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History of Germany (1945–1990)

After the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was divided between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany. Germany was stripped of its war gains and lost territories in the east to Poland and the Soviet Union. At the end of the war, there were some eight million foreign displaced persons in Germany. Over 10 million German-speaking refugees arrived in Germany from other countries in Central and Eastern Europe; some 9 million Germans were POWs, many of whom were kept as forced laborers for several years to provide restitution to the countries Germany had devastated in the war, some industrial equipment was removed as reparations. The Cold War divided Germany between the Western Allies in Soviets in the east. Germans had little voice in government until 1949 when two states emerged: Federal Republic of Germany known as West Germany, was a parliamentary democracy with a capitalist economic system and free churches and labor unions. German Democratic Republic known as East Germany, was the smaller Marxist–Leninist socialist republic with its leadership dominated by the Soviet-aligned Socialist Unity Party of Germany in order to retain it within the Soviet sphere of influence.

After experiencing its Wirtschaftswunder or "economic miracle" in 1955, West Germany became the most prosperous economy in Europe. Under Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, West Germany built strong relationships with France, the United States, Israel. West Germany joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the European Economic Community. East Germany stagnated as its economy was organized to meet the needs of the Soviet Union. Germany was reunited in 1990, following the decline and fall of the SED as the ruling party of the GDR. At the Potsdam Conference, after Germany's unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945, the Allies divided Germany into four military occupation zones — France in the southwest, Britain in the northwest, the United States in the south, the Soviet Union in the east, bounded eastwards by the Oder-Neisse line. At Potsdam these four zones in total were denoted as'Germany as a whole', the four Allied Powers exercised the sovereign authority they now claimed within Germany in agreeing'in principle' the future transfer of lands of the former German Reich east of'Germany as a whole' to Poland and the Soviet Union.

These eastern areas were notionally placed under Polish and Soviet administration pending a final peace treaty. In addition, under the Allies' Berlin Declaration, the territory of the extinguished German Reich was to be treated as the land area within its borders as of 31 December 1937. All Nazi land expansion from 1938 to 1945 was hence treated; such expansion included the League of Nations administered City-State of Danzig, the occupied territory of Czechoslovakia, Alsace-Lorraine, post 27 September 1939 "West Prussia", post 27 September 1939 "Posen Province", northern Slovenia, Malmedy, the part of Southern Silesia detached from 1918 Germany by action of the Versailles Treaty the Hultschiner Laendchen. The northern half of East Prussia in the region of Königsberg was administratively assigned by the Potsdam Agreement to the Soviet Union, pending a final Peace Conference; the Free City of Danzig and the southern half of East Prussia were incorporated into and annexed by Poland. It was agreed at Potsdam that Poland would receive all German lands east of the Oder-Neisse line, although the exact delimitation of the boundary was left to be resolved at an eventual Peace Conference.

Under the wartime alliances of the United Kingdom with the Czechoslovak and Polish governments-in-exile, the British had agreed in July 1942 to support "..the General Principle of the transfer to Germany of German minorities in Central and South Eastern Europe after the war in cases where this seems necessary and desirable". In 1944 12.4 million ethnic Germans were living in territory that became part of post-war Poland and Soviet Union. 6 million fled or were evacuated before the Red Army occupied the area. Of the remainder, around 2 million died during the war or in its aftermath, 3.6 million were expelled by the Poles, one million declared themselves to be Poles, 300,000 remained in Poland as Germans. The Sudetenland territories, surrendered to Germany by the Munich Agreement, were returned to Czechoslovakia; the Potsdam Conference subsequently sanctioned the "orderly and humane" transfer to Germany of individuals regarded as "ethnic Germans" by authorities in Czechoslovakia and Hungary.

