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Historicity of King Arthur

The historicity of King Arthur has been a source of considerable debate among historians as as the 1970s. Today, academic historians agree that King Arthur was a mythological or folkloric figure, not an actual individual person. Arthur first appears in historical context as a leader fighting against the invading Saxons in 5th- to 6th-century Sub-Roman Britain at the Battle of Badon in a text written more than three centuries after his supposed activity, he develops into a legendary figure in the Matter of Britain from the 12th century, following Geoffrey of Monmouth's influential Historia Regum Britanniae. Recent theories concerning a possible historical identity of Arthur include Artúr mac Áedáin, a son of the 6th-century Dál Riata king Áedán mac Gabráin; the origin of the name Arthur is unclear. The most accepted etymology is from the Roman family name Artorius, itself of obscure and contested etymology of Messapic or Etruscan origin. According to linguist and Celticist Stephan Zimmer, it is possible that Artorius has a Celtic origin, being a Latinization of the hypothetical name *Artorījos derived from the patronym *Arto-rīg-ios, meaning "Son of the Bear" or "Warrior-King".

*Arto-rīg-ios is unattested, but the root *arto-rīg is the source of the Old Irish personal name Artrí. Some scholars have noted that the legendary King Arthur's name only appears as Arthur, Arthurus, or Arturus in early Latin Arthurian texts, never as Artōrius. However, it may not refer to the origin of the name Arthur, as Artōrius would become Artur when borrowed into Welsh. Historian John Morris argued that the appearance of the name Arthur among Scottish and Welsh figures suggests the name became popular in early 6th-century Britain for a short time, he proposed all such occurrences were due to the importance of another Arthur who may have ruled temporarily as Emperor of Britain, suggested a period of Saxon advance was halted and turned back before resuming in the 570s. Arthur is not mentioned in Gildas' 6th-century book De Conquestu Britanniae. Gildas does mention a Briton victory against the Saxons at the "Badonic mount", which occurred in the year of Gildas' birth and ushered in a generation of peace between the two warring peoples.

This engagement is now referred to as the Battle of Badon. Gildas describes the battle as taking place "in our times" and being one of the "latest, if not the greatest" slaughter of the Saxons, that a new generation born after Badon had come of age in Britain. Cambro-Latin sources give the Old Welsh form of the battle's location as Badon, such as in the Annales Cambriae, this has been adopted by most modern scholars. Gildas' Latin is somewhat opaque, he does discuss Ambrosius Aurelianus as a great scourge of the Saxons prior, but he seems to indicate that some time had passed between Ambrosius' victory and the Battle of Badon. The details of the battle, including its date and location, remain uncertain, with most scholars accepting a date around 500. Arthur is not mentioned in Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, which dates to c. 731, or any other surviving work until around 829, the date ascribed to the Historia Brittonum, attributed to the Welsh ecclesiastic Nennius, though this attribution has been disputed.

Historia Brittonum lists 12 battles fought by Arthur and gives him the title of dux bellorum, saying that Arthur fought "alongside the kings of the Britons", rather than that Arthur was himself a king. Other accounts associating Arthur with the Battle of Mount Badon can be shown to be derived directly or indirectly from the Historia Brittonum; the list is inserted between the reign of Ida of Bernicia. The earliest version of the Annales Cambriae was composed in the mid-10th century, it gives the date of Badon as 516 and lists Arthur's death as occurring in 537 at the Battle of Camlann. Like the Annals, all other sources that name Arthur were written at least 400 years after the events which they describe. Arthur was first styled as a king of the Britons in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudo-historical chronicle Historia Regum Britanniae, which dates to c. 1136. Geoffrey refers to Ambrosius Aurelianus as a king of Britain and an older brother of Uther Pendragon, father of Arthur, thus establishing a familial relationship between Aurelianus and Arthur.

