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History of El Salvador

The history of El Salvador begins with several Mesoamerican nations the Cuzcatlecs, as well as the Lenca and Maya. In the early 16th century, the Spanish Empire conquered the territory, incorporating it into the Viceroyalty of New Spain ruled from Mexico City. In 1821, the country achieved independence from Spain as part of the First Mexican Empire, only to further secede as part of the Federal Republic of Central America two years later. Upon the republic's dissolution in 1841, El Salvador became sovereign until forming a short-lived union with Honduras and Nicaragua called the Greater Republic of Central America, which lasted from 1895 to 1898. In the 20th century, El Salvador had endured chronic political and economic instability characterized by coups, a succession of authoritarian rulers. Persistent socioeconomic inequality and civil unrest culminated in the devastating Salvadoran Civil War in the 1980s, fought between the military-led government and a coalition of left-wing guerrilla groups.

The conflict ended in 1992 with a negotiated settlement that established a multiparty constitutional republic, which remains in place to this day. El Salvador's economy was dominated by agriculture, beginning with the indigo plant, the most important crop during the colonial period, followed thereafter by coffee, which by the early 20th century accounted for 90 percent of export earnings. Before the Spanish conquest, the area, known as El Salvador was composed of three indigenous states and several principalities. In central El Salvador were the indigenous inhabitants, the Pipils, or the Pipiles, a tribe of the nomadic people of Nahua that were settled there for a long time. "The Pipil were a determined people who stoutly resisted Spanish efforts to extend their dominion southward."The region of the east was populated and governed by the Lencas. The North zone of the Lempa High River was governed by the Chortis, a Mayan people, their culture was similar to that of their Maya neighbors. "Several notable archaeological sites contain dwellings and other evidence of daily life 1400 years ago.

The first Spanish attempt to control El Señorío of Cuzcatlán, or The Lordship of Cuzcatlán, failed in 1524, when Pedro de Alvarado was forced to retreat by Pipil warriors led by King Atlacatl and Prince Atonal in the Battle of Acajuctla. In 1525, he returned and succeeded in bringing the district under control of the Audiencia of Mexico. Pedro de Alvarado named the area for Jesus Christ – El Salvador, he was appointed its first governor, a position he held until his death in 1541. The area was under the authority of a short-lived Audiencia of Panama from 1538 to 1543, when most of Central America was placed under a new Audiencia of Guatemala. In the early 19th century, Napoleon's occupation of Spain led to the outbreak of revolts all across Spanish America. In New Spain, all of the fighting by those seeking independence was done in the center of that area from 1810 to 1821, what today is central Mexico. Once the Viceroy was defeated in the capital city –today Mexico City- in 1821, the news of the independence were sent to all the territories of New Spain including the indecencies of the former Captaincy of Guatemala.

The public proclamation was done through the Act of Independence in 1821. After the declaration of independence it was the intention of the New Spain parliament to establish a commonwealth whereby the King of Spain, Ferdinand VII, would be Emperor of New Spain, but in which both countries were to be governed by separate laws and with their own legislative offices. Should the king refuse the position, the law provided for a member of the House of Bourbon to accede to the New Spain throne. Ferdinand VII, did not recognize the independence and said that Spain would not allow any other European prince to take the throne of New Spain. By request of Parliament, the president of the regency Agustín de Iturbide was proclaimed emperor of New Spain but the Parliament decided to rename New Spain as Mexico; the Mexican Empire was the official name given to this monarchical regime from 1821 to 1823. The territory of the Mexican Empire included the continental intendencies and provinces of New Spain proper.

El Salvador, fearing incorporation into Mexico, petitioned the United States government for statehood. But in 1823, a revolution in Mexico ousted Emperor Agustín de Iturbide, a new Mexican congress voted to allow the Central American Intendencies to decide their own fate; that year, the United Provinces of Central America was formed of the five Central American Intendencies under General Manuel José Arce. The Intendencies took the new name of States. In 1832, Anastasio Aquino led an indigenous revolt against Criollos and Mestizos in Santiago Nonualco, a small town in the province of La Paz; the source of the discontent of the indigenous people was the constant abuse and the lack of land to cultivate. The problem of land distribution has been the source of many political conflicts in Salvadoran history; the Central American federation was dissolved in 1838 and El Salvador became an independent republic. From Indigo to Coffee: Displacement El Salvador's landed elite depended on production of a single export crop, indigo.

