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History of Arda

In J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, the history of the fictional universe of Eä began when the Ainur entered Arda, following the creation events in the Ainulindalë and long ages of labour throughout Eä, the universe. Time from that point was measured using Valian Years, though the subsequent history of Arda was divided into three time periods using different years, known as the Years of the Lamps, the Years of the Trees and the Years of the Sun. A separate, overlapping chronology divides the history into'Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar'; the first such Age began with the Awakening of the Elves during the Years of the Trees and continued for the first six centuries of the Years of the Sun. All the subsequent Ages took place during the Years of the Sun. Most Middle-earth stories take place in the first three Ages of the Children of Ilúvatar. Arda is, as critics have noted, "our own green and solid Earth at some quite remote epoch in the past." As such, it has not only an immediate story but a history, the whole thing is an "imagined prehistory" of the Earth as it is now.

The supreme deity of Tolkien's universe is Eru Ilúvatar. Ilúvatar created spirits named the Ainur from his thoughts, some were considered brothers or sisters. Ilúvatar made divine music with them. Melkor the most powerful of the Ainur, broke the harmony of the music, until Ilúvatar began first a second theme, a third theme, which the Ainur could not comprehend since they were not the source of it; the essence of their song symbolized the history of the whole universe and the Children of Ilúvatar that were to dwell in it—Men and Elves. Ilúvatar created Eä, which means "to be," the universe itself, formed within it Arda, the Earth, "globed within the void": the world together with the three airs is set apart from Avakúma, the "void" without; the first 15 of the Ainur that descended to Arda, the most powerful ones, were called Valar, the lesser Ainur were called Maiar. In the fictional works of J. R. R. Tolkien, the Valian Years are used to measure the passage of time after the arrival of the Ainur in Arda.

This definition of a year, named for the Valar, continued to be used during periods, such as the Years of the Lamps, the Years of the Trees, the Years of the Sun. The Valian years were measured in Aman after the first sunrise, but Tolkien provided no dates for events in Aman after that point; the account in Valian years is not used when describing the events of Beleriand and Middle-earth. In the 1930s and 40s Tolkien used a figure which fluctuated around ten before settling on 9.582 solar years in each Valian year. However, in the 1950s Tolkien decided to use a much greater value of 144 solar years per Valian year, included this figure in The Lord of the Rings appendices as the length of the elven year; this new figure elongates the established timeline: The Flight of the Noldor took 5 Valian Years. Some commenters suggest that these new figures would be too long if applied directly to the existing dates and therefore the new definition is a wholly different measure than the one used in the timeline and cannot be applied directly.

In contrast, Tolkien described time as having flowed more in Aman, such that a Valian year there would'feel' like the passage of a single solar year in Middle-earth despite being much longer. When the Valar entered Arda, it had no distinct geographical features; the initial shape of Arda, chosen by the Valar, was much more symmetrical, including the central continent of Middle-earth. Middle-earth was originally much larger, was lit by the misty light that veiled the barren ground; the Valar concentrated this light in two large lamps, called Ormal. The Vala Aulë forged Helcar in the north and Ringil in the south. Illuin was set upon Ormal upon Ringil. In the middle, where the light of the lamps mingled, the Valar dwelt at the island of Almaren upon the Great Lake; this period, known as the Spring of Arda, was a time when the Valar had ordered the World as they wished and rested upon Almaren, Melkor lurked beyond the Walls of Night. During this time animals first appeared, forests started to grow.

The Spring of Arda was interrupted when Melkor returned to Arda, ended when he assaulted and destroyed the Lamps of the Valar. Arda was again darkened, the fall of the great Lamps spoiled the symmetry of Arda's surface. New continents were created: Aman in the West, Middle-earth proper in the middle, the uninhabited lands in the East. At the site of the northern lamp was the inland Sea of Helcar, of which Cuiviénen was a bay. At the site of the southern lamp was the Sea of Ringil. After the destruction of the Two Lamps the Years of the Lamps ended and the Years of the Trees began. Shortly after the destruction of the Two Lamps and the kingdom of Almaren, the Valar abandoned Middle-earth, moving to the continent of Aman. There they built Valinor. Yavanna made the Two Trees, named Laurelin in the land of Valinor; the Trees illuminated Valinor, leaving Middle-earth in darkness lit only by stars. The Years of the Trees were contemporary with Middle-earth's Sleep of Yavanna; the Years of the Trees were divided into two epochs.

