History of Korea
Part of a series on the
|History of Korea|
|Later Three Kingdoms|
|Unitary dynastic period|
|Division of Korea|
The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula began roughly half a million years ago. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BCE, and the Neolithic period began after 6000 BCE, followed by the Bronze Age by 800 BCE, and the Iron Age around 400 BCE.
The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 12th century BCE, and its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era. The written historical record on Gojoseon can be found from early 7th century BCE. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea by the 3rd century BCE. In the 2nd century BCE, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon, which fell to the Han China near the end of the century. This resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the later Iron Age.
From the 1st century, Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms of Korea (57 BCE – 668 CE), until unification by Silla in 676. In 698, Dae Jo-yeong established Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo, which led to the North South States Period (698–926). In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms (892–936), which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo dynasty. Meanwhile, Balhae fell after invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty and the refugees including the last crown prince emigrated to Goryeo, where the crown prince was warmly welcomed and included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor states of Goguryeo. During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, and culture influenced by Buddhism flourished. However, Mongol invasions in the 13th century brought Goryeo under its influence until the mid-14th century.
In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon dynasty (1392–1910) after a coup that overthrew the Goryeo dynasty in 1388. King Sejong the Great (1418–1450) implemented numerous administrative, social, scientific, and economic reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, and created Hangul, the Korean alphabet.
After enjoying a period of peace for nearly two centuries, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions and internal fractional strifes, from 1592 to 1637. Most notable of these invasions is the Japanese invasions of Korea (Combined force of Ming Dynasty and Joseon dynasty manage to repel Japanese invasion), which marks the end of the early period of the Joseon dynasty. Henceforth, Joseon gradually became more and more isolationist and stagnant. By the mid 19th century, with the country unwilling to modernize, and encroachment of European powers, Joseon Korea was forced to sign unequal treaties with foreign powers. After the assassination of Empress Myeongseong in 1895, the Donghak Rebellions of 1894-1895, and the Gabo Reforms of 1894 to 1896, the Korean Empire (1897–1910) came into existence and a brief but rapid period of social reform and modernization occurred. However, in 1905, the Korean Empire signed a protectorate treaty and in 1910, Japan annexed the Korean Empire.
Korean resistance was manifested in the widespread nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919. Thereafter the resistance movements, coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile, became largely active in neighboring Manchuria, China, and Siberia, influenced by Korea's peaceful demonstrations. Figures from these exile organizations would become important in post-WWII Korea.
After the end of WWII in 1945, the Allies divided the country into a northern area (protected by the Soviets) and a southern area protected (primarily by the United States). In 1948, when the powers failed to agree on the formation of a single government, this partition became the modern states of North and South Korea. The peninsula was divided at the 38th Parallel: the "Republic of Korea" was created in the south, with the backing of the US and Western Europe, and the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in the north, with the backing of the Soviets and the communist People's Republic of China. The new premier of North Korea, Kim il-Sung, launched the Korean War in 1950 in an attempt to reunify the country under Communist rule. After immense material and human destruction, the conflict ended with a cease-fire in 1953. The two nations officially remain at war because a peace treaty was never signed. In, 1991, both states were accepted into the United Nations.
While both countries were essentially under military rule after the war, South Korea eventually liberalized. Since 1987 it has had a competitive electoral system. The South Korean economy has prospered, and the country is now considered to be fully developed, with a similar capital economic standing to Western Europe, Japan, and the United States.
North Korea has maintained a militarized dictatorship rule, with a cult of personality constructed around the Kim family. Economically, North Korea has remained heavily dependent on foreign aid. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, that aid fell precipitously. The country's economic situation has been quite marginal since.
- 1 Prehistoric and Antiquity period
- 2 Three Kingdoms of Korea
- 3 North and South States
- 4 Goryeo Dynasty of Korea
- 5 Joseon Dynasty of Korea
- 6 Modern history
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 Notes
- 11 External links
Prehistoric and Antiquity period
No fossil proven to be Homo erectus has been found in the Korean Peninsula, though a candidate has been reported. Tool-making artifacts from the Palaeolithic period have been found in present-day North Hamgyong, South Pyongan, Gyeonggi, and north and south Chungcheong Provinces of Korea, which dates the Paleolithic Age to half a million years ago, though it may have begun as late as 400,000 years ago or as early as 600,000–700,000 years ago.