This led the elite to be attracted to certain lands while leaving other lands those around former volcanic eruptions, to the poor subsistence farming and the Indian communes. In the middle of the 19th century, indigo was replaced by chemical dyes; the landed elite replaced this crop with coffee. The lands that had once been dependent for the product were quite val

Guillermo Portabales

Guillermo Portabales was a Cuban singer-songwriter and guitarist who popularized the guajira style of Cuban music from the 1930s through the 1960s. His languid, intensely lyrical guajiras and his elegant, stylish singing made him popular throughout Latin America, where he is still revered, his father was José Quesada y Perez from Casteiro Oreste Spain and his mother was Marcela Estefania Castillo y Rodriguez from Vueltas Cuba. His birthplace was Rodas in the old province of Santa Clara. In what is now the Province of Cienfuegos, he grew up in Cienfuegos. His father died when he was about 8 years old, his mother remarried a man whose last name was Portabales, thus where his "stage name" came from. Portabales had a son Named Guillermo. Portabales had a brother named Manuel Eleuterio Quesada y Castillo, his brother was married to Sylvia Ester Ramirez y Gonzalez, who had four children Manuel Antonio Quesada, José Guillermo Quesada, Sylvia Mercedes Quesada and Reynaldo Quesada. As for his birthdate, Helio Orovio, in the original Cuban edition of 1981, left Portabales out entirely.

In the usual Soviet-style way, any opponents of the revolution get'painted out' of history. Portabales had recorded an album for Gema in Cuba in 1960, after the revolution but before Egrem took over all recording rights in Cuba; the English translation reinstated such'enemies of the state' as Celia Cruz and Portabales, giving 6 April 1914 as his date of birth. Cristobal Díaz Ayala gives 6 April 1911; the date and place of his death vary in sources. Orovio's English edition says 1961; this is incorrect, because there are at least three recording session whose dates are in the 1960s: in 1962/3 in Miami. This simple refutation throws doubt upon Orovio's other data, has led to a general acceptance of Cristobal Díaz's version of 25 October 1970, he did indeed die on October 1970 while crossing a street in Puerto Rico late at night. He used to perform at a restaurant called Las Palmas in Isla Verde, Puerto Rico and while leaving the restaurant he was hit by a car and dragged several feet; as for location, Orovio says Isla Cuba and Díaz says San Juan, Puerto Rico.

It is unbelievable that the two versions should be so different, again, it seems right to prefer Díaz as the best-known Isla Verde is in Puerto Rico. Both agree. At age 11, Portabales began work as a printer's assistant in Cienfuegos. In 1928, he made his radio debut on the station CMHI, from on divided his time between his work as a printer and performing. In the beginning, Portabales sang a variety of styles — canción, bolero, son — until he discovered that his listeners enjoyed the guajira the most, he thereby refined the style and developed his signature salon guajira style in which he depicted in bucolic terms the life of the Cuban guajiro. In typical trovadore fashion, Portabales sang and played guitar, sometimes accompanied by a small group, his guajiras have a lilting rhythm, sometimes mixing with elements of the son or the bolero. Portabales continued to perform and perfect the guajira until he went to Puerto Rico in 1937. There he became enamoured of the neighboring island and stayed there for two years, singing in theaters, clubs and on the radio.

In 1939, he married Puerto Rican Arah Mina López, a journalist who joined him as he returned to Cuba in 1939. Over the years they toured together in Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, New York, Tampa. After returning to Havana, Portabales performed on radio with the Trio Matamoros, he made a successful tour of United States and took an extended stay in Barranquilla, Colombia. In 1953, Portabales settled for good in Puerto Rico, where he continued to record and perform, with occasional tours of the continent. During the 1960s, he expressed his opposition to the Cuban Revolution in several discreetly poetic compositions. In 2006 the African group Kékélé released an album, that re-Africanized songs Portabales had composed or performed, giving them new lyrics in the Lingala language and playing them in a Congolese style; as a Washington Post writer Mark Jenkins said, the 2006 album "celebrates, who died before learning that his music had become popular in Africa." Portabales' early work is represented on Tumbao TCD 084 Guillermo Portabales: El creador de la guajira de salón 1937–1943: Al vaivén de mi carreta.

