SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Ethiopia

The article covers the prehistory and history of Ethiopia from its emergence as an empire under the Aksumites to its current form as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia as well as the history of other areas in what is now Ethiopia such as the Afar Triangle. The Ethiopian Empire was first founded by Ethiopian people in the Ethiopian Highlands. Due to migration and imperial expansion, it grew to include many other Afro-Asiatic-speaking communities, including Oromos, Somalis, Afars, Gurage and Harari, among others. One of the earliest kingdoms to rise to power in the territory was the kingdom of D'mt in the 10th century BC, which established its capital at Yeha. In the first century AD the Aksumite Kingdom rose to power in the Tigray Region with its capital at Aksum and grew into a major power on the Red Sea, subjugating Yemen and Meroe and converting to Christianity in the early fourth century; the Aksumite empire fell into decline with the rise of Islam in the Arabian peninsula, which shifted trade away from the Christian Aksum.

It became isolated economy slumped and Aksum's commercial domination of the region was over. The Aksumites gave way to the Zagwe Dynasty, who established a new capital at Lalibela before giving way to the Solomonic Dynasty in the 13th century. During the early Solomonic period, Ethiopia went through military reforms and imperial expansion that made it dominate the Horn of Africa. Portuguese missionaries arrived at this time. In 1529, the Adal Sultanate met initial success. By 1543, Abyssinia had recaptured lost territory but the war had weakened both sides; the Oromo people were able to expand into the highlands, conquering both the Adal Sultanate and Abyssinia. The Portuguese presence increased, while the Ottomans began to push into what is now Eritrea, creating the Habesh Eyalet; the Portuguese brought modern weapons and baroque architecture to Ethiopia, in 1622 converted the emperor Susenyos I to Catholicism, sparking a civil war which ended in his abdication and expulsion of all Catholics from Ethiopia.

A new capital was established at Gondar in 1632, a period of peace and prosperity ensued until the country was split apart by warlords in the 18th century during the Zemene Mesafint. Ethiopia was reunified in 1855 under Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history and his reign was followed by Yohannes IV, killed in action in 1889. Under Menelik II Ethiopia started its transformation to well organized technological advancement and the structure that the country has now. Ethiopia expanded to the south and east, through the conquest of the western Oromo, Gurage and other groups, resulting in the borders of modern Ethiopia. Ethiopia defeated an Egyptian invasion in 1876 and an Italian invasion in 1896 which killed 17,000 Ethiopians, came to be recognised as a legitimate state by European powers. A more rapid modernisation took place under Haile Selassie. Italy launched a second invasion in 1935. From 1935-1941, Ethiopia was under Italian occupation as part of Italian East Africa. A joint force of British and Ethiopian rebels managed to drive the Italians out of the country in 1941, Haile Selassie was returned to the throne.

Ethiopia and Eritrea united in a federation, but when Haile Selassie ended the federation in 1961 and made Eritrea a province of Ethiopia, the 30-year Eritrean War of Independence broke out. Eritrea regained its independence after a referendum in 1993. Haile Selassie was overthrown in 1974 and the militaristic Derg Regime came to power. In 1977 Somalia invaded, trying to annex the Ogaden region, but were pushed back by Ethiopian and Cuban forces. In 1977 and 1978 the government tortured or killed hundreds of thousands of suspected enemies in the Red Terror. Ethiopia experienced famine in 1984 that killed one million people and civil war that resulted in the fall of the Derg in 1991; this resulted in the establishment of the Federal Democratic Republic under Meles Zenawi. Ethiopia remains impoverished, it was not until 1963 that evidence of the presence of ancient hominids was discovered in Ethiopia, many years after similar discoveries had been made in neighbouring Kenya and Tanzania. The discovery was made by Gerrard Dekker, a Dutch hydrologist, who found Acheulian stone tools that were over a million years old at Kella.

Since many important finds have propelled Ethiopia to the forefront of palaeontology. The oldest hominid discovered to date in Ethiopia is the 4.2 million year old Ardipithicus ramidus found by Tim D. White in 1994; the most well known hominid discovery is Lucy, found in the Awash Valley of Ethiopia's Afar region in 1974 by Donald Johanson, is one of the most complete and best preserved, adult Australopithecine fossils uncovered. Lucy's taxonomic name, Australopithecus afarensis, means'southern ape of Afar', refers to the Ethiopian region where the discovery was made. Lucy is estimated to have lived 3.2 million years ago. There have been many other notable fossil findings in the country. Near Gona stone tools were uncovered in 1992 that were 2.52 million years old, these are the oldest such tools discovered anywhere in the world. In 2010 fossilised animal bones, that were 3.4 million years old, were found with stone-tool-inflicted marks on them in the Lower Awash Valley by an international team, led by Shannon McPherron, the oldest evidence of stone tool use found anywhere in the world.

