SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Canada

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, styles of social organization; some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archeological investigations. Starting in the late 15th century and British expeditions explored and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present-day Canada; the colony of New France was claimed in 1534 with permanent settlements beginning in 1608. France ceded nearly all its North American possessions to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Years' War; the now British Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 and reunified in 1841. In 1867, the Province of Canada was joined with two other British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through Confederation, forming a self-governing entity named Canada.

The new country expanded by incorporating other parts of British North America, finishing with Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949. Although responsible government had existed in Canada since 1848, Britain continued to set its foreign and defence policies until the end of the First World War; the passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 recognized that Canada had become co-equal with the United Kingdom. After the Constitution was patriated in 1982, the final vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament were removed. Canada consists of ten provinces and three territories and is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. Over centuries, elements of Indigenous, French and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture, influenced by its linguistic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multilateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically.

Archeological and Indigenous genetic evidence indicate that North and South America were the last continents into which humans migrated. During the Wisconsin glaciation, 50,000–17,000 years ago, falling sea levels allowed people to move across the Bering land bridge, from Siberia into northwest North America. At that point, they were blocked by the Laurentide Ice Sheet that covered most of Canada, confining them to Alaska and the Yukon for thousands of years; the exact dates and routes of the peopling of the Americas are the subject of an ongoing debate. By 16,000 years ago the glacial melt allowed people to move by land south and east out of Beringia, into Canada; the Haida Gwaii islands, Old Crow Flats, the Bluefish Caves contain some of the earliest Paleo-Indian archeological sites in Canada. Ice Age hunter-gatherers of this period left lithic flake fluted stone tools and the remains of large butchered mammals; the North American climate stabilized around 8000 BCE. Climatic conditions were similar to modern patterns.

Most population groups during the Archaic periods were still mobile hunter-gatherers. However, individual groups started to focus on resources available to them locally; the Woodland cultural period dates from about 2000 BCE to 1000 CE and is applied to the Ontario and Maritime regions. The introduction of pottery distinguishes the Woodland culture from the previous Archaic-stage inhabitants; the Laurentian-related people of Ontario manufactured the oldest pottery excavated to date in Canada. The Hopewell tradition is an Indigenous culture that flourished along American rivers from 300 BCE to 500 CE. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell Exchange System connected cultures and societies to the peoples on the Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Canadian expression of the Hopewellian peoples encompasses the Point Peninsula and Laurel complexes; the eastern woodland areas of what became Canada were home to the Iroquoian peoples. The Algonquian language is believed to have originated in the western plateau of Idaho or the plains of Montana and moved with migrants eastward extending in various manifestations all the way from Hudson Bay to what is today Nova Scotia in the east and as far south as the Tidewater region of Virginia.

Speakers of eastern Algonquian languages included the Mi'kmaq and Abenaki of the Maritime region of Canada and the extinct Beothuk of Newfoundland. The Ojibwa and other Anishinaabe speakers of the central Algonquian languages retain an oral tradition of having moved to their lands around the western and central Great Lakes from the sea the Atlantic coast. According to oral tradition, the Ojibwa formed the Council of Three Fires in 796 CE with the Odawa and the Potawatomi; the Five Nations of the Iroquois were centred from at least 1000 CE in northern New York, but their influence extended into what is now southern Ontario and the Montreal area of modern Quebec. They spoke varieties of Iroquoian languages; the Iroquois Confederacy, according to oral tradition, was formed in 1142 CE. In addition, there were other Iroquoian-speaking peoples in the area, including the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, the Erie, others. On the Great Plains, the Cree or Nēhilawē depended on the vast herds

Gymnasia Realit

The Gimnasia Realit or of Gimnasia Realit E. Karary is an Israeli high school, named in honor of its first principal Eliezer Karary, it was established in 1939 in Rishon LeZion at the time of the 1936–39 Arab revolt during the Mandatory Palestine. It was the first in Rishon LeZion; the school's first learning programs were devoted to humanities, in contrast with the present emphasis on the sciences, such as biotechnology and the TG classes. The Gimnasia's first location was on Herzl street in a three-room apartment and only 9 students graduated in its first year; the second housing of the school was on Abrahmovich neighbourhood, until the last move to Smilchansky street, where it is located as of 2013. Eliezer Karary - 1939-1970 Gamliel Segal - 1970-1997 Shosh Winter - 1997-2012 Dalia Yeshaya - 2012-2018 Iris Ron - 2018-current Tal Dunne, Welsh-born Israeli professional basketball player for Ironi Nes Ziona Official website

Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai Congress 2006

The second Movement for Democratic Change – Tsvangirai congress was held in Harare on 18 March 2006. According to constitution, the functions and Powers of Congress shall be: to formulate the policies and principles of the Party. To review, modify, alter or rescind any decision taken by any organ orofficial of the party. Morgan Tsvangirai was elected President unanimously, Hon. Thokozani Khuphe was elected for Vice President replacing Gibson Sibanda. In his acceptance speech Tsvangirai said:"Faced with a ruthless dictator, the temptation among the people is to look inwards, to take cover within our individual self and to insulate against collective action; that temptation can promote fear. Fear is sign of weakness. Fear is a sin. With hope and courage, we must overcome fear. I feel I must record my unhappiness and sorrow at the news of a number of pensioners, the vulnerable and the weak that lost their lives because of lack of support; the dictatorship has demolished their coping mechanisms, their last lines of defence and thrown them off balance.

Through propaganda and a pliant media, the people of Zimbabwe must exercise extreme care and caution. The regime wants you to give up." Movement for Democratic Change Morgan Tsvangirai 44 Harvest House MDC web site Zimbabwe Opposition leader and champion of democratic reform speaks at University of Melbourne