The history of Greece encompasses the history of the territory of the modern nation state of Greece as well as that of the Greek people and the areas they inhabited and ruled historically. The scope of Greek habitation and rule has varied throughout the ages and as a result the history of Greece is elastic in what it includes; the history of Greece is divided into the following periods: Neolithic Greece. At its cultural and geographical peak, Greek civilization spread from Egypt all the way to the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan. Since Greek minorities have remained in former Greek territories and Greek emigrants have assimilated into differing societies across the globe. Nowadays most Greeks live in the modern states of Cyprus; the Neolithic Revolution reached Europe beginning in 7000–6500 BC when agriculturalists from the Near East entered the Greek peninsula from Anatolia by island-hopping through the Aegean Sea. The earliest Neolithic sites with developed agricultural economies in Europe dated 8500–9000 BPE are found in Greece.
The first Greek-speaking tribes, speaking the predecessor of the Mycenaean language, arrived in the Greek mainland sometime in the Neolithic period or the Early Bronze Age. The transition from the Greek Neolithic to the Early Bronze Age occurred when Greece's agricultural population began to import bronze and copper and used basic bronze-working techniques. During the end of the 3rd millennium BC, the indigenous inhabitants of mainland Greece underwent a cultural transformation attributed to climate change, local events and developments, as well as to continuous contacts with various areas such as western Asia Minor, the Cyclades and Dalmatia; the Cycladic culture is a significant Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age culture, is best known for its schematic flat female idols carved out of the islands' pure white marble centuries before the great Middle Bronze Age culture arose in Crete, to the south. The Minoan civilization in Crete lasted from about c. 3000 BC to c. 1400 BC, the Helladic culture on the Greek mainland from circa 3200/3100 BC to 2000/1900 BC.
Little specific information is known about the Minoans, including their written system, recorded on the undeciphered Linear A script and Cretan hieroglyphs. They were a mercantile people engaged in extensive overseas trade throughout the Mediterranean region. Minoan civilization was affected by a number of natural cataclysms such as the volcanic eruption at Thera and earthquakes. In 1425 BC, the Minoan palaces were devastated by fire, which allowed the Mycenaean Greeks, influenced by the Minoans' culture, to expand into Crete; the Minoan civilization which preceded the Mycenaean civilization on Crete was revealed to the modern world by Sir Arthur Evans in 1900, when he purchased and began excavating a site at Knossos. Mycenaean civilization originated and evolved from the society and culture of the Early and Middle Helladic periods in mainland Greece, it emerged in circa 1600 BC, when Helladic culture in mainland Greece was transformed under influences from Minoan Crete and lasted until the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces in c. 1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greece is the Late Helladic Bronze Age civilization of Ancient Greece and it is the historical setting of the epics of Homer and most of Greek mythology and religion. The Mycenaean period takes its name from the archaeological site Mycenae in the northeastern Argolid, in the Peloponnesos of southern Greece. Athens, Pylos and Tiryns are important Mycenaean sites. Mycenaean civilization was dominated by a warrior aristocracy. Around 1400 BC, the Mycenaeans extended their control to Crete, center of the Minoan civilization, adopted a form of the Minoan script called Linear A to write their early form of Greek; the Mycenaean-era script is called Linear B, deciphered in 1952 by Michael Ventris. The Mycenaeans buried their nobles in beehive tombs, large circular burial chambers with a high-vaulted roof and straight entry passage lined with stone, they buried daggers or some other form of military equipment with the deceased. The nobility were buried with gold masks, tiaras and jeweled weapons.
Mycenaeans were buried in a sitting position, some of the
James Knoll Gardner was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Born in Allentown, Gardner received a Bachelor of Arts degree magna cum laude from Yale University in 1962 and a Juris Doctor from Harvard Law School in 1965, he was on active duty in the United States Navy JAG Corps from 1966 to 1969, remaining a U. S. Naval Reserve JAG Corps officer from 1969 to 1993, retiring as a Captain, he was in private practice of law in Philadelphia from 1965 to 1966 and 1969 to 1970, in Allentown from 1970 to 1981. He was Solicitor to the Treasurer of Lehigh County from 1971 to 1977, he was an Assistant District Attorney of Lehigh County from 1972 to 1977, First Assistant District Attorney of Lehigh County from 1977 to 1981. He was a judge on the Court of Common Pleas of Lehigh County from 1981 to 2002, serving as President Judge from 1997 to 2001. On April 22, 2002, Gardner was nominated by President George W. Bush to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania vacated by Jan E. DuBois.
Gardner was confirmed by the United States Senate on October 2, 2002, received his commission on October 3, 2002. He assumed senior status on April 3, 2017, serving in that status until his death on April 26, 2017. James Knoll Gardner at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center
Entores Ltd v Miles Far East Corporation EWCA Civ 3 is a landmark English Court of Appeal decision in contract law on the moment of acceptance of a contract over telex. Denning LJ found that the regular postal rule did not apply for instantaneous means of communications such as a telex. Instead, acceptance occurs where the message of acceptance is received. Entores was a London-based trading company that sent an offer by telex for the purchase of copper cathodes from a company based in Amsterdam; the Dutch company sent an acceptance by telex. The contract was not fulfilled and so Entores attempted to sue the owner of the Dutch company for damages; the controlling company, was based in the UK and under English law Entores could only bring the action in the UK if it could prove that the contract was formed within the jurisdiction, i.e. in London rather than Amsterdam. Denning LJ, delivered the leading judgment, he said that the postal rule could not apply to instantaneous communications, such as telephone or telex: if a phoneline "went dead" just before the offeree said "yes", it would be absurd to assume that the contract was formed and the parties would not have to call each other back.
The same applied to telex. Since the contract was therefore only formed when and where the telex was received, the place of formation was London. Brinkibon Ltd v Stahag Stahl und Stahlwarenhandelsgesellschaft mbH The Brimnes