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Brangus is a hardy and popular breed of beef cattle, a cross between an Angus and a Brahman. Animals eligible for registration as Brangus cattle are 3/8 Brahman. Brangus is a registered trademark of the International Brangus Breeders Association; the effort to develop the Brangus breed had begun by 1932, the first organization of Brangus breeders was chartered in 1949. Registered Brangus descend from the foundation animals recorded that year or registered Brahman and Angus cattle enrolled since then. Much of the early work in crossing Brahman and Angus cattle was done at the USDA Experiment Station in Jeanerette, Louisiana. According to the USDA 1935 Yearbook in Agriculture, the research with these crosses started about 1932. During the same period, Clear Creek Ranch, Raymond Pope, the Essar Ranch, a few individual breeders in other parts of the United States and Canada were carrying on private experimental breeding programs, they were looking for a beef-type animal that would retain the Brahman's natural ability to thrive under adverse conditions.

The early breeders from 16 states and Canada met in Vinita, Oklahoma, on July 2, 1949, organized the American Brangus Breeders Association, with headquarters in Kansas City, Missouri. The breed association, now named the International Brangus Breeders Association, has been headquartered in San Antonio, since January, 1973. There are now members in nearly every one of the United States, in Argentina, Canada, Central America and Zimbabwe; the Brangus breed was developed to the superior traits of Brahman cattle. Their genetics are stabilized at 5/8 Angus; the combination results in a breed which unites the traits of two successful parent breeds. The Brahman, through rigorous natural selection, developed disease resistance, overall hardiness and outstanding maternal instincts. Angus are known for their superior carcass qualities. Angus cows are extremely functional females excelling in fertility and ability to be milked. Registered Brangus must be 3/8 Brahman and 5/8 Angus, solid black or red, polled.

Both sire and dam must be recorded with the International Brangus Breeders Association. Foundation Angus and Brahman cattle must be registered in their respective breed associations prior to being enrolled with the IBBA. Intermediate crosses necessary to reach the 3/8 - 5/8 percentage are certified by the IBBA. In recent years, the major portion of the Brangus registered are from Brangus parents, but an increasing number of foundation Brahman and Angus are being enrolled as the breed achieves greater recognition. Interest in developing breeds of cattle carrying some percentage of Brahman breeding for the general improvement of the commercial cattle of the United States speaks well for the apparent advantages that Bos indicus cattle have in areas of high heat and humidity. Research at Louisiana has indicated that Brangus cows increased their weights during the summer months while Angus cows lost weight, indicating that they were more adapted to coastal climates. Calves from Brangus were heavier for total pounds produced per cow.

The Angus had an advantage in conception rate and calved earlier, the calves were more vigorous at birth and survived better to weaning. The breed have proven resistant to high humidity. Under conditions of cool and cold climate they seem to produce enough hair for adequate protection; the cows are good mothers, the calves are of medium size at birth. The cattle respond well to conditions of abundant feed, but have exhibited hardiness under conditions of stress. Briggs, H. M. & D. M. Briggs. Modern Breeds of Livestock. Fourth Edition. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1980 International Brangus Breeders Association, San Antonio, TX. American Angus Association Australian Brangus Bar 3 Brangus Beef Beef cattle Cattle Red Angus Red Angus Association of America Brangus Breed Information - Oklahoma State University International Brangus Breeders Association

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn Fawr

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn was the Welsh first-born son of Llywelyn the Great. His mother Tangwystl died in childbirth; as a boy, Gruffydd was one of the hostages taken by King John of England as a pledge for his father's continued good faith. A clause in Magna Carta compelled his release. On his father's death in 1240, under Welsh law, he would have been entitled to consideration as his father's successor. Llywelyn however had excluded him from the succession and had declared Dafydd, his son by his wife Joan, to be heir to the kingdom. Llywelyn went to great lengths to strengthen Dafydd's position aware that there would be considerable Welsh support for Gruffydd against the half-English Dafydd. Gruffydd was given lands in Ardudwy and Merioneth by his father, though in 1221 he was removed for maladministration of those lands. In 1223 he commanded a force of his father's army, against William Marshal, his father imprisoned him between 1228 and 1234. On his release he was again given lands, this time controlling much of the commotes of Llŷn, Cyfeiliog, Mawddwy and Caereinion.