The first ten Ages, the Years of Bliss, saw prosperity in Valinor. The Eagles, the Ents and the Dwarves were conceived by Manwë, Aulë but placed into slumber until after the awakening of the Elves; the next ten Ages, called the Noontide of the Blessed, saw Varda rekindling the stars above Middle-ear

Jugurtha

Jugurtha or Jugurthen was a king of Numidia, born in Cirta. When the Numidian king Micipsa, who had adopted Jugurtha, died in 118 BC, Jugurtha and his two adoptive brothers and Adherbal, succeeded him. Jugurtha arranged to have Hiempsal killed and, after a civil war and killed Adherbal in 112 BC; the death of Adherbal, against the wishes of Rome, along with the growing popular anger in Rome at Jugurtha’s success in bribing Roman senators, led to the Jugurthine War between Rome and Numidia which, after a number of battles in Numidia between Roman and Numidian forces led to Jugurtha’s capture in 106 BC and his being paraded through Rome as part of Gaius Marius' Roman triumph. He was thrown into the Tullianum prison where he died of starvation in 104 BC, he was survived by Oxyntas. Until the reign of Jugurtha's grandfather Masinissa, the Numidians were semi-nomadic and indistinguishable from the other Berber tribes in North Africa. Masinissa established a kingdom and became a Roman ally in 206 BC.

After a long reign he was succeeded in 148 BC by his son Micipsa. Jugurtha, Micipsa's adopted son, was so popular among the Numidians that Micipsa was obliged to send him away to Spain. For Micipsa, instead of keeping out of the way, Jugurtha used his time in Spain to make several influential Roman contacts, he served under Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus at the siege of Numantia alongside Gaius Marius and learned of Rome's weakness for bribes. He famously described Rome as "urbem venalem et mature perituram, si emptorem invenerit"; when Micipsa died in 118, he was succeeded jointly by Jugurtha and his two sons Hiempsal and Adherbal. Hiempsal and Jugurtha quarrelled after the death of Micipsa. Jugurtha had Hiempsal killed. After Jugurtha defeated him in open battle, Adherbal fled to Rome for help; the Roman officials settled the fight by dividing Numidia into two parts in 116, but this settlement was tainted by accusations that the Roman officials accepted bribes to favor Jugurtha. Among the officials found guilty was Lucius Opimius.

Jugurtha was assigned the western half. By 112 Jugurtha resumed his war with Adherbal. Adherbal was encouraged to hold out by a corps of Italian residents, in expectation of military aid arriving from Rome. However, Roman troops were engaged in the Cimbrian War and the Senate sent two successive embassies to remonstrate with Jugurtha who delayed until he had captured Cirta, his troops massacred many residents including the Italians. This brought Jugurtha into direct conflict with Rome, which sent troops under the Consul Lucius Calpurnius Bestia. Although the Romans made significant inroads into Numidia, their heavy infantry was unable to inflict any significant casualties on Jugurtha's army which included large numbers of light cavalry. Bestia accepted an offer of negotiations from Jugurtha, who surrendered and received a favourable peace treaty, which raised suspicions of bribery once more; the local Roman commander was summoned to Rome to face corruption charges brought by his political rival Gaius Memmius, who induced the tribal assembly to vote safe conduct to Jugurtha to come to Rome to give evidence against the officials suspected of succumbing to bribery.

However once Jugurtha had reached Rome, another tribune used his veto to prevent evidence being given. Jugurtha severely damaged his reputation and weakened his position by using his time in Rome to set gangs onto a cousin, named Massiva, a potential rival for the Numidian throne. War again broke out between Numidia and the Roman Republic, several legions were dispatched to North Africa under the command of the consul, Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus; the war dragged out into a long and endless campaign, as the Romans tried to inflict a decisive defeat on Jugurtha. Frustrated at the apparent lack of action, Metellus's lieutenant, Gaius Marius, returned to Rome to seek election as consul. After winning the election, Marius returned to Numidia to take control of the war, he sent Sulla, to neighbouring Mauretania to eliminate their support for Jugurtha. With the help of Bocchus I of Mauretania, Sulla was able to capture Jugurtha and bring the war to a conclusive end. Jugurtha was placed in the Tullianum.

