History of Anglo-Saxon England

Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th centuries from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066. It consisted of various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 927 when it was united as the Kingdom of England by King Æthelstan, it became part of the short-lived North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway in the 11th century. The Anglo-Saxons were the members of Germanic-speaking groups who migrated to the southern half of the island of Great Britain from nearby northwestern Europe. Anglo-Saxon history thus begins during the period of sub-Roman Britain following the end of Roman control, traces the establishment of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the 5th and 6th centuries, their Christianisation during the 7th century, the threat of Viking invasions and Danish settlers, the gradual unification of England under the Wessex hegemony during the 9th and 10th centuries, ending with the Norman conquest of England by William the Conqueror in 1066.

Anglo-Saxon identity survived beyond the Norman conquest, came to be known as Englishry under Norman rule, through social and cultural integration with Celts and Anglo-Normans became the modern English people. Bede completed his book Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum in around 731, thus the term for English people was in use by to distinguish Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The term'Anglo-Saxon' came into use in the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons; the historian James Campbell suggested that it was not until the late Anglo-Saxon period that England could be described as a nation state. It is certain that the concept of "Englishness" only developed slowly; as the Roman occupation of Britain was coming to an end, Constantine III withdrew the remains of the army in reaction to the Germanic invasion of Gaul with the Crossing of the Rhine in December 406. The Romano-British leaders were faced with an increasing security problem from seaborne raids by Picts on the east coast of England.

The expedient adopted by the Romano-British leaders was to enlist the help of Anglo-Saxon mercenaries, to whom they ceded territory. In about 442 the Anglo-Saxons mutinied because they had not been paid; the Romano-British responded by appealing to the Roman commander of the Western empire, Aëtius, for help though Honorius, the Western Roman Emperor, had written to the British civitas in or about 410 telling them to look to their own defence. There followed several years of fighting between the British and the Anglo-Saxons; the fighting continued until around 500, when, at the Battle of Mount Badon, the Britons inflicted a severe defeat on the Anglo-Saxons. There are records of Germanic infiltration into Britain that date before the collapse of the Roman Empire, it is believed that the earliest Germanic visitors were eight cohorts of Batavians attached to the 14th Legion in the original invasion force under Aulus Plautius in AD 43. There is a recent hypothesis that some of the native tribes, identified as Britons by the Romans, may have been Germanic-language speakers, but most scholars disagree with this due to an insufficient record of local languages in Roman-period artefacts.

It was quite common for Rome to swell its legions with foederati recruited from the German homelands. This practice extended to the army serving in Britain, graves of these mercenaries, along with their families, can be identified in the Roman cemeteries of the period; the migration continued with the departure of the Roman army, when Anglo-Saxons were recruited to defend Britain. If the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is to be believed, the various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which merged to become England were founded when small fleets of three or five ships of invaders arrived at various points around the coast of England to fight the sub-Roman British, conquered their lands; the language of the migrants, Old English, came over the next few centuries to predominate throughout what is now England, at the expense of British Celtic and British Latin. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons into Britain can be seen in the context of a general movement of Germanic peoples around Europe between the years 300 and 700, known as the Migration period.

In the same period there were migrations of Britons to the Armorican peninsula: around 383 during Roman rule, but c. 460 and in the 540s and 550s. The historian Peter Hunter-Blair expounded what is now regarded as the traditional view of the Anglo-Saxon arrival in Britain, he suggested a mass immigration and driving the sub-Roman Britons off their land and into the western extremities of the islands, into the Breton and Iberian peninsulas. This view was influenced by sources such as Bede, where he talks about the Britons being slaughtered or going into "perpetual servitude". According to Härke the more modern view is of co-existence between the British and the Anglo-Saxons, he suggests that several modern archaeologists have now re-assessed the invasion mo

Prana Mithrulu

Prana Mithrulu is a 1967 Telugu-language drama film, produced by V. Venkateswarlu under the Padmasri Pictures banner and directed by P. Pullaiah, it stars Akkineni Nageswara Rao, Jaggayya with music composed by K. V. Mahadevan. Chinna Babu Gopala Krishna / Babu is a multi-millionaire, proprietor of a sailing company who always enjoys the life in the frolic. Chinnaiah / Chinna an orphan, a trusted servant, raised along with Babu in their house, they share a bond beyond a casual friendship, one of the brothers and it is acknowledged by Babu's mother Jagadamba who treats both of equally. Once Chinna & Babu tease Parvathi, a school teacher in their harbor school when she slaps Chinna thereafter they fall in love. Diwanji look after business affairs, is a crooked & cruel person who wants to grab the entire property. In many ways, he tries to cheat and manipulate Babu but at every step, Chinna stands as a barrier between them and protects his sovereign. Diwanji gets fed up with Chinna's behavior, insults him and remembers that he is, after all, a servant.