Gruffydd was held a prisoner by his brother Dafydd. Following a successful invasion of the Welsh borders by King Henry III of England in 1241, Dafydd was obliged to hand over Gruffydd into the king's custody, he was taken to London and imprisoned in the Tower of London. Gruffydd's wife, agreed to pay Henry 600 marks for the release of her husband and their eldest son, to hand over her two youngest sons and Rhodri, to the king as hostages to ensure that she kept her part of the bargain. Henry did not keep his part however, kept Gruffydd and his son imprisoned as "guests" because this continued to give him the possibility of using Gruffydd as a weapon against his brother. However, Gruffydd died while attempting to escape from the Tower in 1244, he is said to have used an improvised rope made from sheets and cloths to lower himself from his window, but as he was a heavy man, the rope broke and he fell to his death. In 1248, the abbots of Strata Florida and Aberconwy arranged for the return of his body to Wales, where he was buried at Aberconwy with his father.

After his death Gruffydd's four sons—Owain, Llywelyn and Rhodri—would come into their own, after much fraternal discord, Llywelyn ended up ruling most of Wales. He had three daughters, Gwladus and Margred. According to several non-contemporary Welsh genealogical tracts, the mother of Llywelyn was Rhanullt, an otherwise unknown daughter of Rǫgnvaldr Guðrøðarson, King of the Isles. If correct, these sources could indicate that Gruffydd married a daughter of Rǫgnvaldr in about 1220. Contemporary sources, show that Llywelyn's mother was Senana, an undoubted wife of Gruffydd. Stephen, Leslie. "Gruffydd ab Llywelyn". Dictionary of National Biography. 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Mark Jones (rugby, born 1965)

Mark Alun Jones is a Welsh dual-code international professional rugby union and rugby league footballer who played in the 1980s and 1990s. He played representative level rugby union for Wales, at club level for Tredegar RFC, Tredegar Ironsides RFC, Neath RFC, Ebbw Vale RFC, Pontypool RFC, Aberavon RFC, as a flanker, i.e. number 6 or 7, or number eight, representative level rugby league for Great Britain and Wales, at club level for Hull F. C. and Warrington, as a prop, or second-row, i.e. number 8 or 10, or, 11 or 12. Mark Jones was born in Wales. Mark Jones won caps for Wales while at Neath in 1987 against Scotland, in 1988 against New Zealand, in 1989 against Scotland, France and New Zealand, in 1990 against France, Scotland and Namibia, while at Warrington in 1998 against Zimbabwe, won caps for Wales while at Hull in 1991 against Papua New Guinea, in 1992 against France, England, in 1993 against New Zealand, in 1994 against France, while at Warrington in 1995 against USA, in the 1995 Rugby League World Cup against France, England, in 1996 against France, England, won a cap for Great Britain while at Hull in 1992 against France.

Warrington's World Cup heroes – Mark Jones Statistics at

Julius Motteler

Julius Motteler was a pioneering German Socialist and Businessman. Julius Motteler was a leading member of the early German Labour movement and was elected a member of the Reichstag. During the period 1878 - 1890, defined politically in Germany by the Anti-Socialist Laws, he organised the party's underground press activities, he was instrumental in the establishment of trades unions in Germany, an early champion of the Proletarian Women's Movement. He was a member of the inner circle of left wing leaders that included August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht. Motteler was a member of the Social Democratic Party, having been a co-founder of several predecessor political parties, the Saxon People's Party, the Social Democratic Workers' Party and the German Socialist Worker's Party. Julius Motteler was born the ninth of twelve children in Esslingen, some ten miles southeast of Stuttgart, his father was a prosperous hotelier. The boy prepared for a career as a teacher. However, his father died on July 1848 and four years in 1852, Julius Motteler quit the local teacher training college and embarked on an apprenticeship in the weaving trade.

After he had completed his military service Motteler, by now a qualified weaver and textile worker, had some commercial training, moved to Augsburg in Bavaria where he gained experience as a book keeper and factory manager. He relocated again in 1859, this time to Saxony, taking a job in September of that year as a dispatcher and book keeper with a textiles company called "Vigonespinnerei Wolf & Kirsten" in Crimmitschau near Zwickau. In Saxony Motteler focused on trades union and political activities. In 1860 he joined the politically liberal German National Association, itself a precursor to a political party; this was. In 1863 he was one of the founders of the Arbeiterbildungsverein in Crimmitschau, which became part of a nationwide movement. In the same year, with the creation of the Verband Deutscher Arbeitervereine, he gave expression to a separation of the workers' movement from what socialist innovators of the time would have identified as "Bourgeois liberalism", he adopted the programme drawn up by Karl Marx for the First International as a political road map.

