History of Georgia (country)

The nation of Georgia was first unified as a kingdom under the Bagrationi dynasty by the King Bagrat III of Georgia in the early 11th century, arising from a number of predecessor states of the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia. The Kingdom of Georgia flourished during the 10th to 12th centuries under King David IV the Builder and Queen Tamar the Great, fell to the Mongol invasion by 1243, after a brief reunion under George V the Brilliant to the Timurid Empire. By 1490, Georgia was fragmented into a number of petty kingdoms and principalities, which throughout the Early Modern period struggled to maintain their autonomy against Ottoman and Iranian domination until Georgia was annexed by the Russian Empire in the 19th century. After a brief bid for independence with the Democratic Republic of Georgia of 1918–1921, Georgia was part of the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 1922 to 1936, formed the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

The current republic of Georgia has been independent since 1991. The first president Zviad Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi's authority over Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Gamsakhurdia was deposed in a bloody coup d'état within the same year and the country became embroiled in a bitter civil war, which lasted until 1995. Supported by Russia and South Ossetia achieved de facto independence from Georgia; the Rose Revolution forced Eduard Shevardnadze to resign in 2003. The new government under Mikheil Saakashvili prevented the secession of a third breakaway republic in the Adjara crisis of 2004, but the conflict with Abkhazia and South Ossetia led to the 2008 Russo–Georgian War and tensions with Russia remain unresolved; the history of Georgia is inextricably linked with the history of the Georgian people. Evidence for the earliest occupation of the territory of present-day Georgia goes back to c. 1.8 million years ago, as evident from the excavations of Dmanisi in the south-eastern part of the country.

This is the oldest evidence of humans anywhere in the world outside Africa. Prehistoric remains are known from numerous cave and open-air sites in Georgia; the earliest agricultural Neolithic occupation is dated sometime between 6000 and 5000 BC. known as the Shulaveri-Shomu culture, where people used local obsidian for tools, raised animals such as cattle and pigs, grew crops, including grapes. Numerous excavations in tell settlements of the Shulaveri-Shomu type have been conducted since the 1960s. Early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, associated with the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. From the beginning of the 4th millennium, metals became used to larger extend in East Georgia and in the whole Transcaucasian region. In the 1970s, archaeological excavations revealed a number of ancient settlements that included houses with galleries, carbon-dated to the 5th millennium BC in the Imiris-gora region of Eastern Georgia; these dwellings were circular or oval in plan, a characteristic feature being the central pier and chimney.

These features were used and further developed in building Georgian dwellings and houses of the'Darbazi' type. In the Chalcolithic period of the fourth and third millennia BC, Georgia and eastern Asia Minor were home to the Kura-Araxes culture, giving way in the second millennium BC. to the Trialeti culture. Archaeological excavations have brought to light the remains of settlements at Beshtasheni and Ozni, barrow burials in the province of Trialeti, at Tsalka. Together, they testify to an well-developed culture of building and architecture. Diauehi, a tribal union of early-Georgians, first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. Archaeological finds and references in ancient sources reveal elements of early political and state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC and beyond. Between 2100 and 750 BC, the area survived the invasions by the Hittites, Medes, Proto-Persians and Cimmerians. At the same period, the ethnic unity of Proto-Kartvelians broke up into several branches, among them Svans, Zans/Chans and East-Kartvelians.

That led to the formation of modern Kartvelian languages: Georgian, Svan and Laz. By that time Svans were dominant in modern Svaneti and Abkhazia, Zans inhabited modern Georgian province of Samegrelo, while East-Kartvelians formed the majority in modern eastern Georgia; as a result of cultural and geographic delimitation, two core areas of future Georgian culture and statehood formed in western and eastern Georgia by the end of the 8th century BC. The first two Georgian states emerged in the west known as the Kingdom of Colchis and in the east as the Kingdom of Iberia. A second Georgian tribal union emerged in the 13th century BC on the Black Sea coast under the Kingdom of Colchis in western Georgia; the kingdom of Colchis, which existed from the 6th to the 1st centuries BC is regarded as the first early Georgian state formation and the term Colchians was used as the collective term for early Georgian-Kartvelian tribes such as Mingrelians and Chans who populated the eastern coast of the Black Sea.

