History of Belize

The History of Belize dates back thousands of years. The Maya civilization spread into the area of Belize between 1500 BC to 1200 BC and flourished until about 1000 AD. Several Maya ruin sites, including Cahal Pech, Lamanai, Altun Ha, Xunantunich reflect the advanced civilization and much denser population of that period; the first recorded European incursions in the region were made by Spanish conquistadors and missionaries in the 16th century, who failed to establish colonial rule. English loggers and pirates sporadically visited the region in the 17th century and a first English settlements was established around 1716; the 18th century in Belize was marked by frequent conflict between Britain and Spain and the arrival of enslaved Africans to British plantations. Belize was not formally termed the "Colony of British Honduras" until 1862, it became a crown colony in 1871. Subsequently, several constitutional changes were enacted to expand representative government. Full internal self-government under a ministerial system was granted in January 1964.

The official name of the territory was changed from British Honduras to Belize in June 1973, full independence was granted on 21 September 1981. The Maya civilization emerged at least three millennia ago in the lowland area of the Yucatán Peninsula and the highlands to the south, in what is now southeastern Mexico, western Honduras, Belize. Many aspects of this culture persist in the area despite nearly 500 years of European domination. Prior to about 2500 B. C. some hunting and foraging bands settled in small farming villages. A profusion of languages and subcultures developed within the Maya core culture. Between about 2500 B. C. and 250 A. D. the basic institutions of Maya civilization emerged. The peak of this civilization occurred during the classic period, which began around 250 A. D; the recorded history of the center and south is dominated by Caracol. The inscriptions on the monuments there are in the Lowland Maya aristocratic tongue Classic Ch'olti'an. North of the Maya Mountains, the inscriptional language at Lamanai was Yucatecan as of 625 CE.

The last date recorded in Ch'olti'an within Belizean borders is 859 A. D. in Caracol, stele 10. Yucatec civilisation, in Lamanai, lasted longer. Farmers engaged in various types of agriculture, including labor-intensive irrigated and ridged-field systems and shifting slash-and-burn agriculture, their products fed the civilization's craft specialists, merchants and priest-astronomers, who coordinated agricultural and other seasonal activities with rituals in ceremonial centers. These priests, who observed the movements of the sun, moon and stars, developed a complex mathematical and calendrical system to coordinate various cycles of time and to record specific events on carved stelae; the Maya were skilled at making pottery, carving jade, knapping flint, making elaborate costumes of feathers. The architecture of Maya civilization included temples and palatial residences organized in groups around plazas; these structures were built of cut stone, covered with stucco, elaborately decorated and painted.

Stylized carvings and paintings, along with sculptured stelae and geometric patterns on buildings, constitute a developed style of art. Belize boasts important sites of the earliest Maya settlements, majestic ruins of the classic period, examples of late postclassic ceremonial construction. About five kilometers west of Orange Walk, is Cuello, a site from as early as 2,500 B. C. Jars and other dishes found there are among the oldest pottery unearthed in present-day Mexico and Central America. Cerros, a site on Chetumal Bay, was a flourishing trade and ceremonial center between about 300 B. C. and 100 A. D. One of the finest carved jade objects of Maya civilization, the head of what is taken to be the sun god Kinich Ahau, was found in a tomb at the classic period site of Altún Ha, thirty kilometers northwest of present-day Belize City. Other Maya centers located in Belize include Xunantunich and Baking Pot in Cayo District, Lubaantún and Nimli Punit in Toledo District, Lamanai on Hill Bank Lagoon in Orange Walk District.

In the late classic period, it is estimated that between 400,000 and 1,000,000 people inhabited the area, now Belize. People settled every part of the country worth cultivating, as well as the cay and coastal swamp regions, but in the 10th century, Maya society suffered a severe breakdown. Construction of public buildings ceased, the administrative centers lost power, the population declined as social and economic systems lost their coherence; some people continued to occupy, or reoccupied, sites such as Altun Ha, Lamanai. These sites ceased being civic centers; the decline of Maya civilization is still not explained. Rather than identifying the collapse as the result of a single factor, many archaeologists now believe that the decline of the Maya was a result of several complex factors and that the decline occurred at different times in different regions. Many Maya remained in Belize when the Europeans arrived in the 17th centuries. Archaeological and ethnohistorical research confirms that several groups of Maya peoples lived in the area now known as Belize in the 16th century.

