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History of Bahrain

Bahrain was the central location of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Bahrain's strategic location in the Persian Gulf has brought rule and influence from the Persians, Assyrians, Portuguese, the Arabs, the British. Whilst the country had closest economic relations with Indians or South Asians for the longest time, much more than the Arabs themselves. Bahrain was the central site of the ancient Dilmun civilization. Dilmun appears first in Sumerian cuneiform clay tablets dated to the end of fourth millennium BC, found in the temple of goddess Inanna, in the city of Uruk; the adjective Dilmun is used to describe a type of one specific official. Dilmun was mentioned in two letters dated to the reign of Burna-Buriash II recovered from Nippur, during the Kassite dynasty of Babylon; these letters were from a provincial official, Ilī-ippašra, in Dilmun to his friend Enlil-kidinni in Mesopotamia. The names referred to are Akkadian; these letters and other documents, hint at an administrative relationship between Dilmun and Babylon at that time.

Following the collapse of the Kassite dynasty, Mesopotamian documents make no mention of Dilmun with the exception of Assyrian inscriptions dated to 1250 BC which proclaimed the Assyrian king to be king of Dilmun and Meluhha. Assyrian inscriptions recorded tribute from Dilmun. There are other Assyrian inscriptions during the first millennium BC indicating Assyrian sovereignty over Dilmun. Dilmun was later on controlled by the Kassite dynasty in Mesopotamia. One of the early sites discovered in Bahrain indicate that Sennacherib, king of Assyria, attacked northeast Persian Gulf and captured Bahrain; the most recent reference to Dilmun came during the Neo-Babylonian dynasty. Neo-Babylonian administrative records, dated 567 BC, stated that Dilmun was controlled by the king of Babylon; the name of Dilmun fell from use after the collapse of Neo-Babylon in 538 BC. There is both literary and archaeological evidence of extensive trade between Ancient Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilization. Impressions of clay seals from the Indus Valley city of Harappa were evidently used to seal bundles of merchandise, as clay seal impressions with cord or sack marks on the reverse side testify.

A number of these Indus Valley seals have turned up at other Mesopotamian sites. The "Persian Gulf" types of circular, stamped seals known from Dilmun, that appear at Lothal in Gujarat and Failaka, as well as in Mesopotamia, are convincing corroboration of the long-distance sea trade. What the commerce consisted of is less known: timber and precious woods, lapis lazuli and luxury goods such as carnelian and glazed stone beads, pearls from the Persian Gulf and bone inlays, were among the goods sent to Mesopotamia in exchange for silver, woolen textiles, olive oil and grains. Copper ingots from Oman and bitumen which occurred in Mesopotamia may have been exchanged for cotton textiles and domestic fowl, major products of the Indus region that are not native to Mesopotamia. Instances of all of these trade goods have been found; the importance of this trade is shown by the fact that the weights and measures used at Dilmun were in fact identical to those used by the Indus, were not those used in Southern Mesopotamia.

"the ships of Dilmun, from the foreign land, brought him wood as a tribute". Mesopotamian trade documents, lists of goods, official inscriptions mentioning Meluhha supplement Harappan seals and archaeological finds. Literary references to Meluhhan trade date from the Akkadian, the Third Dynasty of Ur, Isin-Larsa Periods, but the trade started in the Early Dynastic Period; some Meluhhan vessels may have sailed directly to Mesopotamian ports, but by the Isin-Larsa Period, Dilmun monopolized the trade. The Bahrain National Museum assesses. 2200–1600 BC. Discoveries of ruins under the Persian Gulf maybe of Dilmun. In the Mesopotamian epic poem Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh had to pass through Mount Mashu to reach Dilmun, Mount Mashu is identified with the whole of the parallel Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon ranges, with the narrow gap between these mountains constituting the tunnel. Dilmun, sometimes described as "the place where the sun rises" and "the Land of the Living", is the scene of some versions of the Sumerian creation myth, the place where the deified Sumerian hero of the flood, was taken by the gods to live forever.

Thorkild Jacobsen's translation of the Eridu Genesis calls it "Mount Dilmun" which he locates as a "faraway, half-mythical place". Dilmun is described in the epic story of Enki and Ninhursag as the site at which the Creation occurred; the promise of Enki to Ninhursag, the Earth Mother: Ninlil, the Sumerian goddess of air and south wind had her home in Dilmun. It is featured in the Epic of Gilgamesh. However, in the early epic Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, the main events, which center on Enmerkar's construction of the ziggurats in Uruk and Eridu, are described as taking place in a world "before Dilmun had yet been settled". From the 6th century BC to the 3rd century BC Bahrain was a pivotal part of the Persian Empire by the Achaemenids, an Iranian dynasty. From the 3rd century BC to the arrival of Islam in the 7th century AD, Bahrain was controlled by two other Iranian dynasties, the Parthians and the Sassanids. By about 130 BC, the Parthian dynasty brought the Persian Gulf under their control and extended their influence as far as Oman. since they needed to control the Persian Gulf trade route, the Parthians established garrisons along

