History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became autonomous, was proclaimed a kingdom in 1377; the Ottoman Empire lasted over 400 years. They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875; the conflict forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878.

The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, removed any trace of Bosnian identity. The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia, which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 2 million refugees. Bosnia has been inhabited since Neolithic times. In the late Bronze Age, the Neolithic population was replaced by more warlike Indo-European tribes known as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th and 3rd century BCE displaced many Illyrian tribes from their former lands, but some Celtic and Illyrian tribes mixed. Concrete historical evidence for this period is scarce, but overall it appears that the region was populated by a number of different peoples speaking distinct languages. Christianity had arrived in the region by the end of the 1st century, numerous artifacts and objects from the time testify to this.

Following events from the years 337 and 395 when the Empire split and Pannonia were included in the Western Roman Empire. The region was conquered by the Ostrogoths in 455, further exchanged hands between the Alans and Huns in the years to follow. By the 6th century, Emperor Justinian had re-conquered the area and large parts of the former Western Empire for the Eastern Roman Empire with its capital in Constantinople; the Slavs, a migratory people from southeastern Europe, were allied by the Eurasian Avars in the 6th century, together they invaded the Eastern Roman Empire in the 6th and 7th centuries, settling in what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina and the surrounding lands. More South Slavs came in a second wave, according to some scholars were invited by Emperor Heraclius to drive the Avars from Dalmatia on the coast of the Adriatic Sea. Around this time the Eastern Romans speaking Latin were evolving into what was called in centuries as the Byzantine Empire, speaking the Greek. Modern knowledge of Bosnia in the western Balkans during the Dark Ages is patchy.

Upon the looter invasions by the Avars and Slavs from 6th-9th century, bringing Slavic languages, both gave way to feudalism only with the might by the Frankish penetrating into the region in the late 9th century. It was around this time that the Bosnians were Christianized. Bosnia, due to its geographic position and terrain, was one of the last areas to go through this process, which originated from the urban centers along the Dalmatian coast. In addition to the Slavic-speaking population, a good number of romanized people remained in south Bosnia by the year 1000. Speaking a Balkan Romance language, having retreated into mountainous areas and adopted a pastoralist way of life, they became known as Vlachs. With time they assimilated, though maintaining specific customs, the word Vlach came to indicate any shepherd. Being well-versed with horse breeding, Vlachs came to dominate trade and caravan from coastal merchant town towards the interior, growing prosperous and coming to dominate entire regions of Hum, thus merging in Bosnia's medieval feudal society.

It is only from the 9th century that Frankish and Byzantine sources begin to mention early Slavic polities in the region. In this regard, the earliest acknowledged reference to Bosnia dates from the 10th century De Administrando Imperio written by Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, during which period Bosnia is a part of the short-lived Serbian state of Časlav, after whose death in battle in about 960, much of Bosnia finds itself incorporated into the Croatian state of Krešimir II. Shortly thereafter, in 997, Samuel of Bulgaria marches through Bosnia and asserts his over-lordship in parts of it, only to be defeated by the Byzantine Empire in 1018 which annexes Bulgaria and asserts its suzerainty in Bosnia; this lasted until in the century when some parts of Bosnia are incorporated into Croatia and others into Duklja from which the latter Bosnia appears to have seceded in about 1101, upon which Bosnia's bans tried to rule for themselves. However, they all too found themselves in a tug-of-war between Hungary and the Byzantine Empire.

In the year of 1137, Hungary annexes most of Bosnia briefly losing her in 1167 to the Byzantine Empire before regaining her in 1180. Thus, prior to 1180 and

The Hyatt 100

The Hyatt 100 are a group of housekeepers fired from three Boston-area Hyatt hotels on August 31, 2009. The layoffs drew widespread condemnation from politicians and other groups. On August 31, 2009, 98 housekeepers at three Boston-area Hyatt hotels were fired and replaced by workers from a Georgia-based temporary agency; the fired housekeepers, some of whom had worked for the Hyatt for more than 20 years, were given no advance notice of the layoffs. They claim that they were asked to train the workers that replaced them under the pretense that these workers could fill in for them when they were sick or on vacation; the housekeepers earned around $14–16 per hour, while the replacement workers are paid $8 per hour. The layoffs generated widespread public outrage. Rallies in support of the fired housekeepers were attended by hundreds of protesters. Governor Deval Patrick of Massachusetts called for state employees to boycott of the Hyatt in response to the layoffs, Representative Michael Capuano criticized the layoffs Other organizations and groups boycotting the Hyatt include the Jewish Labor Committee, the faculty of Emerson College, the Boston Taxi Drivers Association.

In December 2009, Massachusetts Jobs With Justice voted the Hyatt the Massachusetts Scrooge of the Year in response to the Hyatt layoffs. Unite Here: Bring Back the Hyatt 100

Don Mankiewicz

Don Martin Mankiewicz was an American screenwriter and novelist best known for his novel, Trial. Born in Berlin, Germany, he was the son of Sara and the screenwriter Herman J. Mankiewicz and brother of journalist Frank Mankiewicz, he graduated from Columbia College of Columbia University in 1942. His 1955 novel Trial was made into a film of the same name, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for I Want to Live!. Among his many television credits are Ironside, for which he wrote the pilot, the Star Trek episode "Court Martial", the mini-series adaptation of President John F. Kennedy's book, Profiles in Courage. Mankiewicz married Ilene Korsen on March 26, 1946 and divorced her in 1972, he married Carol Bell Guidi on July 1, 1972. Mankiewicz had 2 children with Ilene, he had two children with Carol. His son is John Mankiewicz. Jane is a fiction writer published in the New Yorker. Mankiewicz died on April 25, 2015 at his home in Monrovia, California at the age of 93 of congestive heart failure.

He is survived by his wife of his 4 children. See How They Run Trial It Only Hurts a Minute Mankiewicz family Don Mankiewicz on IMDb Don M. Mankiewicz at Memory Alpha Obituary