SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Brazil

The history of Brazil starts with indigenous people in Brazil. Europeans arrived in Brazil at the opening of the 16th century; the first European to claim sovereignty over Indigenous lands part of what is now the territory of the Federative Republic of Brazil on the continent of South America was Pedro Álvares Cabral on April 22, 1500 under the sponsorship of the Kingdom of Portugal. From the 16th to the early 19th century, Brazil was a part of the Portuguese Empire; the country expanded south along the coast and west along the Amazon and other inland rivers from the original 15 donatary captaincy colonies established on the northeast Atlantic coast east of the Tordesillas Line of 1494 that divided the Portuguese domain to the east from the Spanish domain to the west, although Brazil was at one time a colony of Spain. The country's borders were only finalized in the early 20th century. On September 7, 1822, the country declared its independence from Portugal and it became the Empire of Brazil.

A military coup in 1889 established the First Brazilian Republic. The country has seen two dictatorship periods: the first during Vargas Era and the second during the military rule under Brazilian military government; some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. When Portuguese explorers arrived in Brazil, the region was inhabited by hundreds of different types of Jiquabu tribes, "the earliest going back at least 10,000 years in the highlands of Minas Gerais"; the dating of the origins of the first inhabitants, who were called "Indians" by the Portuguese, is still a matter of dispute among archaeologists. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere, radiocarbon-dated 8,000 years old, has been excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil, near Santarém, providing evidence to overturn the assumption that the tropical forest region was too poor in resources to have supported a complex prehistoric culture".

The current most accepted view of anthropologists and geneticists is that the early tribes were part of the first wave of migrant hunters who came into the Americas from Asia, either by land, across the Bering Strait, or by coastal sea routes along the Pacific, or both. The Andes and the mountain ranges of northern South America created a rather sharp cultural boundary between the settled agrarian civilizations of the west coast and the semi-nomadic tribes of the east, who never developed written records or permanent monumental architecture. For this reason little is known about the history of Brazil before 1500. Archaeological remains indicate a complex pattern of regional cultural developments, internal migrations, occasional large state-like federations. At the time of European discovery, the territory of current day Brazil had as many as 2,000 tribes; the indigenous peoples were traditionally semi-nomadic tribes who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture. When the Portuguese arrived in 1500, the Natives were living on the coast and along the banks of major rivers.

Tribal warfare and the pursuit of brazilwood for its treasured red dye convinced the Portuguese that they should Christianize the natives. But the Portuguese, like the Spanish in their South American possessions, had brought diseases with them, against which many Natives were helpless due to lack of immunity. Measles, tuberculosis and influenza killed tens of thousands of indigenous people; the diseases spread along the indigenous trade routes, whole tribes were annihilated without coming in direct contact with Europeans. Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó island at the mouth of the Amazon River. Archeologists have found sophisticated pottery in their excavations on the island; these pieces are large, elaborately painted and incised with representations of plants and animals. These provided the first evidence that a complex society had existed on Marajó. Evidence of mound building further suggests that well-populated and sophisticated settlements developed on this island, as only such settlements were believed capable of such extended projects as major earthworks.

The extent, level of complexity, resource interactions of the Marajoara culture have been disputed. Working in the 1950s in some of her earliest research, American Betty Meggers suggested that the society migrated from the Andes and settled on the island. Many researchers believed that the Andes were populated by Paleoindian migrants from North America who moved south after being hunters on the plains. In the 1980s, another American archeologist, Anna Curtenius Roosevelt, led excavations and geophysical surveys of the mound Teso dos Bichos, she concluded. The pre-Columbian culture of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population as large as 100,000 people; the Native Americans of the Amazon rainforest may have used their method of developing and working in Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large-scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms. There are many theories regarding, the first European to set foot on the land now called Brazil.