Angered Babu gives Chinna entire authority on his property. Diwanji could not tolerate it, he uses innocence and pretends to resign the job. Here Jagadamba feels that it's good for everyone to separate Babu, she offers a huge amount to Chinna and asks him to go away from Babu, so that, Babu could take up his responsibilities. But Chinna throws away the money and replies, he cannot live without Babu. Jagadamba pleads him, so, he gives her a word to do it. Knowing that Chinna is leaving Babu prays him to not do so but Chinna does not stand, Babu keeps the oath on him not to move which makes Chinna as a statue. At that moment, Jagadamba's diplomacy fails to bring them together. Time being, Babu gets married to a Zamindar's daughter Padma. Meanwhile, Gopalakrishna humors and teases Chinna about Parvathi, in a bid to force him to accept love for Parvathi, asks him to bring her to him for pleasure, he asks Parvathi the same. Heartbroken, she confronts and gives herself to Gopalakrishna who refuses her and explains the situation.

She refuses to go back to Chinna and remains heartbroken and angry against him. In a bid to clean his image and push Chinna to senses, Gopalakrishna marries Padmavathi. With Chinna's help, she understands the complex character of Gopalakrishna and they form a good marital bond. Meanwhile, Parvathi continues to wither away. Labor problems persist in the factory with no one having a clue about. Chinna is sent as a trojan horse into the labor camp by Babu to prey upon the belief and vulnerabilities of the workforce. With some acting and help from Gopalakrishna, Chinna establishes himself as a labor leader but his true intentions are only to serve his master. Parvathi sees through the drama and tries to educate the labor masses against the plot to no avail; the blind belief of the laborers and their plights changes Chinna's heart. He stands up as their leader in a true light. Parvathi accuses him at will. Babu finds it impossible to bear the growing separation between him and Chinna and tries to lure him back to his camp.

With each refusal of Chinna, Gopalakrishna's ego flares and it leads to violent behavior from him. In one instance, he snaps off at a laborer, physically assaulting him. Babu is saved by Chinna from the mob. Chinna tries to prove himself by asking Babu to apologize, who refuses. In uncontrollable fury, Gopalakrishna half-sanctions Chinna's murder. Diwan contrives to take these loose words into action. Knowing full well from Padmavathi's help that his life is under threat, Chinna continues on to a peaceful march for self-respect to Babu's house; this earns him back Parvathi's respect. Ignoring her pleas of life being more important, he marches on; the mob is controlled at the house by Chinna. Babu, despite carrying his gun to the mob, fails to point it to Chinna, but a counterplan by the Diwan backfires as Appalu, the Diwan's henchman, times wrong and fires at Chinna who meets a heroic death. Babu realizes his mistakes but it is too late. Sensing ominous signs, Parvathi dies; the culprits are all arrested by the police.

A statue of Chinna rises in front of the Zamindar Babu's building with all the laborers, paying tearful tribute to Chinna. Akkineni Nageswara Rao as Chinnaiah Savitri as Parvathi Jaggayya as Chinna Babu Gopala Krishna Gummadi as Diwanji Relangi as Simhalu Allu Ramalingaiah as Seshayya Chadalavada as Appalu Dr. Sivaramakrishnaiah as Nandesam Seth A. V. Subba Rao as Raja Visweswara Rao Raavi Kondala Rao as Pichaiah Jagga Rao as Kondaiah Santha Kumari as Jagadamba Kanchana as Padmavathi Girija as Lachamma Geetanjali as Kalavar Rani Sukanya as item number Art: S. Krishna Rao, Suranna Choreography: Tangappa Story - Dialogues: Mullapudi Venkata Ramana Lyrics: Acharya Aatreya, Dasaradhi, C. Narayana Reddy Playback: Ghantasala, P. Susheela, J. V. Raghavulu, L. R. Eswari, Prayaga Music: K. V. Mahadevan Editing: N. M. Shankar Cinematography: P. S. Selvaraj Producer: V. Venkateswarlu Screenplay - Director: P. Pullaiah Banner: Padmasri Pictures Release Date: 1967 Music composed by K. V. Mahadevan. Music released on Audio Company


Gubrawully is a townland in the civil parish of Kinawley, barony of Tullyhaw, County Cavan, Ireland. Gubrawully is bounded on the west by Altbrean, Altinure and Sralahan townlands and on the east by Derryrealt, Drumbeagh and Drumcullion townlands, its chief geographical features are small hills which rise to 525 feet above sea level, the River Cladagh, a mountain trout stream which joins the River Cladagh, small rivulets, forestry plantations and dug wells. Gubrawully is traversed by the regional R200 road, the local L1024 road, minor public roads and rural lanes; the townland covers 304 statute acres. In earlier times the townland was uninhabited as it consists of bog and poor clay soils, it was not seized by the English during the Plantation of Ulster in 1610 or in the Cromwellian Settlement of the 1660s so some dispossessed Irish families moved there and began to clear and farm the land. The 1825 Tithe Applotment Books spell the name as Guberawella. An 1831 map spells the name as Gubberawooly and Gubberawooley and lists the owner as the Hassard estate.

Griffith's Valuation lists twenty-five landholders in the townland. Gubrawully folklore is found in the 1938 Dúchas collection. In the 1901 census of Ireland, there are seventeen families listed in the townland. In the 1911 census of Ireland, there are fourteen families listed in the townland. A lime-kiln Stone bridges over the river A ford over the river Stepping-stones over the river The IreAtlas Townland Data Base