The Potsdam Agreement recognized that these expulsions were

Touch (Sori song)

"Touch" is a debut song by the South Korean singer and actress Sori featuring the rapper Basick. The song was released as the debut single of the former on September 4, 2018. "Touch" was arranged and penned by the record producer Gamen Rider. The music video premiered on the same day of the single's release and was directed by the film director Hong Won-gi of the video production company Zanybros. Sori announced her debut as a solo artist through her official YouTube channel on July 31, 2018. In order to cover the expenses of her debut, a Makestar project was subsequently launched, running from August 1, 2018 until August 24, 2018; the project was an immense success, with 250 supporters raising over $20,000. Her debut single titled "Touch" was announced on August 27, 2018 in conjunction with the reveal of its cover art; the cover art was shot by the photographer Nakamura Kazutaka, while the latex dress sported in the cover art was designed by the fashion designer Atsuko Kudo. "Touch" is an uptempo dance-pop love song with tropical influences.

The song was arranged and penned by the record producer Gamen Rider, who produced a majority of the duo CocoSori's discography. "Touch" is three minutes and one second long. The song features the rapper Basick. "Touch" was a minor commercial success, where the physical version of the single debuted and peaked at number 49 on the Gaon Album Chart on the chart issued on September 14, 2018. A teaser for "Touch"'s music video was released on August 30, 2018, it premiered on September 4, 2018. The music video was directed by the film director Hong Won-gi of the video production company Zanybros. A choreography-centered version of the music video premiered on September 11, 2018; the choreography was created by the choreographer Choi Hyo-jin of the dance studio 1Million Dance Studio. A dancing competition using the song's choreography was subsequently held from September 12, 2018 until October 10, 2018, where the winner will receive ₩1,000,000; the music video begins with Sori resting her head on an unorganized dining table decorated with a bowl of cereal, a pitcher filled with milk, an apple.

She subsequently sprinkles cereal inside of the bowl before consuming a spoonful. Sori falls on a bed being pushed by women in orange latex swimsuits soon after. Throughout the music video, the aforementioned women dance around Sori, accompanying her to the swimming pool, an art museum, a restaurant, her bedroom. Miscellaneous shots include her undressing herself in a corridor, resting on a large apple, bathing in a bathtub filled with milk, playing with curtains, falling from a building. "Touch" was performed for the first time during its showcase held at the Dongja Art Hall in Seoul, South Korea on September 4, 2018. The song was subsequently performed on several music programs including KBS2's Music Bank, Mnet's M Countdown, SBS MTV's The Show, MBC Music's Show Champion. Additionally, Sori performed "Touch" twice during a street performance in Hongdae, with the first on September 8, 2018 and the second on December 29, 2018, in which she was accompanied by the internet personality StarTy

Artavis Scott

Artavis Scott is an American football wide receiver for the Indianapolis Colts of the National Football League. He signed with the Los Angeles Chargers after going undrafted in the 2017 NFL Draft, he played college football at Clemson. Scott attended East Lake High School in Florida. During his high school career, he had 172 receptions for 3,035 yards and 32 touchdowns receiving, 980 yards and 14 touchdowns rushing, 5,330 all-purpose yards and 51 total touchdowns, he was rated by as the ninth best wide receiver in his class. He committed to Clemson University to play college football. Scott made an immediate impact as a true freshman at Clemson in 2014. In the second game of the season, he had six receptions for two touchdowns. In the Palmetto Bowl against South Carolina, he had 185 receiving yards and two touchdowns on seven receptions, his totals for the season were 76 receptions for eight touchdowns. As a sophomore in 2015, Scott played 15 games with 93 receptions, 901 receiving yards, six touchdowns.

On January 9, 2017, Scott was part of the Clemson team that defeated Alabama in the 2017 College Football Playoff National Championship by a score of 35–31. In the game, he recorded three receptions for six yards; as a junior in 2016, Scott played 15 games with five touchdowns. After the season, Scott decided to enter the 2017 NFL Draft. Scott signed with the Los Angeles Chargers as an undrafted free agent following the 2017 NFL Draft and was reunited with former Clemson Tigers teammate Mike Williams, he was signed to the Chargers' practice squad the next day. He signed a reserve/future contract with the Chargers on January 2, 2018. On September 1, 2018, Scott was placed on injured reserve. On August 31, 2019, Scott was waived by the Chargers and was signed to the practice squad the next day, his practice squad contract with the team expired on January 6, 2020. On January 10, 2020, Scott signed a reserve/future contract with the Indianapolis Colts. Clemson Tigers bio