It is this CD, with its liner notes. His voice, his guitar technique, improved with experience; this is quite clear from the recordings in his fifties, represented by World Circuit WCD 023 Guillermo Portabales, El Carretero. This includes examples from his three recording sessions in the 1960s For the quality of his voice, its purity and its subtle evocation of emotion, the exceptionally high calibre of his guitar technique –, worth attention by young musicia

Scott-T transformer

A Scott-T transformer is a type of circuit used to produce two-phase electric power from a three-phase source, or vice versa. The Scott connection evenly distributes a balanced load between the phases of the source; the Scott three-phase transformer was invented by a Westinghouse engineer Charles F. Scott in the late 1890s to bypass Thomas Edison's more expensive rotary converter and thereby permit two-phase generator plants to drive three-phase motors. At the time of the invention, two-phase motor loads existed and the Scott connection allowed connecting them to newer three-phase supplies with the currents equal on the three phases; this was valuable for getting equal voltage drop and thus feasible regulation of the voltage from the electric generator. Nikola Tesla's original polyphase power system was based on simple-to-build two-phase four-wire components. However, as transmission distances increased, the more transmission-line efficient three-phase system became more common. Both 2 φ and 3 φ components coexisted for a number of years and the Scott-T transformer connection allowed them to be interconnected.

Assuming the desired voltage is the same on the two and three phase sides, the Scott-T transformer connection consists of a centre-tapped 1:1 ratio main transformer, T1, a √3/2 ratio teaser transformer, T2. The centre-tapped side of T1 is connected between two of the phases on the three-phase side, its centre tap connects to one end of the lower turn count side of T2, the other end connects to the remaining phase. The other side of the transformers connect directly to the two pairs of a two-phase four-wire system. Two-phase motors draw constant power, just as three-phase motors do, so a balanced two-phase load is converted to a balanced three-phase load; however if a two-phase load is not balanced, no arrangement of transformers can restore balance: Unbalanced current on the two-phase side causes unbalanced current on the three-phase side. Since the typical two-phase load was a motor, the current in the two phases was presumed inherently equal during the Scott-T development. In modern times people have tried to revive the Scott connection as a way to power single-phase electric railways from three-phase Utility supplies.

This will not result in balanced current on the three-phase side, as it is unlikely that two different railway sections, each connected as two-phase, will at all times conform to the Scott presumption of being equal. The instantaneous difference in loading on the two sections will be seen as an imbalance in the three-phase supply; the Scott-T transformer connection may be used in a back-to-back T-to-T arrangement for a three-phase to three-phase connection. This is a cost-saving in the lower-power transformers due to the two-coil T connected to a secondary two-coil T instead of the traditional three-coil primary to three-coil secondary transformer. In this arrangement the X0 neutral tap is part way up on the secondary teaser transformer; the voltage stability of this T-to-T arrangement as compared to the traditional three-coil primary to three-coil secondary transformer is questioned, as the "per unit" impedance of the two windings are not the same in a T-to-T configuration, whereas the three windings are the same in a three transformer configuration, if the three transformers are identical.

Three-phase to three-phase distribution transformers are seeing increasing applications. The primary must be delta-connected, but the secondary may be either delta or "wye"-connected, at the customer's option, with X0 providing the neutral for the "wye" case. Taps for either case are provided; the customary maximum capacity of such a distribution transformer is 333 kV A. Alternating current Polyphase coil Symmetrical components High-leg delta

Anthony Davis (cricketer)

Anthony Tilton Davis was an English first-class cricketer. Davis was a right-handed batsman, he was born at Berkshire. Davis made his Minor Counties Championship debut for Berkshire in 1950 against Cornwall. From 1950 to 1974, he represented the county in 179 Minor Counties Championship matches, the last of which came in the 1974 Championship when Berkshire played Buckinghamshire, he was the Berkshire captain from 1960 to 1970. Additionally, he played List-A matches for Berkshire, his List-A debut for the county came against Somerset in the 1965 Gillette Cup. From 1965 to 1966, he represented the county in 3 List-A matches, with his final List-A match coming in the 2nd round of the 1966 Gillette Cup when Berkshire played Gloucestershire at Church Road Cricket Ground in Reading. In his 3 matches, he scored 68 runs at a batting average of 22.66, with a high score of 47. Davis played 2 first-class matches during his career, his first came for the Marylebone Cricket Club against Oxford University in 1967, with his second first-class appearance coming in the same year, although this time for a combined Minor Counties team against the touring Pakistanis.

