History of Guatemala

The history of Guatemala begins with the Maya civilization, among those that flourished in their country. The country's modern history began with the Spanish conquest of Guatemala in 1524. Most of the great Classic-era Maya cities of the Petén Basin region, in the northern lowlands, had been abandoned by the year 1000 AD; the states in the Belize central highlands flourished until the 1525 arrival of Spanish Conquistador Pedro de Alvarado. Called "The Invader" by the Maya peoples, he began subjugating the Indian states. Guatemala was part of the Captaincy General of Guatemala for nearly 330 years This Captaincy included what is now Chiapas in Mexico and the modern countries of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Costa Rica; the Capitania became independent in 1821 and became a part of the First Mexican Empire until 1823. From 1824 it was a part of the Federal Republic of Central America; when the Republic dissolved in 1841, Guatemala became independent. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Guatemala's potential for agricultural exploitation attracted several foreign companies, most prominently the United Fruit Company.

These companies, supported by the country's authoritarian rulers, the United States government through their support for brutal labor regulations and massive concessions to wealthy landowners. In 1944, the policies of Jorge Ubico led to a popular uprising that began the ten-year Guatemalan Revolution; the presidencies of Juan José Arévalo and Jacobo Árbenz saw sweeping social and economic reforms, including a significant increase in literacy and a successful agrarian reform program. The progressive policies of Arévalo and Árbenz led the United Fruit Company to lobby the United States government for their overthrow, a US-engineered coup in 1954 ended the revolution and installed a military regime; this was followed by other military governments, jolted off a civil war that lasted from 1960 to 1996. The war saw human rights violations, including a genocide of the indigenous Maya population by the military. Following the war's end in 1997, Guatemala re-established a representative democracy, it has since struggled to enforce the rule of law and suffers a high crime rate and continued extrajudicial killings executed by security forces.

The earliest human settlements in Guatemala date back to the Paleo-Indian period and were made up of hunters and gatherers. Sites dating back to 6500 BC have been found in Quiché in the Highlands and Sipacate, Escuintla on the central Pacific coast. Although it is unclear when these groups of hunters and gatherers turned to cultivation, pollen samples from Petén and the Pacific coast indicate maize cultivation as early as 3500 BC. By 2500 BC, small settlements were developing in Guatemala's Pacific lowlands in such places as Tilapa, La Blanca, Ocós, El Mesak, Ujuxte, where the oldest pieces of ceramic pottery from Guatemala have been found. Excavations in the Antigua Guatemala Urías and Rucal, have yielded stratified materials from the Early and Middle Preclassic periods. Paste analyses of these early pieces of pottery in the Antigua Valley indicate they were made of clays from different environmental zones, suggesting people from the Pacific coast expanded into the Antigua Valley. Guatemala's Pre-Columbian era can be divided into the Preclassic period, the Classic period and the Postclassic period.

Until the Preclassic was regarded as a formative period, consisting of small villages of farmers who lived in huts and few permanent buildings, but this notion has been challenged by recent discoveries of monumental architecture from that period, such as an altar in La Blanca, San Marcos, from 1000 BC. In Monte Alto near La Democracia, giant stone heads and potbellies have been found, dating back to around 1800 BC; the stone heads have been ascribed to the Pre-Olmec Monte Alto Culture and some scholars suggest the Olmec Culture originated in the Monte Alto area. It has been argued the only connection between the statues and the Olmec heads is their size; the Monte Alto Culture may have been the first complex culture of Mesoamerica, predecessor of all other cultures of the region. In Guatemala, some sites have unmistakable Olmec style, such as Chocolá in Suchitepéquez, La Corona in Peten, Tak'alik A´baj, in Retalhuleu, the last of, the only ancient city in the Americas with Olmec and Mayan features.

El Mirador was by far the most populated city in pre-Columbian America. Both the El Tigre and Monos pyramids encompass a volume greater than 250,000 cubic meters. Richard Hansen, the director of the archaeological project of the Mirador Basin, believes the Maya at Mirador Basin developed the first politically organized state in America around 1500 BC, named the Kan Kingdom in ancient texts. There were 26 cities, all connected by sacbeob, which were several kilometers long, up to 40 meters wide, two to four meters above the ground, paved with stucco; these are distinguishable from the air in the most extensive virgin tropical rain forest in Mesoamerica. Hansen believes. Due to findings at Mirador Basin in Northern Petén, Hansen suggests the Olmec and Maya cultures developed separately, merged in some places, such as Tak'alik Abaj in the Pacific lowlands. Northern Guatemala has high densities of Late Pre-classic sites, including Naachtun, Xulnal, El Mirador, Pacaya, La Muralla, Nakbé, El Tintal, Wakná, Uaxactún, Tikal.

Of the

Danilo Restivo

Danilo Restivo is an Italian man serving a life sentence with a 40-year tariff for murdering his neighbour Heather Barnett in 2002. Investigators' suspicions that Restivo had murdered Barnett were raised because of his alleged involvement in the 1993 disappearance of Elisa Claps in Potenza, but he was not charged due to insufficient evidence. Subsequent to the 2010 discovery of Claps's body, Restivo was tried for the murder of Barnett, with evidence of similarities in ritualistic placing of hair on the bodies of Claps and Barnett being heard by the English court, he was found guilty of murdering Barnett, found guilty in his absence for murdering Claps by an Italian court. Restivo was born in Sicily. In 1972 he was living with his parents and his elder sister in the city of Potenza, in Basilicata Southern Italy, he would attempt to arrange dates with girls by claiming to have a present for them. Restivo harassed those who rejected him with phone calls in which he would play a soundtrack to Profondo Rosso, a giallo film about a serial killer who plays a melody before every murder.