Jugurtha was paraded through the streets in Gaius Marius' Roman triumph after which his royal robes were removed and his earrings were ripped off. He lost an ear lobe in the process, he was thrown into the Tullianum, where he died of starvation in 104 BC. He was survived by Oxyntas. Jugurthine War Battle of the Muthul Sallust, De Bello Iugurthino Bomilcar Tacfarinas Jugurtha Tableland Livius.org: Jugurtha Penelope. UChicago.edu: The War with Jugurtha

Ritterstein

A Ritterstein is the German name given to markers made of sandstone erected at sites of historic or natural interest in the Palatine Forest, a range of low mountains in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate. In some cases, glacial erratics were used, in others, rocks or walls at the site were used on which to carve the information; the stones are inscribed with their name, a suitable symbol, the date they were erected, their height above sea level and the initials PWV for the Pfälzerwald-Verein or Palatine Forest Club, who set up and look after the stones. They are named after chief forester, Karl Albrecht von Ritter, the founding chairman of the PWV, who initiated the system in the early 20th century. Walter Eitelmann. Pp. 168–173, ISBN 3-00-010517-4 Media related to Ritterstein at Wikimedia Commons

Dakota Wesleyan University

Dakota Wesleyan University is a four-year university in Mitchell, South Dakota. It is affiliated with the United Methodist Church; the student body averages fewer than 800 students. The campus of the university is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In 1883, a small band of Methodist settlers meeting in the Dakota Territory secured a charter to found the college as Dakota University; these pioneers were driven to "build a college of stone while living in houses of sod," and had deep religious convictions about the education and future of their children. They envisioned an institution that epitomized the highest in Christian thought and deed, so adopted the motto, "Sacrifice or Service"; this is symbolized in the collegiate seal of the altar, the ox, the plow. On October 14, 1904, the institution assumed its present name of Dakota Wesleyan University. By 1920, Dakota Wesleyan University was the largest independent college in the state, with an enrollment of more than 300; the Great Depression, which hit the prairie harder than any region in the nation, evoked a regionally sensitive response from Dakota Wesleyan.

The university accepted many students who had few or no resources, with farm produce being accepted for tuition, personnel took severe cuts in pay to educate those with no other options. The university, sustained by the Methodist church as in earlier days, gave teachers housing in Graham Hall and coupons to purchase merchandise in town. Since the 1930s, the university has continued its attempts to remedy region-specific needs. Strong programs in teacher education have provided new teachers for school districts, nursing and allied health programs address the continuing need for health care professionals in rural South Dakota. In recognition of the diverse cultures in its changing prairie environment, Wesleyan has begun special programs focusing on Native American culture. Additionally, university programs assist students whose previous educational experiences have inadequately prepared them for their future. About half of the campus, including its central U-shaped quadrangle, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976.

Dakota Wesleyan University dedicated the new George and Eleanor McGovern Library and Center for Leadership and Public Service on October 7, 2006 to a crowd of nearly five thousand people, with former President Bill Clinton honoring former Senator George McGovern and his wife Eleanor McGovern for their public service. Other dignitaries who spoke including former Senator Tom Daschle, Senator Tim Johnson, Senator John Thune, Representative Stephanie Herseth Sandlin, Governor Mike Rounds, USA Today founder Al Neuharth; the McGovern Center seeks to prepare Dakota Wesleyan's top students for future leadership and careers in public service through classes, seminars and internships. It includes the annual McGovern Center Conference, the McGovern Library, the McGovern Legacy Museum, which gives visitors a look at the lives of the couple, it is associated with the DWU Tiger Poll which does public opinion polling. Dakota Wesleyan teams, nicknamed athletically as the Tigers, are part of the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics competing in the Great Plains Athletic Conference.