Davis died at Reading, Berkshire on 20 November 1978. He committed suicide by shooting himself.. Anthony Davis at Cricinfo Anthony Davis at CricketArchive

Mata Prasad Pandey

Mata Prasad Pandey is an Indian politician and former Speaker of Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly for two term. He represent Itwa in Siddharthnagar of Uttar Pradesh. Elected Member of the Legislative Assembly in 1980, 1985, 1989, 2002, 2007 and 2012 Participated in several political movements and imprisoned several times for movement for upliftment of the poor and down trodden people of the society, he has been member of Assurance Committee, Petition Committee, Delegated Legislation Committee, Parliamentary Research and Studies Committee, Rules Committee and Reference Committee, Business Advisory Committee, Privilege Committee and Public Accounts Committee of the Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Minister for Health in 1991 and Minister for Labour and Employment in 2003. Speaker, Uttar Pradesh Legislative Assembly 26.07.2004 to 18.05.2007 50th Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference Canada- 2004. 58th Commonwealth Parliamentary Conference Colombo, Sri Lanka-2012

Socks and sandals

Wearing socks and sandals together is a controversial fashion combination and social phenomenon, discussed in various countries and cultures. In some places it is considered a fashion faux pas; the earliest evidence of wearing socks and sandals is documented at the archaeological site between Dishforth and Leeming in North Yorkshire, England. The discovery suggests. Saurabh Bhatia, the author of the book Indian Corporate Etiquette, advises readers: "If, for some reason, you are not wearing socks with sandals, ensure your toes are clean and your toe-nails are clipped". Joshua Belter, the author of The Book of Rules: The Right Way to Do Everything, points out that wearing socks with sandals reduces the amount of cooling feet experience. However, energy design handbooks include light socks and sandals as part of a high-thermal flux tropical attire. According to Brian Shea of The Evening Sun, wearing socks and sandals is popular among the older generation and Germans; the Britons are, according to The China Post, "famed for fashion blunders like wearing socks with sandals".

Wearing socks and sandals is considered rather unaesthetic in the Czech Republic. Socks and sandals is a regular Pacific Northwest phenomenon. Seattle based insurance company PEMCO used the "Sandals & Socks Guy" character as part of a 2007 advertising campaign that portrayed this as a Pacific Northwest fashion; the Daily Dot highlighted "sandals and socks" as a term entered into a web search engine more by Washingtonians than residents of any other state. Wearing socks and sandals is associated by some with geek culture. Socks and sandals were noted as a "high crime of fashion" when introduced as Xbox Live avatar accessory downloadable content in 2009. While socks and sandals are most associated with casual attire, there is a small movement attempting to popularize the fashion choice within the world of business fashion; the popular outdoor footwear company, has introduced a dress sandal line, called Wayfarer. In 2010, the newspaper Daily Telegraph reported that wearing socks and sandals was a hit for spring/summer of that year.

Starting in 2010, again in 2014, several sources reported that socks and sandals had become a fashion trend in the United States and the United Kingdom, appearing in several runway shows, including those of Miu Miu and fashion designers Vivienne Tam and Mary-Kate and Ashley Olsen, picked up by celebrities. For good hygiene, it is usual to change socks every day; the sock captures sweat and products of bacterial fermentation, which are natural products of human skin, otherwise would be deposited on the inner surface of footwear. Socks prevent the penetration from the footwear to the skin of substances that are released from the footwear construction materials and impurity. Wearing shoes without socks could be related with risk of developing fungal problems and infections. Tabi Toe socks Dress socks Acton, Johnny. Gallo, A. A. M. Sayigh, Architecture – Comfort and Energy, Elsevier, pp. 39–66, ISBN 0080560601CS1 maint: uses editors parameter Chickowski, E. Moon Washington, Moon Handbooks, Avalon Travel Publishing, ISBN 978-1-61238-261-6, retrieved 2015-10-05 Haupt, L.

L. Crow Planet: Essential Wisdom from the Urban Wilderness, Brown, ISBN 978-0-316-05339-6, retrieved 2015-10-05 Langley, The Geek Handbook, Krause Publications, p. 30, ISBN 144023292X Parsons, K. "Thermal comfort in buildings", in Hall, Matthew R, Materials for energy efficiency and thermal comfort in buildings, Elsevier, pp. 127–147, ISBN 1845699270 Reay, Climate Change Begins at Home: Life on the Two-Way Street of Global Warming, Macmillan, p. 46, ISBN 0230579701 Media related to Socks in sandals at Wikimedia Commons