Restivo was known to police, who believed him be responsible for nine incidents in which women had had their hair clandestinely cut. He was thought to have tied up two children before cutting one with a knife. A magistrate refused to issue an arrest warrant for Restivo in June 1994, but four months he was taken into custody. An Italian policeman who questioned Restivo described him as "cunning" and "precise in his answers". Elisa Claps, the 16-year-old daughter of a tobacconist and a clerk, was a student in the third year of the high school in Potenza, a devout Catholic, with ambitions to become a physician and work with Médecins Sans Frontières, she was the youngest of three children and was described as close to her family. Friends reported Claps felt sorry for Restivo, who appeared depressed, she wrote several pages in her secret diary complaining about his odd behaviour. Despite misgivings, she agreed to meet Restivo at the 15th-century Chiesa della Santissima Trinità in the centre of the city, after Restivo phoned and asked for a date, pretending he had a love match with a friend of hers and asking for suggestions.

On Sunday 12 September 1993, accompanied by a female friend, went to meet Restivo at the church, arriving at 11:30 a.m. just as Mass had ended. When she did not return home, Claps' elder brother, telephoned Restivo's family residence and was told that Restivo was out of town due to university essays and had no knowledge of Claps's whereabouts; when Gildo went to the church, he discovered the priest in charge, Domenico Sabia, had left for some days, taking with him the only key giving access to the upper storey of the church building. Sabia opposed a search of the church. Gildo reported the disappearance of his sister to police, but was told the matter had "no urgency"; when a policeman questioned him, Restivo fell into a near-hysterical state admitted that he and Claps had spent some time together discussing the girl he had fallen in love with. Claps had left the church, while he had stayed to pray, he added that Claps had seemed frightened and had confided to him that she "had been harassed by a boy before entering the church".

That day, he said, he had gone to Naples, where he was a freshman at the Faculty of Dentistry. Restivo claimed to have hurt his hand while taking a short-cut through a building site; the Restivo family declined the policeman's request for clothes Restivo had worn on that Sunday morning. Moreover, the fiancé of Restivo's sister, a young man named Giovanni M. told the police that Restivo had looked terrified about that little cut on his hand and had insisted on being accompanied to the emergency room. Giovanni M. stated that Restivo's jacket looked dirty and soaked with blood. Claps' disappearance was the subject of intense media speculation; the assumption that Claps had subsequently left the church moved the focus of the investigation away from the church building and onto other lines of inquiry. Claps' close friend who had accompanied her on the day of her disappearance told investigators that she had last seen Claps outside the church at 11:30 a.m. at which point Claps had departed to meet Restivo in the church.

She claimed Claps had told her she would be back in half an hour. Prosecutors suspected her of involvement in the disappearance; the young woman, aged only 16 confessed to several friends that she was worried and that she could have met the same fate of Claps if she had been with her. An acquaintance of Claps said. Claps' diary had a page missing. A connection to Albania was thought by some to be the most promising line of inquiry. Police suggested Claps could have run away with her boyfriend or something similar. Claps' elder brother, alleged that the investigation into his sister's disappearance had been hindered by deference to prominent community figures; the investigation was moved 120 km away to Salerno. In 2012, Tobias Jones wrote:"The case became, for many, an obsession, one of the iconic Italian mysteries that enabled people to engage in dietrologia, literally'behindery' or conspiracy-theorising. Claps' face—her long, dark hair, thick glasses and carefree smile—haunted the nation." In 1996, Restivo was tried for giving false information.

He testified that he had met Claps in a curtained area behind the altar before she left minutes later. He admitted he had taken girls

Bovey, Minnesota

Bovey is a city in Itasca County, United States. It is part of Minnesota's Iron Range; the population was 804 at the 2010 census. U. S. Highway 169 serves as a main route in the area. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.30 square miles, of which 2.29 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. In recent years the city, along with its neighbors Coleraine and Taconite, has been under a serious threat of flooding from the nearby Canisteo Mine Pit; the pit, which comprises a series of 19 mines that ceased to be worked in 1985, has now become a lake some 4.8 miles long and up to 300 ft deep. In June 2011 the water level was recorded as having reached 1316.1 feet above sea level, higher than low-lying areas of the town. A project to drain some of the lake to prevent it overflowing and swamping the town was due to commence in mid-2011; the most recent pit water level is 1316.60 MSL. Bovey hosts an annual harvest festival known as Farmer's Day, which festivities occur during Labor Day weekend.

The holiday culminates with a parade on Labor Day, Farmer's Day. Adam Hauser – NHL goaltender born and raised in Bovey. Richard HongistoSan Francisco politician born in Bovey. Eric Enstrom – photographer of the famous 1918 photograph Grace As of the census of 2010, there were 804 people, 334 households, 200 families living in the city; the population density was 351.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 380 housing units at an average density of 165.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.8% White, 0.2% African American, 2.4% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 3.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.4% of the population. There were 334 households of which 32.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.8% were married couples living together, 12.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 8.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.1% were non-families. 29.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.39 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 52.2% male and 47.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 662 people, 302 households, 169 families living in the city; the population density was 290.0 people per square mile. There were 326 housing units at an average density of 142.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.98% White, 2.11% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.76% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 302 households out of which 23.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.4% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.0% were non-families. 36.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.19 and the average family size was 2.83.

In the city, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 11.2% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 22.4% from 45 to 64, 18.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $25,662, the median income for a family was $33,750. Males had a median income of $28,571 versus $19,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,127. About 19.5% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 46.6% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over