He identifies Aurelius Ambrosius as the son of Constantinus, a Breton ruler and brother of Aldroenus. Arthur is mentioned in several 12th- to 13th-century hagiographies of Welsh and Breton saints, including those of Cadoc, Gildas, Goeznovius and Paternus; the Legenda Sancti Goeznovii is a hagiography of the Breton saint Goeznovius, dated to c. 1019 but is now dated to the late 12th to early 13th century. It includes a leader known as Vortigern. There are a number of mentions of a legendary hero called Arthur in early Breton poetry; these sources can not be dated with accuracy. They are mostly


Goojje is a spoof website of Google China, which encourages the real site to stay online and comply with Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China. The site was created after Google executives publicly threatened to shut down the Chinese site following the Operation Aurora cyber attack on Google China, which some computer security experts believe may have come from within China as in the GhostNet cyber spying operation. Google China executives had publicly condemned the necessity of filtering search results in line with the Golden Shield Project, which some commentators have stated appears to run counter to Google's mantra, Don't be evil. Goojje, founded on January 14, 2010 allows searches to be run, but uses Google and Baidu to do the actual searches. Google has demanded that Goojje stop using its logo, but Goojje refused until 2011. Google in Chinese is 谷歌, a transcription without regard to its meaning of "valley song"; the Chinese name of Goojje can be interpreted as having meaning of "the sister of Google".

The jje phoneme is from the word for sister, "jie jie", which mirrors how Google's last syllable sounds like "ge ge". It is said that Goojje is created by a female, infatuated with Google. Due to Google's withdrawal from China, she decided to build Goojje in memory of it; the website's propaganda is "Goojje it, loneliness all eliminated" All staff members of Goojje were born in the generation after the 1980s. Goojje appears to be run by just one person, Huang Jiongxuan, a female college student from Guangdong. Huang stated in February 2010 that the website had yet to turn a profit, however as of February 2016 it is estimated it now has a net worth of 1530.85CYN. On January 14, 2010, Goojje was set up and presented a new concept: search engine combined with social networking. On January 16, 2010, Goojje created motivational video of 2010 with network materials. On January 20, 2010, Goojje's slogan "Goojje it, loneliness all eliminated" has become an Internet meme. On January 21, 2010, Goojje network team A1 was established with 30 team members.

On January 22, 2010, Goojje breaks through the 1.5 million page view milestone, with the world ranking down to 50,000. On January 24, 2010, members of network team A1 has reached 600. On January 25, 2010, Goojje reaches 50,000 registered members. Goojje was reported by more than 100 major medias. On January 28, 2010, Goojje begins to attract international attention. On January 30, 2010, Gojje records more than 2.2 million page views, world ranking goes down to 15,000. On February 2, 2010, Goojji website undergoes a major revision. On February 4, 2010, Goojje was attacked by unknown hackers. Website was temporarily down for two weeks On March 11, 2010, Famous Club of Goojje is on line formally. On March 20, 2010, Goojje headquarters established. On April 10, 2010, Goojje technology Co. LTD was formally established. On May 20, 2010, Goojje signed with several media companies to establish strategic partnership. Goojje Information Goojje Hot Goojje Community Goojje Intranet Goojje Poll Goojje Chatterbox Goojje Suggestion Intellectual property in the People's Republic of China Goojje Google China Google China blog

George William Penrose, Lord Penrose

George William Penrose, Lord Penrose, PC, is a Scottish judge and member of the Privy Council who sat in the Court of Session, the supreme civil court. He is best known for heading The Penrose Report into the near-collapse of the mutual life assurance company Equitable Life. In 2001, Lord Penrose was asked by the Treasury to investigate the history of the company, his 818-page report was published on 8 March 2004. He headed the Penrose Inquiry into Hepatitis C & HIV infections from NHS Scotland treatment with blood and blood products such as Factor VIII. "Q&A: Penrose Inquiry" on the BBC News website, dated 8 March 2004 "Timeline: Equitable Life scandal" on the BBC News website, dated 8 March 2004