Les Courtilles (Paris Métro)

Les Courtilles is the terminus of the northwestern branch of Line 13 of the Paris Métro. The station is situated under Avenue de la Redoute on the border of the communes of Asnières-sur-Seine and Gennevilliers; the station opened on 14 June 2008 upon completion of the extension of Line 13 from Gabriel Péri. Reversing sidings are provided to the north of the station for trains to change direction. In November 2012, Île-de-France tramway Line 1 was extended to the west to terminate at Les Courtilles. List of stations of the Paris Métro Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton

Emanuel Weaver

Emanuel Weaver III is a former American football nose tackle in the National Football League for the Cincinnati Bengals and Atlanta Falcons. He was a member of the New Jersey Generals in the United States Football League, he played college football at South Carolina State University. Weaver attended John McDonogh High School, he accepted a football scholarship from South Carolina State University. He injured his knee late in his senior season. Weaver was selected by the Cincinnati Bengals in the second round of the 1982 NFL Draft, he was placed on the injured reserve list on August 29, 1983. He was waived on August 28, 1984. On December 27, 1984, he signed with the New Jersey Generals of the United States Football League, he appeared in 12 games during the 1985 season. He played with the team until the league folded in 1986. In 1987, he was signed as a free agent by the New Orleans Saints, he was released on August 27. After the NFLPA strike was declared on the third week of the 1987 season, those contests were canceled and the NFL decided that the games would be played with replacement players.

In September, he was signed by the Atlanta Falcons to be a part of their replacement team. He appeared in 2 games and was released at the end of the strike on October 19. Emanuel Weaver Stats

Errol Francis

Dr. Errol Anthony Francis is an artist, former mental health campaigner, current charity executive in the United Kingdom, he lives and works in London, England. Errol Francis gained his MA Fine Art from Central St Martins College of Art and Design in 2004, his professional practice ranged from being a mental health carer, a mental health writer and campaigner, to running mental health charities and being a senior manager in the NHS. He has co-authored of a number of inquiry reports and book chapters, including Black People, Mental Health and the Criminal Justice System with Deryck Browne and Epidemiology and schizophrenia with S. P. Sashidharan. Francis was part of the independent public inquiry into a number of deaths of African-Caribbean patients at Broadmoor Hospital and was co-author of the 1993 Big and Dangerous report into deaths of African-Caribbean patients at Broadmoor Hospital. Francis was Joint Programme Lead at the Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health and was co-author of Breaking the Circles of Fear, a research report into the relationship of the African-Caribbean community with the psychiatric services.

The project aimed to promote inclusion and positive mental health for black mental health service users, advising the Department of Health on their Delivering Race Equality programme. As an artist, Francis has exhibited across the UK, his installation about voting processes was exhibited at the Nehru Centre London, his photos and videos have been seen at a series of exhibitions at the Stephen Lawrence Gallery in Greenwich, at the BFI Southbank and the Camberwell Arts Festival. He was one of the artists chosen in 2007 to respond to the Bicentenary of the Parliamentary Abolition of the Slave Trade, to which he responded by encapsulating a lump of demerara sugar in acrylic, his collaborations with former asylum patients were shown in London, Birmingham and Glasgow in 2007 as part of the Mental Health Media project Testimony. He has collaborated with artist Caspar Below as Black Park, in 2005 when they launched their online project as part of the A2 Arts Ephemeral Cities project for Deptford. There are numerous references in Francis’s work to post-colonial visuality as it is manifested in architecture, landscape and plant collecting.

This critical questioning of empire and difference and its meaning for contemporary Britain have led him to Greenwich, a place he has identified as crucial and representative for the British national identity, which he explored in his Space time and Englishness. His doctoral thesis is about the institutional and historical relationships between museums and hospitals. Errol was appointed CEO of Culture & in 2016. In addition, he was awarded his PhD from the Slade School of Fine Art, University College London, where his research focused on postcolonial artistic responses to museums, he was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of West London in 2017