In 2004 fossils found near the Omo river at Kibbish by Richard Leakey in 1967 were redated to 195,000 years old, the oldest date in E

Jonathan Leo Fairbanks

Jonathan Leo Fairbanks is an American artist and expert of American arts and antiques. Fairbanks created the American Decorative Arts and Sculpture department at the Museum of Fine Arts and served as the Curator of the department from 1970-99. Fairbanks is the son of Avard Fairbanks, he was born in Ann Arbor. Fairbanks is on the Board of Directors of the Fairbanks Family in America, Inc. which owns and operates the house. He earned a Bachelor of Fine Arts from the University of Utah and his MFA from the University of Pennsylvania through a joint program with the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, he earned a second master's degree, an M. A. in American Culture, from the University of Delaware in the Winterthur Museum Fellowship Program. He served at the museum as an Associate Curator in charge of conservation for nine years. Fairbanks has served as curator for several exhibits, including "Becoming a Nation, Americana from the Diplomatic Reception Rooms, U. S. Department of State," which toured eight cities from April 2003 until January 2005.

He was the Sr. Vice President of AntiquesAmerica.com, the Editor at Large for the Catalogue of Antiques and Fine Art, a Research Associate at Boston University. He is on the Board of Directors of the Decorative Arts Trust, of which he was President for 12 years. Fairbanks served as Vice President of Research for Artfact.com. In 2012, he was appointed the Director of the Fuller Craft Museum in Brockton, MA. Five years in 2017, he retired to become the museum's Senior Research Associate and Director Emeritus; some of Fairbanks’ artwork is owned by institutions such as the National Portrait Gallery, the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, The Boston Public Library, the Wye House and Myrtle Grove on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, the Alhambra in southern Spain. His work was featured in the exhibit, “Jonathan Leo Fairbanks, A Painter's Journey, 1952-2004,”, on display at the Washington County Museum of Fine Arts in Hagerstown, MD in 2004. Fairbanks has received several awards, including the Victorian Society of America Award for Conservation, The Charles F.

Montgomery Award from the Decorative Arts Society, The Urban Glass Award for Exceptional Museum Glass Exhibition, The Ellen Banning Ayer Award for Contributions to Arts and Culture, the Lifetime Achievement Medal from the Society of Arts and Crafts, Boston. In 2003 the Decorative Arts Trust announced the endowment of The Jonathan L. Fairbanks Lectureship in honor of Fairbanks’ achievements. In 2003, the Furniture Society bestowed upon Fairbanks the Award of Distinction. In 2006 Fairbanks received the Iris Foundation Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Decorative Arts by the Bard Graduate Center. In 2009, Fairbanks was honored by Fuller Craft Museum as a Luminary. In 2016, he received the President's award from Old Sturbridge Village. Jonathan was further honored in 2017 with the tenth anniversary AD 20/21 Lifetime Achievement Award, his daughter is Theresa Fairbanks Harris, senior conservator for works on paper at the Yale Center for British Art and Yale University Art Gallery

Glove (ice hockey)

There are three styles of gloves worn by ice hockey players. Skaters wear similar gloves on each hand, while goaltenders wear gloves of different types on each hand. Skaters gloves help prevent the hands getting bruised and battered and stops them from getting burned from the ice; the top padding and shell thumb is designed to help protect the player from flying Hockey pucks and opponents' Ice hockey sticks. In today's hockey game, gloves will fall into two types of categories, the first being the traditional four-roll style; these types of gloves have more room on the inside, giving it a looser feel on the hand than the natural fit gloves. Hockey players who choose the four-roll style have less resistance in their fingers and hands, so wearing the gloves feels less noticeable; the other category of gloves are the tighter natural or anatomical fit glove. These have a much tighter fit than the four-roll gloves, are designed to become an extension of the players' hand; the tapered gloves are tight on the hand, but ergonomically designed for better wrist mobility and range of motion.

Hockey gloves range in sizes, are available in three categories: Youth size hockey gloves run 8", 9"and 10". Goaltenders wear a different type of glove on each hand. While these gloves do offer the goaltender a measure of protection, their design is to aid the goaltender in performance of his duties. On the hand with which he carries his stick called the "stick hand," the goaltender wears a blocker with a large pad across the back of the forearm extending just beyond the wrist. National Hockey League rules mandate that the blocking glove may be no wider than eight inches and no longer than fifteen; the goaltender uses this blocker to deflect shots. On the other hand called the "glove hand", the goaltender wears a catching glove called a trapper, similar to a baseball glove. In addition to using it to catch shots, goaltenders can distribute caught pucks by tossing them from the catching glove. National Hockey League rules limit the perimeter of the catching glove to forty-five inches and the widest part of the glove may not exceed eighteen inches.

Most goaltender's glove hands are their non-dominant hand like in baseball, but exceptions do exist