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History of Chile

The territory of Chile has been populated since at least 3000 BC. By the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors began to subdue and colonize the region of present-day Chile, the territory was a colony between 1540 and 1818, when it gained independence from Spain; the country's economic development was successively marked by the export of first agricultural produce saltpeter and copper. The wealth of raw materials led to an economic upturn, but led to dependency, wars with neighboring states. Chile was governed during most of its first 150 years of independence by different forms of restricted government, where the electorate was vetted and controlled by an elite. Failure to address the economic and social increases and increasing political awareness of the less-affluent population, as well as indirect intervention and economic funding to the main political groups by the CIA, as part of the Cold War, led to a political polarization under Socialist President Salvador Allende; this in turn resulted in the 1973 coup d'état and the military dictatorship of General Augusto Pinochet, whose subsequent 17-year regime was responsible for both numerous human rights violations and deep market-oriented economic reforms.

In 1990, Chile made a peaceful transition to democracy. About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in the fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present day Chile. Pre-Hispanic Chile was home to over a dozen different Amerindian societies; the current prevalent theories are that the initial arrival of humans to the continent took place either along the Pacific coast southwards in a rather rapid expansion long preceding the Clovis culture, or trans-Pacific migration. These theories are backed by findings in the Monte Verde archaeological site, which predates the Clovis site by thousands of years. Specific early human settlement sites from the early human habitation in Chile include the Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Crater's lava tube. Despite such diversity, it is possible to classify the indigenous people into three major cultural groups: the northern people, who developed rich handicrafts and were influenced by pre-Incan cultures. No elaborate, sedentary civilization reigned supreme.

The Araucanians, a fragmented society of hunters and farmers, constituted the largest Native American group in Chile. A mobile people who engaged in trade and warfare with other indigenous groups, they lived in scattered family clusters and small villages. Although the Araucanians had no written language, they did use a common tongue; those in what became central Chile were more settled and more to use irrigation. Those in the south combined slash-and-burn agriculture with hunting. Of the three Araucanian groups, the one that mounted the fiercest resistance to the attempts at seizure of their territory were the Mapuche, meaning "people of the land." The Inca Empire extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, where they collected tribute from small groups of fishermen and oasis farmers but were not able to establish a strong cultural presence in the area. As the Spaniards would after them, the Incas encountered fierce resistance and so were unable to exert control in the south. During their attempts at conquest in 1460 and again in 1491, the Incas established forts in the Central Valley of Chile, but they could not colonize the region.

The Mapuche fought against his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river, which subsequently became the boundary between the Incan empire and the Mapuche lands until the arrival of the Spaniards. Scholars speculate that the total Araucanian population may have numbered 1.5 million at most when the Spaniards arrived in the 1530s. During the conquest, the Araucanians added horses and European weaponry to their arsenal of clubs and bows and arrows, they became adept at raiding Spanish settlements and, albeit in declining numbers, managed to hold off the Spaniards and their descendants until the late 19th century. The Araucanians' valor inspired the Chileans to mythologize them as the nation's first national heroes, a status that did nothing, however, to elevate the wretched living standard of their descendants; the Chilean Patagonia located south of the Calle-Calle River in Valdivia was composed of many tribes Tehuelches, who were considered giants by Spaniards during Magellan's voyage of 1520.

The name Patagonia comes from the word patagón used by Magellan to describe the native people whom his expedition thought to be giants. It is now believed the Patagons were Tehuelches with an average height of 1.80 m compared to the 1.55 m average for Spaniards of the time. The Argentine portion of Patagonia includes the provinces of Neuquén, Río Negro and Santa Cruz, as well as the eastern portion of Tierra del Fuego archipelago; the Argentine politico-economic Patagonic Region includes the Province of La Pampa. The Chilean part of Patagonia embraces the southern part of Valdivia, Los Lagos in Lake Llanquihue, Chiloé, Puerto Montt and the Archaeological site of Monte Verde the fiords and islands south to the regions of Aisén and Magallanes, including the west side of Tierra del Fuego and Cap