Vemurafenib is an inhibitor of the B-Raf enzyme developed by Plexxikon and Genentech for the treatment of late-stage melanoma. The name "vemurafenib" comes from V600E mutated BRAF inhibition. Vemurafenib received FDA approval for the treatment of late-stage melanoma on August 17, 2011, making it the first drug designed using fragment-based lead discovery to gain regulatory approval. Vemurafenib received Health Canada approval on February 15, 2012. On February 20, 2012, the European Commission approved vemurafenib as a monotherapy for the treatment of adult patients with BRAF V600E mutation positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer. On November 6, 2017, the FDA approved Vemurafenib for the treatment of some patients with Erdheim-Chester Disease, a rare type of histiocytic neoplasm. Vemurafenib causes programmed cell death in melanoma cell lines. Vemurafenib interrupts the B-Raf/MEK step on the B-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway − if the B-Raf has the common V600E mutation.

Vemurafenib only works in melanoma patients. About 60% of melanomas have this mutation, it has efficacy against the rarer BRAF V600K mutation. Melanoma cells without these mutations are not inhibited by vemurafenib. Three mechanisms of resistance to vemurafenib have been discovered: Cancer cells begin to overexpress cell surface protein PDGFRB, creating an alternative survival pathway. A second oncogene called NRAS mutates. Stromal cell secretion of hepatocyte growth factor. In a phase I clinical study, vemurafenib was able to reduce numbers of cancer cells in over half of a group of 16 patients with advanced melanoma; the treated group had a median increased survival time of 6 months over the control group. A second phase I study, in patients with a V600E mutation in B-Raf, ~80% showed partial to complete regression; the regression lasted from 2 to 18 months. In early 2010 a Phase I trial for solid tumors, a phase II study were ongoing. A phase III trial in patients with untreated metastatic melanoma showed an improved rates of overall and progression-free survival.

In June 2011, positive results were reported from the phase III BRIM3 BRAF-mutation melanoma study. The BRIM3 trial reported good updated results in 2012. Further trials are planned including a trial of vemurafenib co-administered with GDC-0973, a MEK-inhibitor. After good results in 2014 the combination was submitted to the FDA for marketing approval. In January 2015 trial results compared vemurafenib with the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib for metastatic melanoma. At the maximum tolerated dose of 960 mg twice a day 31% of patients get skin lesions that may need surgical removal; the BRIM-2 trial investigated 132 patients. In order to better manage side effects some form of dose modification was necessary in 45% of patients; the median daily dose was 1750 mg, 91% of the MTD. A trial combining vemurafenib and ipilimumab was stopped in April 2013 because of signs of liver toxicity. Dean L. "Vemurafenib Therapy and BRAF and NRAS Genotype". In Pratt VM, McLeod HL, Rubinstein WS, et al.. Medical Genetics Summaries.

National Center for Biotechnology Information. PMID 28809522. Bookshelf ID: NBK447416

Mike Seccombe

Mike Seccombe is an Australian journalist. He is The Saturday Paper national correspondent, appears as a panelist on ABC TV. According to The Guardian Australia website, Seccombe covered national affairs and politics for The Sydney Morning Herald and from 2006-2011, he lived on Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts writing for the Vineyard Gazette, he now national correspondent for The Saturday Paper. He is a regular panelist on the ABC Insiders program. Howard GovernmentSeccombe describes the long serving Liberal Howard Government as "a rather inert government that had a thin record of reform, that left Australia more divided, that entrenched privilege and inequality, that left the political and economic landscape littered with mines primed to blow up under successor governments." The Abbott-Turnbull GovernmentHe criticised the Liberal Abbott Government for having too many practising Christians whom he calls a "social minority", said the government was "out of step" with social expectations on the environment, on same-sex marriage, on euthanasia.