According to the scholar of the Caucasian studies Cyril Toumanoff: Colchis appears as the first Caucasian State to have achieved the coalescence of the newcomer, Colchis can be justly regarded as not a proto-Georgian, but a Georgian kingdom.... It would seem natural to seek the beginnings of Georgian social history in Colchis, the ea

Who Killed Bambi? (unfinished film)

Who Killed Bambi? was to be the first film featuring the punk rock band the Sex Pistols, was due to be released in 1978. Russ Meyer and Jonathan Kaplan were due to direct from a script by Roger Ebert and Pistols' manager Malcolm McLaren. McLaren wanted to use the film as a vehicle for the Sex Pistols to break into the American market as opposed to releasing a single or an album. "The Sex Pistols are not a'music group'," said McLaren. "They play music and they write songs but they are more of a social event. With a film we can demonstrate clearly the whole social condition the band came out of and deliver that in its pure and undiluted form to everyone outside the UK."The Pistols were fans of Meyer's film Beyond the Valley of the Dolls, McLaren hired him to make the film. "McLaren was sincere," recalled Meyer. "He was a zealot. He had fire in his eyes." A script was written by Roger Ebert. Ebert had never heard of the band, says Meyer told him "We can go wild on this. I've got a couple of big-titted London girls in mind."

The film was intended as a punk rock version of A Hard Day's Night. Meyer said. Instead of four girls, I had four boys, it was about this aging rock star, prone to go out into the Queen's Reserve, shoot a deer, give it to the poor. He was dressed in livery and had a convertible Rolls Royce."According to Ebert, "McLaren thought of Meyer as a fascist. Meyer thought of McLaren as a source for money to make an RM film."The working title was Anarchy in the UK, after one of the band's most famous songs. According to Meyer, the sets were built and the film cast, he rehearsed with the Sex Pistols. Meyer found guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook "very intelligent, level-headed guys", but thought singer Johnny Rotten and bassist Sid Vicious "were nuts. Both had an intense hatred for McLaren, they would call me up at two in the morning to say unspeakable horrors about him." Meyer said Rotten "definitely had a charisma" and Vicious embraced the idea of sex scenes between him and Marianne Faithfull, "but he objected to us showing them shooting up."

Meyer said "they never knew" what the budget was "because McLaren had no conception of what it would cost. We did some eight versions of the script... The conception from the beginning was based on a lack of knowledge, and I have to include myself in that."Meyer says McLaren had committed only £150,000 with no expense for the Sex Pistols. Meyer said; however the Sex Pistols' popularity increased, so McLaren could get $300,000 from Warner Bros and an extra amount of money from 20th Century Fox in England to bring finance up to $1 million. "But the budget was like $1.7 million," said Meyer. "Everyone was pulling their hair." Filming started in October 1977. Meyer filmed for three days. 20th Century Fox withdrew and shooting was abandoned. According to Meyer, Grace Kelly "got involved in it, she despises me, she's an important stockholder at Fox. She was going to pull out all support of Fox in Europe." This was confirmed in media reports at the time. McLaren said. Ebert says "This seems unlikely because the studio would not have green-lighted the film without reading the script."Ebert wrote that Meyer said "McLaren had made false promises of financing and was broke.

Electricians and others had walked off after not being paid. Meyer himself demanded each week's salary be deposited every Monday morning.""To get in that situation where you're just the director and not the producer where you can call the shots-it's a frustrating experience," said Meyer. Sets, built at Bray Studios in Berkshire were destroyed. Meyer and the Sex Pistols both wound up suing each other."Too bad it couldn't have been made," said Meyer. "Probably Vicious would still be living." Following Meyer's departure, Jonathan Kaplan was attached to the project. McLaren made The Great Rock and Roll Swindle with director Julien Temple, the trailer for which included the title shot of a deer being killed; this scene was not, however, in the finished film. A song with the same name is featured in the film, sung by Edward Tudor-Pole. Additional footage appeared in the 2000 documentary the Fury. In April 2010, Roger Ebert posted the screenplay of Who Killed Bambi? on his blog. The Great Rock and Roll Swindle remembered by McLaren employee Sue Steward "McLaren & Meyer & Rotten & Vicious & Me", in which scriptwriter Roger Ebert recounts his experiences with the film Who Killed Bambi?