In 1866 he was a founding member with August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht of the Saxon People's Party. The next year he lost his job with "Wolf & Kirsten" who objected to his election campaigning, joined "Spinn- und Webgenossenschaft Ernst Stehfest & Co", still in Crimmitschau, working as a buyer, he was not alone in losing his job for political reasons, his new employer was a co-operative enterprise, founded on 8 July 1867 by a number of textile workers who had lost their previous jobs for political campaigning. The sector and the region were booming, the new enterprise was successful, but it closed through insolvency in 1876. Motteler had stood as a guarantor for the cooperative. In 1867 Julius Motteler and Karl Wilhelm Stolle jointly established the "Crimmitschau Republican People's Union", as the local branch of the Saxon People's Party, he played a part in sending workers' delegates to the Reichstag of the short-lived North German Confederation. In 1869 he participated, with August Bebel, in the founding in Eisenach of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, which turned out to be a precursor of the SPD.

Shortly afterwards he established a local party branch in Crimmitschau, in 1868 dissolving the local Arbeiterbildungsverein to make way for the new SDAP. In May 1869 Motteler was a founder, in Leipzig, of the "Trades Union of Manufacturing and Craft workers of both sexes" which became one of the country's largest trades unions, although it proved short-lived, being closed down by the police on 10 December 1878, after the legislators outlawed trades unions in 1878. In the longer term this union can be seen as a forerunner of the German Textile Workers' Union founded in 1891 following the lifting of the Anti-Socialist Laws. In addition to campaigning for women's rights long before most of the issues involved found their way into mainstream socialist politics, Motteler argued vehemently against the use of child labour in factories, he backed the creation of various consumer cooperatives, workers' associations and labour unions. With Stolle, in 1870 he founded a co-operative printing press to produce the "Crimmitschau Citizens' and Farmers' Friend", identified by some as Germany's first regional Social Democratic newspaper.

During the 1870s he was involved with the establishment of a printing co-operative in Leipzig between 1874 and 1876, in Barmen in 1877. He resigned from chairmanship of the Leipzig 1876 for personal reasons in 1876. Following unification, in 1874 Julius Motteler was elected to the Reichstag for the Social Democratic Workers' Party, one of several parties which underwent successive mergers to become, in 1890, the Social Democratic Party of Germany, he was elected to represent the "Zwickau Werdau Glauchau Crimmitschau" electoral district. On 22 Ma


Pseudoreplication is the process of artificially inflating the number of samples or replicates. As a result, statistical tests performed on the data are rendered invalid. Pseudoreplication was defined in 1984 by Stuart H. Hurlbert as a special case of inadequate specification of random factors where both random and fixed factors are present; the problem of inadequate specification arises when treatments are assigned to units that are subsampled and the treatment F-ratio in an analysis of variance table is formed with respect to the residual mean square rather than with respect to the among unit mean square. The F-ratio relative to the within unit mean square is vulnerable to the confounding of treatment and unit effects when experimental unit number is small; the problem is eliminated by forming the F-ratio relative to the correct mean square in the ANOVA table, where this is possible. The problem is addressed by the use of mixed models. Hurlbert reported "pseudoreplication" in 48% of the studies he examined, that used inferential statistics.

Several studies examining scientific papers published up to 2016 found about half of the papers were suspected of pseudoreplication. When time and resources limit the number of experimental units, unit effects cannot be eliminated statistically by testing over the unit variance, it is important to use other sources of information to evaluate the degree to which an F-ratio is confounded by unit effects. Replication increases the precision of an estimate, while randomization addresses the broader applicability of a sample to a population. Replication must be appropriate: replication at the experimental unit level must be considered, in addition to replication within units. Statistical tests rely on appropriate replication to estimate statistical significance. Tests based on the t and F distributions assume homogeneous and independent errors. Correlated errors can lead to false precision and p-values. Hurlbert defined four types of pseudoreplication. Simple pseudoreplication occurs. Inferential statistics cannot separate variability due to treatment from variability due to experimental units when there is only one measurement per unit.

Temporal pseudoreplication occurs when experimental units differ enough in time that temporal effects among units are and treatment effects are correlated with temporal effects. Inferential statistics cannot separate variability due to treatment from variability due to experimental units when there is only one measurement per unit. Sacrificial pseudoreplication occurs when means within a treatment are used in an analysis, these means are tested over the within unit variance. In Figure 5b the erroneous F-ratio will have 1 df in the numerator mean square and 4 df in the denominator mean square; the correct F-ratio will have 2 df in the denominator. The correct F-ratio controls for effects of experimental units but with 2 df in the denominator it will have little power to detect treatment differences. Implicit pseudoreplication occurs; as with other sources of pseudoreplication, treatment effects cannot be statistically separated from effects due to variation among experimental units