Seccombe says the idea that Tony Abbott would have won the 2016 election is "ridiculous". When Turnbull replaced Abbott as Liberal leader, Seccombe wrote: "Immediately, the change in messaging from negative to positive, from'nope' to hope, yielded dividends for the government" and that "We expect Turnbull to be an agent of change" but that if economic change was not forthcoming, cynicism might result; the GreensHe says people who vote for the Australian Greens "tend to be well educated and sophisticated". Same-sex marriageHe advocates changing Australian law to recognise same sex partnerships as marriages


KEJO is a radio station licensed to serve Corvallis, United States. The station, which began broadcasting in August 1955, is owned by Bicoastal Media and the broadcast license is held by Bicoastal Media Licenses V, LLC. KEJO broadcasts a sports radio format including a mix of local programs and syndicated shows from Fox Sports Radio plus a variety of college and professional sporting events. Local and regional weekday programs on KEJO include Joe Beaver Show with the Oregon State Beavers, Mike Parker & Jon Warren, plus an afternoon show called Sports Talk hosted by Steve. Fox Sports Radio programs on KEJO include First Team with Steve Czaban, The Dan Patrick Show hosted by Dan Patrick, The Jim Rome Show hosted by Jim Rome, Myers & Hartman with Chris Myers and Steve Hartman and Money Show hosted by Petros Papadakis and Matt "Money" Smith, J. T. the Brick with J. T. the Brick and Tomm Looney. In addition to its scheduled sports talk programs, KEJO airs select local high school football games plus Oregon State Beavers football, men's basketball, baseball as part of the Beaver Sports Radio Network.

Beginning with the 2009 season, KEJO is the broadcast home of the Corvallis Knights minor league baseball team. KEJO is scheduled to broadcast every regular season game. Through the 2008 season, KEJO had been a member of the Seattle Mariners Radio Network; the Midland Broadcasting Company was granted a construction permit in 1953 to build a new AM radio station broadcasting with 250 watts of power on a frequency of 1240 kHz. KCOV began regular broadcasting in August 1955 with Donald McCormick as president of Midland Broadcasting and Frank Flynn as the general manager of the station. Dave Hoss acquired control of Midland Broadcasting in late February 1958, he promptly applied to the FCC for new call letters for the station and was granted KFLY. Radio Broadcasters, Inc. acquired KFLY in January 1963. The Federal Communications Commission granted KFLY authorization a few months to increase its daytime signal strength to 1,000 watts while maintaining the nighttime signal power of 250 watts. In October 1966, KFLY-FM was launched as an FM sister station duplicating a portion of the AM station's programming and extending its effective coverage area.

Ted Jackson's Radio Corvallis, Inc. bought KFLY in March 1971. The station aired a Top 40 music format throughout the 1970s. KFLY was acquired by the Madgekal Broadcasting Company in August 1977 and the Top 40 format was maintained. Mario Pastega, the owner of Madgekal Broadcasting owned the local Pepsi-Cola bottling plant. After more than 35 years of broadcasting as KFLY, the station was assigned the current KEJO call letters by the FCC on January 31, 1994. Pastega chose the new callsign as a tribute to Emily Jo, who died as a young adult. In June 1999, Madgekal Broadcasting, Inc. reached an agreement to sell this station to Jacor Communications subsidiary Jacor Licensee of Louisville, Inc. The deal was approved by the FCC on August 24, 1999, the transaction was consummated on September 1, 1999. After Jacor's merger with Clear Channel Communications was completed, Jacor Licensee of Louisville, Inc. made application with the FCC in December 2000 to transfer the broadcast license for KEJO to Clear Channel subsidiary Citicasters Licenses, Inc.

The transfer was approved by the FCC on January 4, 2001, the transaction was consummated on June 5, 2001. KEJO was granted a construction permit to upgrade to 1,000 watt operation both day and night on November 2001; the station received its license to cover this change on September 25, 2003. In May 2007, Clear Channel Communications, through its Citicasters Licenses, LP, announced an agreement to sell this station to Bicoastal Media subsidiary Bicoastal Willamette Valley, LLC, as part of a 14-station deal valued at $37 million; the deal was approved by the FCC on July 2, 2007, the transaction was consummated on October 1, 2007. As part of an internal corporate reorganization in October 2007, Bicoastal Willamette Valley, LLC, applied to transfer the broadcast license for KEJO to Bicoastal Media Licenses V, LLC; the transfer was approved by the FCC on October 29, 2007. KEJO official website Query the FCC's AM station database for KEJO Radio-Locator Information on KEJO Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KEJO