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History of Colombia

The history of Colombia includes the settlements and society by indigenous peoples, most notably, the Muisca Confederation, Quimbaya Civilization, Tairona Chiefdoms. Independence from Spain was won in 1819. What is now Colombia and Panama emerged as the Republic of New Granada; the new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Since the 1960s, the country has suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict, which escalated in the 1990s, but decreased from 2005 onward; the legacy of Colombia's history has resulted in one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world giving rise to a rich cultural heritage. Pre-Columbian From 12,000 years BP onwards, hunter-gatherer societies existed near present-day Bogotá, they traded with one another and with cultures living in the Magdalena River valley. Due to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and the Amazon basin.

The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza archaeological site and El Totumo archaeological site in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga archaeological site and other sites, traces from the Archaic period in South America have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto archaeological site, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 10,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Tairona, Zenú, San Agustín, Urabá became skilled in farming and metalcraft.

The Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation. The Muisca had one of the most developed political systems in South America, surpassed only by the Incas, they farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated Andes mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Central Ranges. The Incas expanded their empire on the southwest part of the country. Colombia's indigenous culture evolved from three main groups—the Quimbaya, who inhabited the western slopes of the Cordillera Central; when the Spanish arrived in 1509, they found a flourishing and heterogeneous Amerindian population that numbered between 1.6 million and 7 million, belonged to several hundred tribes, spoke mutually unintelligible dialects. The two most advanced cultures of Amerindian peoples at the time were the Muisca and Taironas, who belonged to the Chibcha group and were skilled in farming and metalcraft.

The Muisca lived in the present departments of Cundinamarca and Boyacá, where they had fled centuries earlier after raids by the warlike Caribs, some of whom migrated to Caribbean islands near the end of the first millennium. The Taironas, who were divided into two subgroups, lived in the Caribbean lowlands and the highlands of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Muisca civilization was well organized into distinct provinces governed by communal land laws and powerful caciques, who reported to one of the two supreme leaders. The territory that became Colombia was first visited by Europeans when the first expedition of Alonso de Ojeda arrived at the Cabo de la Vela in 1499; the Spanish made several attempts to settle along the north coast of today's Colombia in the early 16th century, but their first permanent settlement, at Santa Marta, was not established until 1525. Cartagena was founded on June 1, 1533, by Spanish commander Pedro de Heredia, in the former location of the indigenous Caribbean Calamarí village.

Cartagena grew fueled first by the gold in the tombs of the Sinú Culture, by trade. The thirst for gold and land resulted in Spanish explorers to visit Chibchan speaking areas; the Spanish advance inland from the Caribbean coast began independently from three different directions, under Jimenéz de Quesáda, Sebastián de Benalcázar and Nikolaus F