Lubaloy C41100

C41100 Lubaloy is a wrought copper alloy, composed of copper and zinc. Lubaloy possesses many favorable characteristics making it, other types of brass, a popular choice in manufacturing, it is a source material in many processes including the creation of electrical components and bullet-making. Documented use of brass dates back to early Romans, is referenced in the King James Bible. There are both positive and negative health effects that are associated with the use of this material. Lubaloy is made from combining 91% copper, 8.5% zinc, 0.5% tin. Proportional variances are utilized for application specific demands of each desired material component; the range of compositions can vary from around 81 to 95% copper, 3 to 18% zinc, 0.5 to 2% tin. A common variation of the Lubaloy alloy type in Lubaloy X 425, with a composition of 88% copper, 10% zinc, 2% tin; this alloy is used because it is soft and more malleable than copper or zinc alone. It offers hot formability; the non-ferromagnetic property of brass allows it to be separated from other metals.

It is tarnish-resistant, has low friction and spark-less qualities. It is dull yellow and has an appearance similar to that of gold. Brass is a substitutional alloy used for decorations and jewellery. Brass is an excellent electrical and thermal conductor because copper has a simple FCC crystal structure. Silver is the best electrical conductor. Copper can conduct 97 % of the amount of electricity. Common uses include manufacture of rod, wire and foil. Lubaloy is a component in such objects as trumpets and cymbals and locks, valves and bearings, it is a common alloy used to make coins. This alloy plays an important role in manufacturing tools for use around explosive gases, in cryogenics, it is used as a test control metal for protective coatings research. Other items include plates, pipes, castings, washers, connectors, flexible metal hose, conductors. In 1922, the Western Cartridge Company introduced a copper-washed bullet jacketing called Lubaloy which stands for lubricating alloy. Lubaloy replaced standard bullet jacketing, cupro-nickel coated steel or solid cupro-nickel.

The original jacketing was found to be detrimental to firearm performance over time. Lumps of the hot jacketing were deposited near the end of the barrel during firing creating a hazard or destroying the barrel; the Lubaloy-Palma ammunition jacketing was a breakthrough solution to this persistent dilemma. It was composed of 90% copper, 8% zinc, 2% tin. Lubaloy can be fabricated using blanking and drawing processes; the early versions of brass were created by co-smelting mixed ores. The process was called cementation, which involved heating zinc and copper in a closed crucible with charcoal; this dates back to the 7th century BC in Greece. Sometimes the zinc ore was pre-heated to produce metallic zinc; this was called speltering. It produced a superior product where the purity can be modified; this process was noted from around 1000 AD in India. Today full-scale production is more stream-lined. Health concerns surrounding brass stem from lead contamination. Lead is sometimes added to enhance the machinability of brass.

It is present in concentrations around 2%. Thirteen key manufacturers were sued by the California state attorney general on October 1999. Lab tests revealed, they were required to reduce the lead content to 1.5% after April 2001. By January 1, 2010, the California law states that brass containing less than 0.25% lead must be used for each component that comes into contact with the wetted surface of pipes, plumbing fittings and fixtures. On the other hand, the copper in brass does create a natural oligodynamic effect. Brass doorknobs will disinfect themselves within eight hours. 91 Cu 8.5 Zn.5 Sn OLIN Alloy No. 411 ASTM Spec. No. B591 DENSITY Lbs. per cu In. at 68 °F.318 MOD. OF ELAST.x 106 PSI, tension 16-18 ELECT. COND.% IACS at 68 °F as annealed 28-32 THERM. COND. BTU • ft. @ 68°Fft2•hr•°F 69-75 COEF. OF TH. EXP. Inches/inch/°F x 10-6from 68 °F to 572 °F 10.2 T. J. Shedlosky, A. Huovinen, D. Webster, G. Bierwagena. Development and Evaluation of Removable Protective Coatings on Bronze. National Museum of Australia, 2004.