The earliest known Korean pottery dates back to around 8000 BCE, and evidence of Mesolithic Pit–Comb Ware culture (or Yunggimun pottery) is found throughout the peninsula, such as in Jeju Island. Jeulmun pottery, or "comb-pattern pottery", is found after 7000 BCE, and is concentrated at sites in west-central regions of the Korean Peninsula, where a number of prehistoric settlements, such as Amsa-dong, existed. Jeulmun pottery bears basic design and form similarities to that of Mongolia, the Amur and Sungari river basins of Manchuria, the Jōmon culture in Japan, and the Baiyue in Southern China and Southeast Asia.
People in southern Korea adopted intensive dry-field and paddy-field agriculture with a multitude of crops in the Early Mumun Period (1500–850 BCE). The first societies led by big-men or chiefs emerged in the Middle Mumun (850–550 BC), and the first ostentatious elite burials can be traced to the Late Mumun (c. 550–300 BCE). Bronze production began in the Middle Mumun and became increasingly important in ceremonial and political society after 700 BCE. Archeological evidence from Songguk-ri, Daepyeong, Igeum-dong, and elsewhere indicate that the Mumun era was the first in which chiefdoms rose, expanded, and collapsed. The increasing presence of long-distance trade, an increase in local conflicts, and the introduction of bronze and iron metallurgy are trends denoting the end of the Mumun around 300 BCE.
Gojoseon and Jin State
The founding legend of Gojoseon, which is recorded in the Samguk Yusa (1281) and other medieval Korean books, states that the country was established in 2333 BCE by Dangun, said to be descended from heaven. While no evidence has been found that supports whatever facts may lie beneath this, the account has played an important role in developing Korean national identity. In the 12th century BC Gija, a prince from the Shang dynasty of China, purportedly founded Gija Joseon. However, due to contradicting historical and archaeological evidence, its existence was challenged in the 20th century, and today no longer forms the mainstream understanding of this period.
The historical Gojoseon kingdom was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE. By about the 4th century BCE, Gojoseon had developed to the point where its existence was well known in China. and around this time, its capital moved to Pyongyang.
In 195 BCE, Jun of Gojoseon appointed a refugee from Yan, Wiman. Wiman later rebelled in 194 BCE, and Jun fled to the south of the Korean Peninsula. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. Three of the commanderies fell or retreated westward within a few decades, but the Lelang commandery remained as a center of cultural and economic exchange with successive Chinese dynasties for four centuries, until it was conquered by Goguryeo in 313.
Around 300 BCE, a state called Jin arose in the southern part of the Korean peninsula. Very little is known about Jin, but it established relations with Han China and exported artifacts to the Yayoi of Japan. Around 100 BCE, Jin evolved into the Samhan confederacies.
Many smaller states sprang from the former territory of Gojoseon such as Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, Goguryeo, and Baekje. The Three Kingdoms refer to Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, although Buyeo and the Gaya confederacy existed into the 5th and 6th centuries respectively.
The Bronze Age is often held to have begun around 900-800 BCE in Korea, though the transition to the Bronze Age may have begun as far back as 2300 BCE. Bronze daggers, mirrors, jewelry, and weaponry have been found, as well as evidence of walled-town polities. Rice, red beans, soybeans and millet were cultivated, and rectangular pit-houses and increasingly larger dolmen burial sites are found throughout the peninsula. Contemporaneous records suggest that Gojoseon transitioned from a feudal federation of walled cities into a centralised kingdom at least before the 4th-century BCE. It is believed that by the 4th century BCE, iron culture was developing in Korea by northern influence via today's Russia's Maritime Province.
The Proto-Three Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Several States Period (열국시대), is the time before the rise of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which included Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje, and occurred after the fall of Gojoseon. This time period consisted of numerous states that sprang up from the former territories of Gojoseon. Among these states, the largest and most influential were Dongbuyeo and Bukbuyeo.