- A screenplay, full screenplay of the proposed film


KUAT-TV, virtual channel 6, is a Public Broadcasting Service member television station licensed to Tucson, United States. Owned by the Arizona Board of Regents and operated by the University of Arizona, it broadcasts from the facilities of Arizona Public Media, located on campus in the Modern Languages Building. KUAT's transmitter is located atop Mount Bigelow. KUAT operates full-time satellite KUAS-TV licensed to Tucson, that covers northwest Tucson and the communities west of Mount Lemmon that are shielded from KUAT's signal, its transmitter is located on west of downtown Tucson. KUAT is rebroadcast on one low-power translator: K20GG-D in Duncan. Like all TV stations in North America that operated on analog channel 6, KUAT-TV's audio signal was heard on 87.75 FM until March 31, 2009. KUAT-TV launched on March 1959 as the first public television station in Arizona, it was an affiliate of National Educational Television, forerunner to PBS, from 1959 through 1970, when PBS replaced NET. KUAT was the first station in Tucson and one of the first educational television stations to broadcast in color, as it had discussed plans to do such broadcasts as early as 1960.

In 1977, construction work began on a satellite dish in a vacant pool south of the Bear Down Gymnasium, allowing the station to receive PBS programming via satellite, which it ably did by the mid-1980s. Like the other stations in the Mount Bigelow tower farm, KUAT-TV is viewable in much of northwest Tucson and areas west of Mount Lemmon; the Santa Catalina Mountains abruptly end with a steep drop-off in Oro Valley, a Tucson suburb, communities near the mountain are shielded by terrain from the signal. As a result, much of this area only got a grade B signal from KUAT-TV until the arrival of cable television in Tucson in the 1970s; the U of A activated Tucson's second noncommercial license on UHF channel 27, opened KUAS as a satellite of KUAT. The construction permit was granted on July 25, 1985, after two failed attempts, the station went on the air on July 22, 1988 under Program Test Authority, was licensed on December 20. In July 2003, the Aspen fire interrupted the KUAT transmitter's remote control system.

The station was forced to remain off the air, instead of signing on in the morning, as it could not restart its transmitter. Operations on KUAS and cable distribution were unaffected. Both stations were granted construction permits to build digital facilities in August 2001, both signed on in February 2003. KUAT-DT received Special Temporary Authorization to operate at reduced power the same month. KUAS-DT was licensed on June 5, 2003, KUAT-DT received a license for its full facilities on September 23, 2004; the station was the first in Tucson to transmit its programming digitally. After providing $2.6 million in cash to AZPM in the 2013–-2014 school year, the University of Arizona planned cuts for 2014–2015 of $400,000 and continued cuts until 2019. As a PBS member station, KUAT-TV televises the most popular PBS shows, such as Masterpiece, Frontline, PBS NewsHour, Washington Week and Antiques Roadshow. Two notable long-running series on KUAT are produced in-house: Arizona Illustrated, a weekly newsmagazine which has provided in-depth coverage and analysis on local public affairs issues since 1980.

University students handle most of the production of Arizona Illustrated, providing them with valuable hands-on experience. Arizona Illustrated was one of the few nightly local newscasts produced by a PBS member station; the Desert Speaks, an Emmy Award-winning natural history and travel series. The Desert Speaks is produced in high-definition, has been distributed nationally to PBS member stations by American Public Television, has been picked up by the high-definition television channel, HDNet. In 2008, KUAT produced the documentary Phoenix Mars Mission: Ashes to Ice, which became the first of the station's productions to air nationally on PBS, its programs have received over 45 Rocky Mountain Emmy Awards. KUAT produces Reflexiones Domingo, a Spanish-language newsmagazine that airs on Sunday mornings. In addition to its primary programming, KUAT operates two digital subchannels, KUAT Kids and KUAT World. KUAT Kids known as PBS Kids, offers youth-focused educational and entertainment programming, while World features non-fictional programming.

It was one of the first stations to experiment with a multi-channel format, doing so as early as 1994. On October 11, 2016, the station changed its line up to match on both KUAT 6 and KUAS 27. V-me move to cable only from 6.2. ReadyTV and World programming would share the same channel.3 and while PBS Kids would be on.2. KUAT-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 6, at 11:59 p.m. on March 31, 2009, two months and 13 days before June 12, 2009, as part of the federally mandated transition from analog to digital television. The poor audio quality on the video clip of the shut-off was owed to interference from KLTU, a K-Love station, broadcasting on 88.1 MHz and thus had pounced on the KUAT audio signal throughout the time prior to the analog signal being shut off. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 30, using PSIP to display KUAT-TV's virtual channel as 6 on digital television receivers. With the dropping of PBS Kids in 2005, KUAT programmed KUAT Kids.

On 6.3, V-me started broadcasting on November 30, 2007 while.1 and.2 were HD and SD PBS. On December 1