Tilo Gutzeit

Tilo Gutzeit is a German figure skater who represented West Germany in competition. He is the 1955 German national champion, he represented the United Team of Germany at the 1956 Winter Olympics, where he placed 10th, at the 1960 Winter Olympics, where he placed 9th. He represented the club Düsseldorfer EG in national level competition; the results of the 1955 German Championships were miscalculated. Due to this Tilo Gutzeit received only the silver medal there and 12-year-old Manfred Schnelldorfer was announced as German Champion. Several months after these championships, Werner Rittberger, a judge at these championships, recalculated the results; the results were corrected and the medals were physically exchanged. Tilo Gutzeit was a potential skating partner for pair skater Marika Kilius, she had to split from Franz Ningel due to her height. However, Marika Kilius decided for Hans-Jürgen Bäumler. Sports-reference profile ISU result lists Files of the DEU

Ollie Matson

Ollie Genoa Matson II was an American Olympic medal winning sprinter and professional American football running back who played in the National Football League from 1952 to 1966. Drafted into the NFL by the Chicago Cardinals, Matson was traded to the Los Angeles Rams for nine players following the 1958 season. Matson was named to the Pro Bowl six times during the course of his career and was elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1972. Ollie Matson graduated from George Washington High School in San Francisco in 1948. Matson attended the City College of San Francisco prior to transferring to the University of San Francisco. While in school, Matson became a member of Kappa Alpha Psi fraternity. In 1951, Matson's senior year at USF, he led the nation in rushing yardage and touchdowns en route to leading the Dons to an undefeated season, he finished ninth in Heisman Trophy balloting that year. Despite its 9-0 record, the 1951 San Francisco team was not invited to a bowl game, it was reported that the Orange and Gator Bowls—all hosted in the Deep South—did not consider inviting any teams that had African American players, USF refused to play without its two African-American members.

Matson was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame in 1976. Prior to joining the National Football League in 1952, Matson competed in track and field as part of the United States Olympic Team in the 1952 Summer Olympics at Helsinki, Finland. Matson won a bronze medal in the 400-meter run and a silver medal as part of the United States 4x400-meter relay team. Ollie Matson was drafted in the first round of the 1952 NFL draft by the Chicago Cardinals, third pick overall, he went on to share 1952 Rookie of the Year honors with Hugh McElhenny of the San Francisco 49ers. Matson missed the entire 1953 season while serving in the United States Army. During his year of service, he was named the MVP of the All-Army football team. During the 1957 season, Matson was used extensively as a wide receiver by Chicago Cardinals head coach Ray Richards. Matson's productivity at the position was questioned in the wake of the team's 3 win, 9 loss finish, with some observers arguing that Matson's effectiveness as a running back was diminished by such use.

New Cardinals head coach for 1958 Frank "Pop" Ivy took strong exception to such criticism of Matson lining up as a wide out, declaring: "I have heard people say that the Cards stuck Matson out there on the flank as a'decoy' on pass plays, forgot about him. That is absurd, he was sent out as flanker with the idea of throwing to him. But most opponents feared him so much, they watched him just as when he lines up as running back. They'd double team him if he were sitting up in the grandstand eating hot dogs, just to make sure." Matson finished the aforementioned 1957 campaign as the NFL's sixth most prolific running back, with 577 yards gained in 134 carries, for a 4.3 yard average, with 6 touchdowns. To this he added 20 catches for 3 touchdowns through the air. Following the 1958 season, Matson was traded by the Cardinals to the league's marquee franchise, the Los Angeles Rams, for nine players. Matson would play for the Detroit Lions and the Philadelphia Eagles, earning Pro Bowl honors six times in his career.

When Matson retired in 1966, his 12,799 career all-purpose yards were second only to Jim Brown. Matson was inducted to the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1972, he married his wife Mary, whom he met when both were San Francisco teenagers in the mid-1940s, in 1952. He and Mary lived in the same Los Angeles home from the time he played for the Los Angeles Rams until his death. In his years Matson suffered from dementia, linked to Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a progressive degenerative disease, diagnosed post-mortem in individuals with a history of multiple concussions and other forms of head injury. According to his son, Ollie Matson, Jr. due to his degenerative brain disease Matson would wash the family's four cars daily and barbecue chicken at 6:30 am during his years. According to his nephew, Matson hadn't spoken in the four years prior to his passing. On February 19, 2011, Ollie Matson died of dementia complications surrounded by family at his home in Los Angeles, California. List of college football yearly rushing leaders List of NCAA major college football yearly scoring leaders John Eisenberg, That First Season:: How Vince Lombardi Took the Worst Team in the NFL and Set It on the Path to Glory.

New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co. 2009. Ollie Matson at the Pro Football Hall of Fame Ollie Matson at the College Football Hall of Fame Career statistics and player information from NFL.com · Pro-Football-Reference