SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Bolivia

After the fall of Tiwanaku Empire, the many Aymara Lake Titicaca were conquered by the Inca Empire. Prior to the Spanish conquest, the Andean province of Qullasuyu was a part of the Inca empire, while the northern and eastern lowlands were inhabited by independent nomadic tribes. Spanish conquistadors, arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During most of the Spanish colonial rule, Bolivia was known as Upper Peru and administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas. After the 1st call for independence in 1809, 16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Bolivian Republic, named for the Liberator Simón Bolívar, on August 6, 1825. Since Bolivia has endured regular periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of various provinces to its neighbors, such as Acre, parts of the Gran Chaco and its Pacific coast, making it a land-locked country. Cultures of indigenous peoples in Bolivia developed in the high altitude settings of altiplano with low oxygen levels, poor soils and extreme weather patterns.

The better suited lowlands were sparsely inhabited by hunter-gatherer societies while much of the pre-Columbian population was concentrated in altiplano valleys of Cochabamba and Chuquisaca. Potato was domesticated near lake Titicaca between 8000 and 5000 BC, quinoa some 3000–4000 years ago and production of copper began in 2000 BC. Llama and vicuña were domesticated and used for transport and clothing. Aymara people arrived in the region some 2000 years ago settling in Western Bolivia, Southern Peru and Northern Chile. Present-day Aymaras associate themselves with the advanced culture of Tiwanaku, which after 600 became an important regional power. According to early estimates, at its maximum extent, the city covered 6.5 square kilometers, had between 15,000 - 30,000 inhabitants. However, satellite imaging was used to map the extent of "flooded-raised fields" across the three primary valleys of Tiwanaku, arriving at population-carrying capacity estimates of anywhere between 285,000 and 1,482,000 people.

William H. Isbell states that "Tiahuanaco underwent a dramatic transformation between AD 600 and 700 that established new monumental standards for civic architecture and increased the resident population." Tiwanaku gained its power through the trade it implemented between all of the cities within its empire. After 950 a dramatic shift in climate occurred and there was a significant drop in precipitation for the Titicaca Basin. Tiwanaku disappeared around AD 1150 because food production collapses and could no longer sustain the large population; the land was not inhabited for many years after that. Between 1438 and 1527 the Inca empire embarked on a mass expansion, acquiring much of what is now western Bolivia under their 9th emperor, Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui, whose reign lasted from 1438 to 1471. Pachacuti Yupanqui was succeeded by his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui whose reign increased the Incan territory and lasted from 1471 to 1493. During the 15th century, the Incas conquered the region of Lake Titicaca and western Bolivia became a part of the Inca territory as province of Qullasuyu.

Francisco Pizarro, Diego de Almagro, Hernando de Luque led the Spanish discovery and conquest of the Inca empire. They first sailed south in 1524 along the Pacific coast from Panama to confirm the existence of a legendary land of gold called "Biru"; because the expanding Inca Empire was internally weak, the conquest was remarkably easy. After the Inca Emperor Huayna Capac died in 1527, his sons Huascar and Atahualpa fought over the succession. Although Atahualpa defeated his brother, he had not yet consolidated his power when the conquistadors arrived. Atahualpa did not attempt to defeat Pizarro when he arrived on the coast in 1532 because the Incan ruler was convinced that those who commanded the mountains controlled the coast. Atahualpa’s refusal to accept the permanent Spanish presence and to convert to Christianity led to the bloody Battle of Cajamarca on November 16, 1532. Pizarro killed Atahualpa's 12-man honor guard and took the Inca captive at the so-called ransom room. One year the Inca capital of Cuzco fell and was refounded as a new Spanish settlement.

Despite Pizarro's quick victory, Inca rebellions soon began and continued periodically throughout the colonial period. In 1537 Manco Inca, whom the Spanish had established as a puppet emperor, rebelled against the new rulers and restored a "neo-Inca" state; this state continued to challenge Spanish authority after the Spanish suppressed the revolt and beheaded Túpac Amaru in the public square of Cuzco in 1572. Revolts in the Bolivian highlands were organized by the elders of the community and remained local in nature, except for the great rebellion of Túpac Amaru II. During the first two decades of Spanish rule, the settlement of the Bolivian highlands — now known as Upper Peru or Real Audiencia of Charcas — was delayed by a civil war between the forces of Pizarro and Diego de Almagro; the two conquistadors had divided the Incan territory, with the north under the control of Pizarro and the south under that of Almagro. Fighting broke out in 1537. Pizarro defeated and executed Almagro in 1538, but was himself assassinated three years by former supporters of Almagro.

Pizarro's brother Gonzalo assumed control of Upper Peru but soon became embroiled in a rebellion against the Spanish crown. Only with the execution of Gonzalo Pizarro in 1548 did the Spanish crown succeed in reasserting its authority; the conquest and colonial rule were traumatic

Timeline of three longest spans

This is the timeline of the three longest man-made spans in the world, all categories, that at least have the strength to carry some persons. It can be the span of any type of bridge, aerial tramway, power line, structural ceiling or dome etc. In this timeline, only spans that were still standing in a particular year are considered for that year; this is more fair than a timeline of the records of all time, because the old figures might be incorrect. At the points when the old spans fall, new spans with more certain figures are allowed to appear in the timeline; this is a top-three list of existing longest spans per day. When several structures of the same length exist, the oldest is counted as the longest; some more rules for this timeline follow as: Only the length of the horizontal projection of the span, that is, the distance that can be measured on a map, counts. When the two supports have different heights above the sea level, the distance between them is longer than the horizontal projection of the distance, but this longer distance isn't counted.

