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History of Cambodia

The history of Cambodia, a country in mainland Southeast Asia, can be traced back to Indian civilization Detailed records of a political structure on the territory of what is now Cambodia first appear in Chinese annals in reference to Funan, a polity that encompassed the southernmost part of the Indochinese peninsula during the 1st to 6th centuries. Centered at the lower Mekong, Funan is noted as the oldest regional Hindu culture, which suggests prolonged socio-economic interaction with maritime trading partners of the Indosphere in the west. By the 6th century a civilisation, called Chenla or Zhenla in Chinese annals replaced Funan, as it controlled larger, more undulating areas of Indochina and maintained more than a singular centre of power; the Khmer Empire was established by the early 9th century. Sources refer here to a mythical initiation and consecration ceremony to claim political legitimacy by founder Jayavarman II at Mount Kulen in 802 CE. A succession of powerful sovereigns, continuing the Hindu devaraja cult tradition, reigned over the classical era of Khmer civilization until the 11th century.

A new dynasty of provincial origin introduced Buddhism, which according to some scholars resulted in royal religious discontinuities and general decline. The royal chronology ends in the 14th century. Great achievements in administration, architecture, logistics, urban planning and the arts are testimony to a creative and progressive civilisation - in its complexity a cornerstone of Southeast Asian cultural legacy; the decline continued through a transitional period of 100 years followed by the Middle Period of Cambodian history called the Dark ages of Cambodia, beginning in the mid 15th century. Although the Hindu cults had by been all but replaced, the monument sites at the old capital remained an important spiritual centre, yet since the mid 15th century the core population moved to the east and – with brief exceptions – settled at the confluence of the Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers at Chaktomuk and Oudong. Maritime trade was the basis for a prosperous 16th century. But, as a result foreigners – Muslim Malays and Cham, Christian European adventurers and missionaries – disturbed and influenced government affairs.

Ambiguous fortunes, a robust economy on the one hand and a disturbed culture and compromised royalty on the other were constant features of the Longvek era. By the 15th century, the Khmers' traditional neighbours, the Mon people in the west and the Cham people in the east had been pushed aside or replaced by the resilient Siamese/Thai and Annamese/Vietnamese, respectively; these powers had perceived and followed the imperative of controlling the lower Mekong basin as the key to control all Indochina. A weak Khmer kingdom only encouraged the strategists in Ayutthaya and in Huế. Attacks on and conquests of Khmer royal residences left sovereigns without a ceremonial and legitimate power base. Interference in succession and marriage policies added to the decay of royal prestige. Oudong was established in 1601 as the last royal residence of the Middle Period; the 19th-century arrival of technologically more advanced and ambitious European colonial powers with concrete policies of global control put an end to regional feuds and as Siam/Thailand, although humiliated and on the retreat, escaped colonisation as a buffer state, Vietnam was to be the focal point of French colonial ambition.

Cambodia, although neglected, had entered the Indochinese Union as a perceived entity and was capable to carry and reclaim its identity and integrity into modernity. After 80 years of colonial hibernation, the brief episode of Japanese occupation during World War II, that coincided with the investiture of king Sihanouk was the opening act for the irreversible process towards re-emancipation and modern Cambodian history; the Kingdom of Cambodia, independent since 1953, struggled to remain neutral in a world shaped by polarisation of the nuclear powers USA and Soviet Union. As the Indochinese war escalates, Cambodia becomes involved, the Khmer Republic is one of the results in 1970, another is civil war. 1975, abandoned and in the hands of the Khmer Rouge, Cambodia endures its darkest hour – Democratic Kampuchea and its long aftermath of Vietnamese occupation, the People's Republic of Kampuchea and the UN Mandate towards Modern Cambodia since 1993. Radiocarbon dating of a cave at Laang Spean in Battambang Province, northwest Cambodia confirmed the presence of Hoabinhian stone tools from 6000–7000 BCE and pottery from 4200 BCE.

Starting in 2009 archaeological research of the Franco-Cambodian Prehistoric Mission has documented a complete cultural sequence from 71.000 years BP to the Neolithic period in the cave. Finds since 2012 lead to the common interpretation, that the cave contains the archaeological remains of a first occupation by hunter and gatherer groups, followed by Neolithic people with developed hunting strategies and stone tool making techniques, as well as artistic pottery making and design, with elaborate social, cultural and exequial practices. Skulls and human bones found at Samrong Sen in Kampong Chhnang Province date from 1500 BCE. Heng Sophady has drawn comparisons between Samrong Sen and the circular earthwork sites of eastern Cambodia; these people may have migrated from South-eastern China to the Indochinese Peninsula. Scholars trace the first cultivation of rice and the first bronze making in Southeast Asia to these people.2010 Examination of skeletal material from graves at Phum Snay in north-west Cambodia revealed an exceptionally high number of injuries to the head to have been caused by interpersonal violence.

The graves contai

Danilo (footballer, born April 1991)

Danilo Lopes Cezario known as Danilo, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a forward for Clube Atlético Juventus. A graduate of the youth setup of Santos Futebol Clube, Danilo started his senior professional career with Clube Atlético Penapolense in 2012. In the following years, he represented Clube Recreativo e Atlético Catalano and Associação Atlética Anapolina. While playing for the latter, he managed to score six goals in the Campeonato Goiano competition. On 29 April 2014, he signed with top tier club Goiás Esporte Clube. On 14 May, he scored his first goal for the club in a 2–0 victory over Botafogo. On 27 August 2015, Danilo was loaned to second tier club Paraná till the end of December 2015. On 9 November 2017, he switched to the Indian Super League and signed for NorthEast United FC as a replacement of fellow Brazilian Wellington who expressed his inability to play for the club due to personal reasons, he scored his first goal for the club in a 2–0 victory over Delhi Dynamos FC on 2 December.

Danilo at Soccerway

Adrian Jackson (orienteer)

Adrian Jackson is an Australian mountain bike orienteering competitor and World Champion. He has won individual gold medals at the 2004, 2008, 2009 and 2010 World MTB Orienteering Championships. Adrian is a member of the Mérida Flight Centre Racing Team, he rides an Big. Nine and an Scultura EVO SLX Team, he is an elite mountain biker in the Australian domestic racing scene in the cross country, enduro and stage racing format events. In addition, he has a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering/Aerospace Technology from Monash University and a Doctorate of Philosophy from University of New South Wales, he is known as "The Batsman" to an infamous group of road cyclists in Melbourne - The Kings Men Jackson competed at the 2004 World MTB Orienteering Championships in Ballarat, where he won his first world championship gold medal by winning the sprint, ahead of Alain Berger from Switzerland. He won a bronze medal in the long distance, a bronze medal with the Australian relay team. At the 2005 World Championships in Banska Bystrica he won a bronze medal in the long distance, placed eighth in the middle distance, seventh with the Australian relay team.

At the 2006 Championships in Joensuu he placed sixth in the long distance and seventh in the middle distance. At the Oceania MTB Orienteering Championships in Victoria, Australia in 2007 he won gold medals in both the sprint, the middle distance and the long distance. At the 2008 World MTB Orienteering Championships in Ostróda, he won a gold medal in the middle distance, placed sixth in the sprint, placed sixth in the long distance, eleventh in the relay. In Ben Shemen in 2009 he became world champion in both the sprint, ahead of Lasse Brun Pedersen, in the long distance, ahead of Ruslan Gritsan, placed fifth in the middle distance. At the 2010 World Championships in Montalegre he won a gold medal in the sprint, ahead of Tõnis Erm, a silver medal in the middle distance behind Samuli Saarela, a silver medal in the long distance behind Anton Foliforov