Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of WWII, the British Empire, early Islam, China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature; the extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question. In the ancient world, chronological annals were produced in civilizations such as ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. However, the discipline of historiography was first established in the 5th century BC with the Histories of Herodotus, the founder of Greek historiography.
The Roman statesman Cato the Elder produced the first history in Latin, the Origines, in the 2nd century BC. His near contemporaries Sima Tan and Sima Qian in the Han Empire of China established Chinese historiography with the compiling of the Shiji. During the Middle Ages, medieval historiography included the works of chronicles in medieval Europe, Islamic histories by Muslim historians, the Korean and Japanese historical writings based on the existing Chinese model. During the 18th century Age of Enlightenment, historiography in the Western world was shaped and developed by figures such as Voltaire, David Hume, Edward Gibbon, who among others set the foundations for the modern discipline; the research interests of historians change over time, there has been a shift away from traditional diplomatic and political history toward newer approaches social and cultural studies. From 1975 to 1995 the proportion of professors of history in American universities identifying with social history increased from 31 to 41 percent, while the proportion of political historians decreased from 40 to 30 percent.
In 2007, of 5,723 faculty in the departments of history at British universities, 1,644 identified themselves with social history and 1,425 identified themselves with political history. Since the 1980s there has been a special interest in the memories and commemoration of past events--the histories as remembered and presented for popular celebration.. In the early modern period, the term historiography meant "the writing of history", historiographer meant "historian". In that sense certain official historians were given the title "Historiographer Royal" in Sweden and Scotland; the Scottish post is still in existence. Historiography was more defined as "the study of the way history has been and is written – the history of historical writing", which means that, "When you study'historiography' you do not study the events of the past directly, but the changing interpretations of those events in the works of individual historians." Understanding the past appears to be a universal human need, the "telling of history" has emerged independently in civilizations around the world.
What constitutes history is a philosophical question. The earliest chronologies date back to Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, in the form of chronicles and annals. However, no historical writers in these early civilizations were known by name. By contrast, the term "historiography" is taken to refer to written history recorded in a narrative format for the purpose of informing future generations about events. In this limited sense, "ancient history" begins with the early historiography of Classical Antiquity, in about the 5th century BCE. One of the Confucian Five Classics, the Shang Shu 尚書, has conventionally been given the English title Classic of History; this terminology is misleading as the book is a collection of speeches and anecdotes about ancient worthies, which while arranged in rough chronological order lacks any attempt to integrate them into a coherent narrative or indicate how much time has passed between two incidents. The purpose of the book is more about imparting moral lessons.
The first true history of China is therefore the Spring and Autumn Annals, the official chronicle of the State of Lu covering the period from 722 to 481 BCE. It is among the earliest surviving historical texts to be arranged on annalistic principles in the world, was traditionally attributed to Confucius. A "commentary" on the Spring and Autumn, the Zuo Zhuan attributed to Zuo Qiuming in the 5th century BCE, is considered the earliest work of narrative history in the world, covering the period from 722 to 468 BCE, it is many times longer and much more detailed and vivid than the laconic text it is purportedly commenting on, so that it is regarded as a work of history in its own right. Just as the Spring and Autumn annals has lent their name to the Spring and Autumn period they cover, the following Warring States period is named after the book Intrigues of the Warring States, compiled between the 3rd and 1st centuries BCE. Unlike the Annals, the Intrigues lack any chronological apparatus and is more of a return to the editorial style of the Classic of History.
The purpose of the work is to teach the reader useful diplomatic and strategic skills rather than provide a coherent narrative of the period. The Han dynasty eunuch Sima Qian was the first in China to lay the groundwork for professional historical writing, his written work was the Shiji, a monumental lifelong achievement in
"Sweater Weather" is a song by American alternative pop band the Neighbourhood. The song was written by group members Jesse Rutherford, Zach Abels and Jeremy Freedman, was produced by Justyn Pilbrow, it serves as the lead single from their debut studio album, I Love You. "Sweater Weather" reached number one on the Billboard Alternative Songs chart in June 2013, logging eleven non-consecutive weeks at the summit of the chart. Pentatonix covered the song for their 2018 album Christmas Is Here! with an accompanying music video. Zach Abels recalled to Radio: "I was playing guitar, and he said,'Hey that's pretty cool, let me record that.' And it just so happened to be "Sweater Weather." When we got done writing the song, when it was all said and done we were like'Okay this is pretty good we should keep writing songs.'""I think'Sweater Weather' might've been the best song we'd written," Rutherford added, "but I didn't think it was going to be the best song we'd write. It was kind of like getting a Platinum record, like a little tap on the butt."
There are two music videos for "Sweater Weather". The original video was released on March 28, 2012, but was set as unlisted; the second music video for "Sweater Weather" was directed by Zack Sekuler and Daniel Iglesias Jr. shot in grayscale to go with their black-and-white theme, released on March 5, 2013. List of Billboard number-one alternative singles of the 2010s "Sweater Weather" official music video on YouTube Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Ridgeback is a British bicycle brand manufacturing road, utility and mountain models. Their bikes are distributed by Sportline UK, owned by H Young Holdings. Ridgeback's story started in 1983. Drew first spotted a mountain bike at the 1982 New York Bike Show, where he declared it “the future of cycling.”Ridgeback’s next major development was the creation of the flat handlebar road bike. The Genesis Day One model was introduced in 2001, with the Genesis marque becoming so strong that in 2006 it became a brand in its own right. In 2008, Ridgeback was one of the first to introduce disc brakes to its flat handlebar road range, and in 2015 Ridgeback launched Rapide – a range of performance road bikes. Velocity Velocity Disc Vanteo Element Supernova Electron Electron+ RC3 Disc RC2 Disc RC1 Disc RL3 Disc RL2 Disc RL1 Disc RC3 RC2 RC1 RL3 RL2 RL1 RL26 RL24 Flight 4.0 Flight 2.0 Flight 1.0 Tour Voyage Expedition Panorama MX2 MX3 MX4 X1 X3 Avenida 3 Avenida 6 12 Runner 14 Runner Dimension 16 Dimension 20 Dimension 24 Dimension 26 MX12 MX14 MX16 MX20 MX24 Minny Honey Melody Harmony Destiny Official website