This is because it is more difficult to build a 100-metre horizontal span than a 100 m span, tilted 45 degrees, as if it was the support for an escalator. The stress in the material is higher for the horizontal span, creating higher engineering difficulty, so only the length of the span perpendicular to the force of gravity is counted. For many structures in the timeline, it is not known if the stated length is the desired horizontal projected length, or the direct "laser beam" length. Spanning structures in water are included only if they would still be standing if the water were removed; the longest 5,376 m Ameralik Span and others have pylons that are not man-made. The lines are attached to small man-made pylons that in turn stand on the mountain, which forms the rest of the height of the pylons required for a span of that length. If the present man-made pylons were placed in a flat area, there would be no span, because the lines would touch the ground, it could be argued that this span should not appear in the timeline because the pylons are not man-made.

However, as the focus of the engineering design task here is not to make something, tall, but to make something, long, it is concluded that this type of span is enough man-made to be in this timeline. The spans of ancient structures are short, it would have been easy for somebody to tie a long rope between two poles and in this way create a long ancient span. However, the ancient people had no reason to do this, if they did, it is not documented and therefore not in this timeline. Only with the discovery of electricity and radio communication did people have a reason for tying a wire between two poles, thus creating the simplest form of long spans; the span of the Pantheon, Rome, is not 43.3 m because there is a hole at the top of 9.1 m, so the span has been reduced with the size of the hole to 34.2 m. The span of any structure is measured in the following way: Place the largest possible imaginary horizontal circular disk under or inside the structure touching any load-bearing pillars or walls, or parts used to stabilize the structure like wires.

The disk must not encircle any objects of this kind. At least one diameter of the disk have to be covered, rain-sheltered, by the structure; the span of the structure is diameter of the disk. Now, if the structure contains a hole at the center of the disk, as in the case of the Pantheon, the span is measured by using a second-largest possible imaginary horizontal circular disk, smaller than the first disk and encircled by it. At least one diameter of the second disk has to be covered by the structure; the span of the structure is diameter of the second disk. Applying this method of measurement to Pantheon gives the stated result, 34.2 m. The method works for many types of structures. Note: all information in this timeline has uncertainty. In the timeline above, some completion years are given; the following guesses should not be taken as definitive. List of spans List of longest suspension bridge spans List of longest cantilever bridges Arch bridge http://www.bridgemeister.com/index.htm http://en.structurae.de/index.cfm La Roche-Bernard Bridge at Structurae Port-Sainte-Marie Bridge http://www.bridgemeister.com/bridge.php?bid=1765 Philadelphia Footbridge http://www.bridgemeister.com/bridge.php?bid=20 https://web.archive.org/web/20080625153254/http://www.bhutanstudies.org.bt/admin/pubFiles/Chakzampa.pdf Chakzam/Iron Bridge p78, Tashigang Bridge p94, Phuntsholing Bridge p69 pt:Ponte do Porto, http://en.structurae.de/structures/data/index.cfm?id=s0020363

Troop 41

Troop 41 is an American hip hop ensemble from Raleigh, North Carolina founded in 2005. The group consists of three members: Lil Lee and Lil Inferno, their 2010 single, "Do the John Wall," was released by KAIRIZMIC Music, whose artist management and marketing pushed the song to chart as a top 100 digital single on iTunes and in Billboard Magazine, peaking at number 76 on the Billboard Hot 100. Do the John Wall was re-released on Universal Republic after garnering the group a major recording contract due to charting on iTunes and Billboard Magazine, receiving over ten million views on YouTube. Troop 41's Do the John Wall single was produced by Darius "DeeMoney Beatz" Lassiter, Executive Produced by Sigh Griffin; the song is based on a Kentucky-based dance, inspired by seeing NBA basketball player John Wall performing the dance. The group were described by SPIN as "a would-be Southern Pharcyde". Tristian Brown -, who graduated from Southeast Raleigh Magnet High School Lelynd Darkes, who graduated from Needham B.

Broughton High School Dakare Wilder, who graduated from William G. Enloe High SchoolAll three members graduated from John W. Ligon Middle School in Raleigh, North Carolina. There, they took. In the class, there were arguments about whether or not rap was considered poetry. Francis believed that it allowed them to write rap in his class. There, they got the inspiration to become professional rappers. In 2011, after their hit single, "Do the John Wall" came out, they came back to Ligon to give a private performance for the student body; the name, Troop 41, was derived from their ages at the time. By adding together their respective ages, they got the number 41. "Do the John Wall" is a hip-hop dance song by Troop 41. This song is based on the John Wall Dance, which came from Kentucky Wildcats/Washington Wizards player John Wall, it was released onto iTunes according to reports on May 26, 2010. Remix The remix of this song features Young Money rapper Lil Chuckee. Rankings It reached #76 on the Billboard Hot 100 during the week of January 11, 2011.

Young Scrap Troop 41 was featured on Universal Music rapper Young Scrap's song "Text Me" in 2010. DJ Troop 41's Official Tour DJ is DJ Bobby Drake, Also based out of NC