Buyeo and other Northern states
After the fall of Gojoseon, Buyeo arose in today's North Korea and southern Manchuria, from about the 2nd century BCE to 494. Its remnants were absorbed by Goguryeo in 494, and both Goguryeo and Baekje, two of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, considered themselves its successor.
Although records are sparse and contradictory, it is thought that in 86 BCE, Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo) branched out, after which the original Buyeo is sometimes referred to as Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo). Jolbon Buyeo was the predecessor to Goguryeo, and in 538, Baekje renamed itself Nambuyeo (South Buyeo).
Okjeo was a tribal-state that was located in the northern Korean Peninsula, and was established after the fall of Gojoseon. Okjeo had been a part of Gojoseon before its fall. It never became a fully developed kingdom due to the intervention of its neighboring kingdoms. Okjeo became a tributary of Goguryeo, and was eventually annexed into Goguryeo by Gwanggaeto Taewang in the 5th century.
Dongye was another small kingdom that was situated in the northern Korean Peninsula. Dongye bordered Okjeo, and the two kingdoms faced the same fate of becoming tributaries of the growing empire of Goguryeo. Dongye was also a former part of Gojoseon before its fall.
Sam-han (삼한, 三韓) refers to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. The Samhan were located in the southern region of the Korean Peninsula. The Samhan countries were strictly governed by law, with religion playing an important role. Mahan was the largest, consisting of 54 states, and assumed political, economic, and cultural dominance. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of 12 states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. The Samhan were eventually conquered by Baekje, Silla, and Gaya in the 4th century.
Three Kingdoms of Korea
Goguryeo was founded in 37 BCE by Jumong (posthumously titled as Dongmyeongseong, a royal given title). Later, King Taejo centralized the government. Goguryeo was the first Korean kingdom to adopt Buddhism as the state religion in 372, in King Sosurim's reign.
Goguryeo (also spelled as Koguryŏ) was also known as Goryeo (also spelled as Koryŏ), and it eventually became the source of the modern name of Korea.
Goguryeo reached its zenith in the 5th century, becoming a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, when Gwanggaeto the Great and his son, Jangsu, expanded the country into almost all of Manchuria, parts of Inner Mongolia, parts of Russia, and took the present-day city of Seoul from Baekje. Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto and Jangsu, who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power of the Korean peninsula. Jangsu's long reign of 79 years saw the perfecting of Goguryeo's political, economic and other institutional arrangements.
Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state; in addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, most notably the Goguryeo–Sui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force traditionally said to number over a million men,[note 2] and contributed to the Sui dynasty's fall.
In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo's stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. The Tang–Silla alliance mounted a fresh invasion in 667, aided by the defector Yeon Namsaeng, and was finally able to conquer Goguryeo in 668.
After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo's northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories.
Baekje was founded by Onjo, a Goguryeo prince and the third son of the founder of Goguryeo, in 18 BCE. Baekje and Goguryeo shared founding myths and originated from Buyeo. The Sanguo Zhi mentions Baekje as a member of the Mahan confederacy in the Han River basin (near present-day Seoul). It expanded into the southwest (Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces) of the peninsula and became a significant political and military power. In the process, Baekje came into fierce confrontation with Goguryeo and the Chinese commanderies in the vicinity of its territorial ambitions.
At its peak in the 4th century during the reign of King Geunchogo, Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as part of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralized government. Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern dynasties during the expansion of its territory.
Baekje was a great maritime power; its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. Baekje played a fundamental role in transmitting cultural developments, such as Chinese characters, Buddhism, iron-making, advanced pottery, and ceremonial burial to ancient Japan. Other aspects of culture were also transmitted when the Baekje court retreated to Japan after Baekje was conquered by the Silla–Tang alliance.
Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, especially during the time of Geunchogo, but was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined.[self-published source] Ultimately, Baekje was defeated by a coalition of Silla and Tang forces in 660.