They competed in the South Dakota Intercollegiate Conference. Men's sports include baseball, cheerleading, cross country, golf, track & field and wrestling. In 2015, the men's basketball team won runner-up in the 2015 NAIA Division II Men's Basketball Tournament. On March 13, 2018, the women's basketball team won the first team National Championship in school history, defeating the Concordia Lady Bulldogs 82-59 in regulation play in the championship round of the 2018 NAIA Division II Women's Basketball Tournament. Clinton Presba Anderson, former U. S. Secretary of Agriculture, former U. S. Senator and U. S. Congressman from New Mexico Jonathan Bane, American football player Gordon Binkerd, American composer Harlan J. Bushfield, 16th Governor of South Dakota and as a United States Senator Francis Case, former U. S. Congressman from South Dakota. Kevin A. Casey, writer and humorist Stanley Hallett, American urban planner and neighborhood advocate Ben Jukich, professional baseball pitcher George McGovern, former U.

S. Congressman, U. S. Senator, Democratic Party presidential candidate Ed Meierkort, former head coach of the South Dakota Coyotes football team George Theodore Mickelson, former Governor of South Dakota Official website Official athletics website Dakota Wesleyan University at National Center for Education Statistics: College Navigator

Clásica de San Sebastián

The Donostia-Donostia Klasikoa — Clásica San Sebastián-San Sebastián is a cycle race, held every summer since 1981 in San Sebastián, Spain. The 2018 edition was won by Julian Alaphilippe, it is traditionally a climbers' race, with several famous Grand Tour stars claiming the race. Clásica de San Sebastián is known for its winding, undulating terrain which favours aggressive riding; the current race route is 220 kilometres in length and includes the tough Alto de Jaizkibel climb at around the 200 kilometre mark. This is the decisive point of the race, it was a round of the UCI Road World Cup and has since been part of its successors, the UCI ProTour and since 2011 the UCI World Tour. Riders in italics are active. In 2019, a women's race was added; the women's race covers 127km and follows a similar route to the men, including a climb of the Jaizkibel. Official website Clásica de San Sebastián palmares at Cycling Archives

Sik Kok Kwong

Sik is a Buddhist honorary title and Kok Kwong is a descriptive of meritorious attributes: see dharma name. Sik Kok Kwong, GBM GBS was a Tiantai Buddhist monk from Hong Kong and the first president of the Hong Kong Buddhist Association, he was the Honorary Vice President of the World Buddhist Sangha Council, a member of the Hong Kong Basic Law Drafting Committee, a Hong Kong Affairs Advisor. Born Gu Chenghai in Haicheng, Kok Kwong exhibited interest in Buddhism at an early age. At the age of nine, he left the home life and ordained as a novice monk at Haihui Temple in Shanghai in 1928. Two years he was introduced to Venerable Yuanying, the abbot of Tiantong Temple in Ningbo, where he received the full precepts as well as a new dharma name, Jueguang. In 1939, Kok Kwong received the Tiantai lineage from Venerable Master Baojing. Through Baojing, Kok Kwong became the 46th lineage holder of the Tiantai sect. Shortly thereafter, following the Japanese invasion of China, Kok Kwong retreated to Hong Kong.

In his capacity as a senior monastic, Kok Kwong established monasteries and was appointed abbot and director to many temples in Hong Kong. In 1945, Kok Kwong, together with other senior clerics, founded the Hong Kong Buddhist Association. Kok Kwong would become the association's permanent president in 1966; as president, he oversaw the establishment of several educational institutions, such as the Chung-Hwa Institute of Buddhist Studies in 1945, the Wong Fung Ling College and the Wong Cheuk Um Primary School in 1956, the Kok Kwong Secondary School in 1979. Hospitals and the providing of social services were established under Kok Kwong's leadership. In Kok Kwong's years, he along with eight venerables of various traditions proposed the World Buddhist Forum in Mainland China in 2004, a suggestion that won support from Buddhist circles in countries like Japan and the Republic of Korea, he spearheaded two tours of relics of the Buddha in 1999 and in 2003. Kok Kwong's influence spread toward the political sphere of Hong Kong, where he was appointed to positions as an adviser to the government following the handover of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China.

Kok Kwong was one of the earliest defenders of the Hong Kong government. Kok Kwong attracted criticism for his close association with billionaire Li Ka-shing and the building of Tsz Shan Monastery, sponsored by the Li family. In 2013, Kok Kwong was awarded the Grand Bauhinia Medal for his many years of public service. In 2014, after a long illness, Kok Kwong died at 4:51am at the age of 95. Several government officials expressed condolences upon hearing news of his death