The political geography of that period does not coincide with present-day boundaries, so several Maya provinces lay across the frontiers of modern Belize and Guatemala. Spain soon sent expeditions to Guatemala and Honduras, the conquest of Yucatán began in 1527. Though the Maya offered stiff resistance to Spanish "pacification", diseases contracted from the Spanish devastated the indigenous population and weakened its ability to resist conque

2003–04 Mighty Ducks of Anaheim season

The 2003–04 Mighty Ducks of Anaheim season was the team's 11th season in the National Hockey League. After making it to the 2003 Stanley Cup Final and losing in the seventh game, the team placed fourth in the Pacific Division and 12th in the Western Conference, thereby failing to qualify for the 2004 Stanley Cup playoffs. In the 2003 NHL Entry Draft, the Ducks selected Ryan Getzlaf with their first first-round pick, 19th overall, Corey Perry with their second first-round pick, 28th overall. Forward Steve Rucchin was named team captain following Paul Kariya's departure to the Colorado Avalanche via free agency; the departure of Franchise player Paul Kariya marked an other new era which had many fans angered as well as worried about the teams near future repeating the on-ice success. Signing Sergei Fedorov and Vaclav Prospal in the summer relieved most of the fans' fear. Both players delivered as expected but scoring decreased for several reasons: Mike Leclerc played only 10 games, Rob Niedermayer played only 55 games, though enjoying a good season and Andy McDonald stayed healthy but had trouble repeating his performance after missing half of last season due to a concussion.

Rookie Joffrey Lupul had a wonderful rookie campaign with a bright future ahead. Overall, while the team had more potential scoring depth, several players fell short to enjoy and repeat the scoring touch they showed last season; the Defense performed well enough but J.-S. Giguere failed at times to play the way; that season Back-up goalie Martin Gerber saw more ice time challenging Giguere for the number one spot and nearly outperforming him. Playing away from home did not do them well as the Mighty Ducks won 19 games at home but only 10 games on the road. Note: CR = Conference rank. Divisions: CE – Central, PA – Pacific, NW – Northwest P – Clinched Presidents Trophy. ScoringGoaltending Traded Todd Reirden to the Phoenix Coyotes for future consideration on January 17, 2004 Acquired Martin Škoula from the Avalanche for Kurt Sauer and a 4th round pick on February 21, 2004. Acquired Petr Shastlivy from the Ottawa Senators in exchange for Todd Simpson on February 4, 2004. Anaheim's draft picks at the 2003 NHL Entry Draft held at the Gaylord Entertainment Center in Nashville, Tennessee.

Cincinnati Mighty Ducks Mighty Ducks of Anaheim Arrowhead Pond of Anaheim 2003–04 NHL season Anaheim Angels 2003 Anaheim Angels season 2004 Anaheim Angels season

1976 Tampa Bay Rowdies indoor season

The 1976 Tampa Bay Rowdies indoor season was the second indoor season of the club's existence. The Rowdies were able to replicate their 1975 outdoor success by winning the North American Soccer League's 1976 indoor championship. Owner: George Strawbridge, Jr. General Manager: Beau Rogers Head Coach: Eddie Firmani Business Manager: Chas Serednesky Director of Public Relations: Francisco Marcos Trainors: Mike Dolan and Stan Taylor Team Physician: John Kauzlarich The Tampa Bay Rowdies were the runners-up of the 1975 NASL Indoor tournament in March, the winners of Soccer Bowl'75 in August, both held California at the home venues of the San Jose Earthquakes. In October 1975 the NASL announced that the Bayfront Center would host both the 1976 Indoor Eastern Regionals and Final Four, it was announced that Tampa Bay would play a pre-tournament international friendly at the Bayfront Center. This meant. Billed in media reports as an International Challenge Cup Match, Tampa Bay’s first game was a pre-tournament international friendly versus Santos F.

C. of Jamaica, played on March 6 at the Bayfront Center. The Rowdies defeated their guests, who were playing indoor soccer for the first time, by the score of 11–4; the winner of the Eastern Regional would gain an automatic place in the Final Four. In their first tournament game the Rowdies battled back from a 4–1 deficit midway through the second period, to score eight straight goals and defeat Washington, 9–5; the following evening Tampa Bay had a much easier time in defeating the Boston Minutemen, 5–3, as they dictated play until the final minutes, when Boston scored two meaningless late goals. Those two victories left the Rowdies as the only undefeated team in the group, therefore champions of their region for the second straight year. Stewart Scullion was named Regional MVP, with Rodney Marsh and Arsene Auguste joining him on the All-Regional squad. In the semifinal Tampa Bay held a one-goal lead in the third period over the Dallas Tornado. With less than three minutes remaining the Rowdies broke open the match the by scoring three straight goals in a span of 81 seconds to defeated Dallas, 6–2, earn their second straight trip to the indoor finals.

On March 27, 1976, the Tampa Bay Rowdies played in their third championship final out of three total competitions in their brief history. This time they would face surprise finalists Rochester Lancers. For Rochester, goalkeeper Jim May was injured late in their semi-final upset win over San Jose, could not play in the final; the Rowdies were without Rodney Marsh for the contest, as he suffered a head injury in the semi-final. In a fought match Tampa Bay prevailed, 6–4, on three goals by Derek Smethurst, two by Clyde Best, one by Mark Lindsay. Smethurst’s game winning, third goal came with 3:18 left in the match. Best was named tournament MVP, with Smethurst and Stewart Scullion joining him on the All-Tournament squad. GP = Games Played, G = Goals, A = Assists, Pts = Points Note: GP = Games played.