2016 in air sports

March 9 – 16: 2016 Paragliding World Cup Brazil in Castelo Overall winner: Félix Rodriguez Women's winner: Keiko Hiraki June 4 – 11: 2016 Paragliding World Cup - Italy in Gemona del Friuli Overall winner: Andreas Malecki Women's winner: Silvia Buzzi Ferraris July 2 – 9: 2016 Paragliding World Cup - Portugal in Serra da Estrela Overall winner: Donizete Baldessar Lemos Women's winner: Keiko Hiraki September 3 – 10: 2016 Paragliding World Cup - France in Saint-André-les-Alpes Overall winner: Maxime Pinot Women's winner: Kirsty Cameron October 1 – 8: 2016 Paragliding World Cup in Saint-Leu Overall winner: Michael Küffer Women's winner: Klaudia Bulgakow May 5 – 8: Paragliding Accuracy World Cup #1 in Berane Overall winner: Goran Đurković Women's winner: Tamara Kostić May 10 – 15: Paragliding Accuracy World Cup #2 in Vlorë Overall winner: Mile Jovanoski Women's winner: Tamara Kostić August 5 – 7: Paragliding Accuracy World Cup #3 in Lombok Overall winner: Permadi Chandra Women's winner: Nunnapat Phuchong August 11 – 15: Paragliding Accuracy World Cup #4 in Taitung County Overall winner: Zhifeng Zhu Women's winner: Nunnapat Phuchong May 27 – June 3: 3rd FAI Asian Paragliding Accuracy Championship in Taldykorgan Overall winner: Tanapat Leangaiem Teams winner: China July 10 – 17: 5th FAI European Paragliding Accuracy Championship in Paluknys Men's winner: Matjaž Sluga Women's winner: Tamara Kostić July 16 – 23: XXXIII Guarnieri International Trophy - Pre-World 2016 in Pedavena Overall winner: Federico Nevastro Women's winner: Seiko Fukuoka-Naville August 8 – 20: 14th FAI European Paragliding Championship in Kruševo Overall winner: Honorin Hamard Women's winner: Seiko Fukuoka-Naville Teams winners: France August 26 – September 4: 2nd FAI World Paragliding Championships in Montmin / Doussard Men's winner: François Ragolski Women's winner: Christina Kolb January 15 – 17: Para-ski World Cup #1 in St Johann im Pongau/Alpendorf Men's winner: Ule Uroš Women's winner: Magdalena Schwertl Junior mix winner: Sebastian Graser Master mix winner: Alic Gernot Overall teams winners: Austria February 19 – 21: Para-ski World Cup #2 in Unterammergau Men's winner: Sebastian Graser Women's winner: Magdalena Schwertl Junior mix winner: Sebastian Graser Master mix winner: Marco Valente Overall teams winners: Austria March 4 – 6: Para-ski World Cup #3 in Vrchlabí/Krkonoše Men's winner: Alessandro Di Prisco Women's winner: Magdalena Schwertl Junior mix winner: Sebastian Graser Master mix winner: Tomas Saurer Overall teams winners: Slovenia no date set from #4 Para-ski World Cup in Srednja Vas v Bohinju July 17 – 29: 40th CISM World Military Parachuting Championship in Kubinka Individual Accuracy winners: Dmitrii Mastafanov / Olga Lepezina Individual Style winners: Libor Jirousek / Olga Lepezina Overall Results winners: Dmitrii Mastafanov / Olga Lepezina Junior Individual Style winners: Andrey Izimetov / Léocadie Ollivier de Pury Junior Individual Accuracy winners: Gao Tinabo / Darja Shastakovich Junior Overall Results winners: Gao Tinabo / Darja Shastakovich Formation Skydiving winners: Belgium / France Team Accuracy winners: Hungary / Belarus Teams Overall Results winners: Russia / Russia August 20 – 27: 6th FAI World Canopy Piloting Championships in Farnham Overall winner: Christopher Bobo Accuracy winners: Curtis Bartholomew & Eric Philippe Distance here was cancelled Speed winner: Christopher Bobo September 11 – 20: 2016 FAI World Parachuting Championships - Mondial in Chicago Freefall Style winners: Libor Jirousek / Olga Lepezina Speed Skydiving winner: Henrik RaimerAccuracy LandingIndividual Accuracy Landing winners: Uroš Ban / Nataliya Nikitsiuk Junior Individual Accuracy winners: Sebastian Graser / Tiantian ZHAO Team Accuracy Landing winners: Slovenia / China Formation Skydiving4 Way Formation winners: Belgium / United States 8 Way Formation winners: United States Vertical Formation winners: United StatesArtistic EventsArtistic Freefly winners: Russia 1 Artistic Freestyle winners: France 2Canopy Formation2 Way Sequential winners: France 1 4 Way Sequential winners: Qatar 4-Way Rotation winners: France October 11 – 16: 2nd FAI World Cup of Indoor Skydiving in Warsaw Open Freestyle winner: Inka Tiitto Junior Freestyle winner: Kyra Poh Dynamic 2-WAY winners: Poland 4 Way Formation winners: Belgium / France 1.

Czech Republic, 3. Poland July 16 – 30: 19th FAI European Hang Gliding Class 1 Championship in Kruševo Winner: Christian Ciech

Society for the Promotion of New Music

The Society for the Promotion of New Music named The Committee for the Promotion of New Music, was founded January 1943 in London by Francis Chagrin, to promote the creation and performance of new music by young and unestablished composers. Since 1993 it had awarded the annual Butterworth Prize for Composition. In 2008, it merged with three other networks to form Music; the Society for the Promotion of New Music was founded January 1943 in London by Francis Chagrin, to promote the creation and appreciation of new music by young and unestablished composers. It was a membership organization which sought to find the best new composers and to help support their careers in the UK. Ralph Vaughan Williams agreed to become president of the newly formed Committee for the Promotion of New Music, with the proviso that it "avoid all cliques give a welcome to all good work in whatever style or school". Other committee members were Arthur Bliss as vice-president, Francis Chagrin described as the committee's "organizer and chief moving spirit".

Its initial activities were subsidized by the wartime Council for the Encouragement of Music and the Arts and by private donations from Vaughan Williams and Bliss among others, remained the basis for much of its subsequent work: "recommended lists" of works were drawn up, which resulted in increased broadcasting by the BBC and in several recordings of "recommended list" works, issued in the 1940s on 78rpm discs by Decca. By October 1951, a draft amended Constitution had been prepared, on 27 May 1952 the Society for the Promotion of New Music met for its inaugural meeting. From 1993 onward SPNM awarded the annual Butterworth Prize for Composition. On 1 October 2008, the SPNM merged with the British Music Information Centre, the Contemporary Music Network and the Sonic Arts Network, forming a new organisation to promote contemporary music in the UK called Sound and Music