiwaza kata for intermediate students to the Sanshinkai curriculum. It is taught alongside Musō Shinden-ryū, but outside of Musō Shinden-ryū's core curriculum; the styles of Shindō Munen-ryū practice in the Sanshinkai and that of Japan's extent groups are not directly related, though the noto is similar. Following lineage chart is recognized by Nihon Kobudo Kyokai and Shinkyokai. 1. Fukui Hyōemon Yoshihira: Ryuso. 2. Togasaki Kumataro Teruyoshi: Edo Den. 3. Okada Junmatsu Yoshitoshi: Edo Den. 4. Saitō Yakuro Yoshimichi: Edo Den.

5. Saitō Shintaro: Edo Den. 6. Negishi Shingorō: Edo Den. 7. Nakayama Hakudō: Kanto Ha. 8. Nakayama Zendo/Yoshimichi: Kanto Ha. 9. Saeki Soichiro: Kanto Ha. 10. Ogawa Takeshi: Kanto Ha. Examples of branches that were affected: Togasaki Ha Shindō Munen-ryū. Okada Ha Shindō Munen-ryū. Suzuki Ha Shindō Munen-ryū. Mito Han Den Shindō Munen-ryū. Choshu Han Den Shindō Munen-ryū. Omura Han Den Shindō Munen-ryū. Hachinohe Han Den Shindō Munen-ryū. Saitō Ha Shindō Munen-ryū. Terai Ichitarō: The first swordsman who taught Nakayama Hakudō the