SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Cyprus

Human habitation of Cyprus dates back to the Paleolithic era. Cyprus's geographic position has caused Cyprus to be influenced by differing Eastern Mediterranean civilisations over the millennia. Cyprus is a small country. Periods of Cyprus's history from 1050 BC have been named according to styles of pottery found as follows: Cypro-Geometric I: 1050-950 BC Cypro-Geometric II: 950-850 BC Cypro-Geometric III: 850-700 BC Cypro-Archaic I: 700-600 BC Cypro-Archaic II: 600-475 BC Cypro-Classical I: 475-400 BC Cypro-Classical II: 400-323 BC Cyprus was settled by humans in the Paleolithic period who coexisted with various dwarf animal species, such as dwarf elephants and pygmy hippos well into the Holocene. There are claims of an association of this fauna with artifacts of Epipalaeolithic foragers at Aetokremnos near Limassol on the southern coast of Cyprus; the first undisputed settlement occurred in the 9th millennium BC from the Levant. The first settlers did not yet produce pottery; the dog, sheep and cattle and pigs were introduced, as well as numerous wild animals such as foxes and Persian fallow deer that were unknown on the island.

The PPNB settlers built round houses with floors made of terrazzo of burned lime and cultivated einkorn and emmer. Pigs, sheep and cattle were kept but remained, for the most part, behaviourally wild. Evidence of cattle such as that attested at Shillourokambos is rare, when they died out in the course of the 8th millennium they were not re-introduced until the ceramic Neolithic. In the 6th millennium BC, the aceramic Khirokitia culture was characterised by roundhouses, stone vessels and an economy based on sheep and pigs. Cattle were unknown, Persian fallow deer were hunted; this was followed by the ceramic Sotira phase. The Eneolithic era is characterised by stone figurines with spread arms. Water wells discovered by archaeologists in western Cyprus are believed to be among the oldest in the world, dated at 9,000 to 10,500 years old, putting them in the Stone Age, they are said to show the sophistication of early settlers, their heightened appreciation for the environment. In 2004, the remains of an 8-month-old cat were discovered buried with its human owner at a Neolithic archeological site in Cyprus.

The grave is estimated to be 9,500 years old, predating Egyptian civilization and pushing back the earliest known feline-human association significantly. In the Bronze Age the first cities, such as Enkomi, were built. Systematic copper mining began, this resource was traded. Mycenaean Greeks were undoubtedly inhabiting Cyprus from the late stage of the Bronze Age, while the island's Greek name is attested from the 15th century BC in the Linear B script; the Cypriot syllabic script was first used in early phases of the late Bronze Age and continued in use for ca. 500 years into the LC IIIB, maybe up to the second half of the eleventh century BC. Most scholars believe it was used for a native Cypriot language that survived until the 4th century BC, but the actual proofs for this are scant, as the tablets still have not been deciphered; the LCIIC was a time of local prosperity. Cities such as Enkomi were rebuilt on a rectangular grid plan, where the town gates correspond to the grid axes and numerous grand buildings front the street system or newly founded.

Great official buildings constructed from ashlar masonry point to increased social hierarchisation and control. Some of these buildings contain facilities for processing and storing olive oil, such as Maroni-Vournes and Building X at Kalavassos-Ayios Dhimitrios. A Sanctuary with a horned altar constructed from ashlar masonry has been found at Myrtou-Pigadhes, other temples have been located at Enkomi and Kouklia. Both the regular layout of the cities and the new masonry techniques find their closest parallels in Syria in Ugarit. Rectangular corbelled tombs point to close contacts with Palestine as well; the practice of writing spread and tablets in the Cypriot syllabic script have been found at Ras Shamra, the Phoenician city of Ugarit. Ugaritic texts from Ras Shamra and Enkomi mention Ya, the Assyrian name of Cyprus, that thus seems to have been in use in the late Bronze Age. Copper ingots shaped like oxhides have been recovered from shipwrecks such as at Ulu Burun and Cape Gelidonya which attest to the widespread metal trade.

Weights in the shape of animals found in Enkomi and Kalavassos follow the Syro-Palestinian, Mesopotamian and Aegean standards and thus attest to the wide-ranging trade as well. Late Bronze Age Cyprus was a part of the Hittite empire but was a client state and as such was not invaded but rather part of the empire by association and governed by the ruling kings of Ugarit; as such Cyprus was "left alone with little intervention in Cypriot affairs". However, during the reign of Tudhaliya, the island was invaded by the Hittites for either reasons of securing the copper resource or as a way of preventing piracy. Shortly afterwards the island was reconquered by his son around 1200 BC. Although Achaean Greeks were living in Cyprus from the 14th century, most of them inhabited the island after the Trojan war. Achaeans were colonizing Cyprus from 1210 to 1000 BC. Dorian Greeks arrived around 1100 BC and, unlike the pattern on the Greek mainland, the evidence suggests that they settled on Cyprus peacefully.

Another wave of Greek settlement is believed to have taken place in the following century (LCIIIB

Lock and Dam No. 18

Lock and Dam No. 18 is a lock and dam located near Gladstone and Burlington, Iowa on the Upper Mississippi River around river mile 410.5. The movable dam consists of 3 roller gates and 14 tainter gates; the lock is 110 feet wide by 600 feet long. In 2004, the facility was listed in the National Register of Historic Places as Lock and Dam No. 18 Historic District, #04000178 covering 2,049 acres, 1 building, 4 structures and 4 objects. In March 2009, local officials started discussing plans to install a hydroelectric generating plant on the dam. Public Works Administration dams list Media related to Mississippi River Lock and Dam number 18 at Wikimedia Commons Historic American Engineering Record No. IL-29, "Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 18, Upper Mississippi River, Henderson County, IL" Lock and Dam No. 18 - U. S. Army Corps of Engineers

F. C. Barnes

Reverend Fair Cloth Barnes was an American gospel musician, the founding pastor of Red Budd Holy Church, Rocky Mount, North Carolina. His recorded music career began in 1984, with the album Rough Side of the Mountain, released by Atlanta International Records; that album reached no. 1 in the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart, six others entered the top twenty. Barnes was born on June 1929 in Rocky Mount, North Carolina, as Fair Cloth Barnes, he was reared in the church at Marks Chapel Baptist Church. He became a minister in 1955, he studied at United Christian College, North Carolina, where in 1959 he earned his doctoral degree. He thereafter founded and preached at Red Budd Holy Church, traveled with Rev. Janice Brown around North Carolina singing at churches, he began his recording music career in 1984 with the album Rough Side of the Mountain, with Rev. Janice Brown, on Atlanta International Records; that album would go on to chart on the Billboard magazine Gospel Albums chart at No. 1.

It stayed in the top ten for over a year. He released fourteen more albums on the same label. Six of them reached the top twenty, but only that album captured the top spot. Barnes and his wife Addrine Gaskins Barnes married in North Carolina, they had four sons, Luther and Tony, two daughters and Valencia, one other daughter who predeceased him. Cross Rhythms Profile