Fran Cverna. Thermal Properties of Metals. ASM International, 2002 Günter Joseph, Konrad J. A. Kundig. Copper: Its Trade, Manufacture and Environmental Status. International Copper Association, 2010 Hatcher, Julian S. Hatcher's Notebook. Stackpole Books, 1966 Non-Ferrous Alloys and Special Materials. ASM International, 1990 Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. John Wiley, 1991 Natural Brass and Early Production Methods. Net Industries, 2010 http://arts.jrank.org/pages/9509/II-Production.html Copper, UNS C41100, H10 Temper Flat Products. Automatic Creations Inc, 2010 http://www.matweb.com/search/DataSheet.aspx? MatGUID=2dae446f703344d58438ff478f25b81d Reroll Capabilities and Alloys / Brass. Technical Materials Inc, 2010 http://technicalmaterials.com/metal_prop/brass.html Jeffrey Scott Doyle. Bullet Basics 1–Materials. Firearms ID, 2007 http://firearmsid.com/Bullets/bullet1.htm Copper Alloy Guide. Olin Corporation, 1999 http://www.rjrpolymers.com/wp-content/uploads/alloyguide.pdf

Intrapreneurship

Intrapreneurship is the act of behaving like an entrepreneur while working within a large organization. Intrapreneurship is known as the practice of a corporate management style that integrates risk-taking and innovation approaches, as well as the reward and motivational techniques, that are more traditionally thought of as being the province of entrepreneurship. Pinchot defined intrapreneurs as "dreamers; those who take responsibility for creating an innovation of any kind within an organization." In 1992, The American Heritage Dictionary acknowledged the popular use of a new word, intrapreneur, to mean "A person within a large corporation who takes direct responsibility for turning an idea into a profitable finished product through assertive risk-taking and innovation". Dictionary.com defines an intrapreneur as "an employee of a large corporation, given freedom and financial support to create new products, systems, etc. and does not have to follow the corporation's usual routines or protocols."

Koch goes further. Based on these definitions, being an intrapreneur is considered to be beneficial for both intrapreneurs and large organizations. Companies support intrapreneurs with finance and access to corporate resources, while intrapreneurs create innovation for companies; the intrapreneur is not to be confused with the "innerpreneur", a person who aims at personal fulfilment more than at economic gains when creating a business. For intrapreneurs the primary motivation is the need to implement their vision of something the world needs, something that aligns with their values; the first written use of the terms ‘intrapreneur’, ‘intrapreneuring,’ and ‘intrapreneurship’ date from a 1978 white paper, Intra-Corporate Entrepreneurship, by Gifford Pinchot III and Elizabeth S. Pinchot. Norman Macrae, who read the white paper, credited the term to Gifford Pinchot III in the April 17, 1982 issue of The Economist; the first formal academic case study of corporate entrepreneurship or intrapreneurship was published in June 1982, as a Master's in Management thesis, by Howard Edward Haller, on the intrapreneurial creation of PR1ME Leasing within PR1ME Computer Inc..

This academic research was published as a case study by VDM Verlag as Intrapreneurship Success: A Prime Example. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language included the term'intrapreneur' in its 3rd 1992 Edition, with Pinchot as the originator of the concept; the term "intrapreneurship" was used in the popular media first in February 1985 by TIME magazine article "Here Come the Intrapreneurs" and the same year in another major popular publication was in a quote by Steve Jobs, Apple Computer's Chairman, in an interview in the September 1985 Newsweek article, which quotes him as saying, "The Macintosh team was what is known as intrapreneurship. "Intrapreneurship refers to employee initiatives in organizations to undertake something new, without being asked to do so." Hence, the intrapreneur focuses on innovation and creativity, transforms an idea into a profitable venture, while operating within the organizational environment. Thus, intrapreneurs are Inside entrepreneurs. Intrapreneurship is an example of motivation through job design, either formally or informally.

Employees, such as marketing executives or those engaged in a special project within a larger firm, are encouraged to behave as entrepreneurs though they have the resources and security of the larger firm to draw upon. Capturing a little of the dynamic nature of entrepreneurial management adds to the potential of an otherwise static organization, without exposing those employees to the risks or accountability associated with entrepreneurial failure. Another characteristic of intrapreneurs is their courage and flexibility to think outside of the box, which allows them to work on ideas that may change strategic direction. Though many managers are afraid of radical changes, they are the only way to help companies grow; this is exemplified by Wipro in India, a small vegetable company that ended up being a software outsourcing powerhouse. Another example is Tony Hsieh of Zappos, who started as a commercial footwear vendor and became the CEO of Zappos, which has expanded into an online customer experience company.

According to Pinchot, intrapreneurs are both employees and leaders of a large organizations that act similar to entrepreneurs in terms of e.g. self-motivation and pro-activity. Pinchot claims that while intrapreneurs must be leaders, they differ much from managers. Strong leadership skills are needed to strengthen teams and to persuade others to follow and execute their ideas. Leadership skills are important to support rapid decision making under uncertainty. Managers, on the contrary, consider more risks than uncertainty and work within established patterns. Moreover, traditional managers get their authority from the above. Intrapreneurs are able to search for opportunities and shape them into high-potential innovations through teamwork and with access to corporate resources; this assumes the right conditions of good leadership and the appropriate environment to support creativity, these are essential for entrep