Besides the accepted view of Cabral's discovery, some say that it was Duarte Pacheco Pereira between November and December 1498 and some others say that it was first encountered by Vicente Yáñez Pinzón, a Spanish navigator who had accompanied Columbus in his first voyage of discovery to the Americas, ha

Manuel Pablo

Manuel Pablo García Díaz, known as Manuel Pablo, is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a right back, is the assistant manager of Deportivo Fabril. He played most of his professional career with Deportivo, appearing in nearly 450 official matches and notably winning the 2000 national championship. With stamina as his main asset, he represented Spain on 13 occasions. Born in Arucas, Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Manuel Pablo was only 22 when he joined Deportivo de La Coruña from hometown's UD Las Palmas in the summer of 1998, being signed together with Argentine Turu Flores, he made his La Liga debut on 15 November 1998 in a 2–2 home draw against Deportivo Alavés, but faced serious competition from Armando in his first season, appearing in just 14 league matches. Manuel Pablo played 74 games from 1999 to 2001, was a vital part of Depor's defense as the Galicians were crowned national champions in 2000 for the first time in their history, his performances earned him a debut with the Spanish national team on 16 August 2000, in a 1–4 away friendly defeat to Germany.

In his fourth season at A Coruña, disaster struck: on 30 September 2001, Manuel Pablo sustained an horrific tibia injury during the Galician derby against Celta de Vigo, in a televised match, after an unlucky tackle by Everton Giovanella. He missed the rest of the campaign. One year Manuel Pablo returned, playing the full 90 minutes against CD Corralejo in a Copa del Rey tie. On 6 October 2002 he was handed his league return by coach Javier Irureta, coming out as a late substitute in the 0–2 home loss to Racing de Santander. In 2003–04's closing stages Manuel Pablo proved he was recovered, as displayed in an excellent individual display on 7 April 2004 in a 4–0 second leg quarterfinal crushing of A. C. Milan in the UEFA Champions League. From the 2004–05 season onwards, he was the undisputed right-back at Riazor. In the following two seasons, Manuel Pablo remained first-choice at his position, although he was challenged by younger Laure in 2008–09. In early May 2009, after lengthy negotiations, the 33-year-old renewed his Depor contract in a 2+1 deal.

From 2009 to 2015, Manuel Pablo still managed to appear in a combined 126 league games, being relegated twice from the top flight and achieving as many promotions. On 16 June 2015, he extended his link for a further year. On 7 July 2016, after only five competitive appearances during the season, 40-year-old Manuel Pablo retired. Deportivo La Liga: 1999–2000 Supercopa de España: 2000 Segunda División: 2011–12 UEFA Intertoto Cup: 2008 Deportivo official profile Manuel Pablo at BDFutbol Manuel Pablo at National-Football-Teams.com Manuel Pablo – FIFA competition record

Terry Teruo Kawamura

Terry Teruo Kawamura was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the Medal of Honor for his actions in the Vietnam War. Terry Kawamura joined the Army in Oahu, Hawaii in 1968, by March 20, 1969, was serving as a Corporal in the 173rd Engineer Company, 173rd Airborne Brigade. On that day, at Camp Radcliff, Republic of Vietnam, Kawamura smothered an enemy-thrown explosive with his body, sacrificing his life to protect those around him. Terry Kawamura, aged 19 at his death, was buried in Mililani Memorial Park, Hawaii. Corporal Kawamura's official Medal of Honor citation reads: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Kawamura distinguished himself by heroic action while serving as a member of the 173d Engineer Company. An enemy demolition team opened fire with automatic weapons. Disregarding the intense fire, Cpl. Kawamura ran for his weapon. At that moment, a violent explosion stunned the occupants of the room. Cpl.

Kawamura jumped to his feet, secured his weapon and, as he ran toward the door to return the enemy fire, he observed that another explosive charge had been thrown through the hole in the roof to the floor. He realized that 2 stunned fellow soldiers were in great peril and shouted a warning. Although in a position to escape, Cpl. Kawamura unhesitatingly wheeled around and threw himself on the charge. In disregarding his safety, Cpl. Kawamura prevented serious death to several members of his unit; the extraordinary courage and selflessness displayed by Cpl. Kawamura are in the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, the U. S. Army; the gate connecting Wheeler Army Airfield with Mililani is named in honor of Corporal Kawamura. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Vietnam War Kawamura "Terry Teruo Kawamura". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2007-07-12. "Vietnam War Medal of Honor recipients".

Medal of Honor citations. United States Army Center of Military History. February 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-12