According to legend, the kingdom of Silla began with the unification of six chiefdoms of the Jinhan confederacy by Bak Hyeokgeose in 57 BCE, in the southeastern area of Korea. Its territory included the present-day port city of Busan, and Silla later emerged as a sea power responsible for destroying Japanese pirates, especially during the Unified Silla period.
Silla artifacts, including unique gold metalwork, show influence from the northern nomadic steppes and Iranian peoples and especially Persians , with less Chinese influence than are shown by Goguryeo and Baekje. Silla expanded rapidly by occupying the Nakdong River basin and uniting the city-states.
By the 2nd century, Silla was a large state, occupying and influencing nearby city-states. Silla gained further power when it annexed the Gaya confederacy in 562. Silla often faced pressure from Goguryeo, Baekje and Japan, and at various times allied and warred with Baekje and Goguryeo.
Silla was the smallest and weakest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage.
In 660, King Muyeol of Silla ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje. In 661, Silla and Tang moved on Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of Kim, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year.
Gaya was a confederacy of small kingdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. Gaya's plains were rich in iron, so export of iron tools was possible and agriculture flourished. In the early centuries, the Confederacy was led by Geumgwan Gaya in the Gimhae region. However, its leading power changed to Daegaya in the Goryeong region after the 5th century.
North and South States
The term North-South States refers to Later Silla and Balhae, during the time when Silla controlled the majority of the Korean peninsula while Balhae expanded into Manchuria. During this time, culture and technology significantly advanced, especially in Later Silla.
After the unification wars, the Tang dynasty established outposts in the former Goguryeo, and began to establish and administer communities in Baekje. Silla attacked Tang forces in Baekje and northern Korea in 671. Tang then invaded Silla in 674 but Silla drove the Tang forces out of the peninsula by 676 to achieve unification of most of the Korean peninsula.
Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture. During this period, long-distance trade between Later Silla and the Abbasid Caliphate was documented by Persian geographer Ibn Khordadbeh in the Book of Roads and Kingdoms. Buddhist monasteries such as the World Heritage Sites Bulguksa temple and Seokguram Grotto are examples of advanced Korean architecture and Buddhist influence. Other state-sponsored art and architecture from this period include Hwangnyongsa Temple and Bunhwangsa Temple. Persian chronics described Silla as located at the eastern end of China and reads 'In this beautiful country Silla, there is much gold, majestetic cities and hardworking people. Their culture is comparable with Persia'.
Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju was the fourth largest city in the world.
Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism.
Silla began to experience political troubles in late 8th century. This severely weakened Silla and soon thereafter, descendants of the former Baekje established Hubaekje. In the north, rebels revived Goguryeo, beginning the Later Three Kingdoms period.
Balhae was founded only thirty years after Goguryeo had fallen, in 698. It was founded in the northern part of former lands of Goguryeo by Dae Joyeong, a former Goguryeo general or chief of Sumo Mohe. Balhae controlled the northern areas of the Korean Peninsula, much of Manchuria (though it didn't occupy Liaodong peninsula for much of history), and expanded into present-day Russian Primorsky Krai. Balhae styled itself as Goguryeo's successor state and inherited Goguryeo culture. It also adopted the culture of Tang dynasty, such as the government structure and geopolitical system.
In a time of relative peace and stability in the region, Balhae flourished, especially during the reigns of King Mun and King Seon. Balhae was called the "Prosperous Country in the East". However, Balhae was severely weakened and eventually conquered by the Khitan Liao dynasty in 926. Large numbers of refugees, including Dae Gwang-hyeon, the last crown prince of Balhae, were welcomed by Goryeo. Dae Gwang-hyeon was included in the imperial family of Wang Geon, bringing a national unification between the two successor nations of Goguryeo.
No historical records from Balhae have survived, and the Liao left no histories of Balhae. While Goryeo absorbed some Balhae territory and received Balhae refugees, it compiled no known histories of Balhae either. The Samguk Sagi ("History of the Three Kingdoms"), for instance, includes passages on Balhae, but does not include a dynastic history of Balhae. The 18th century Joseon dynasty historian Yu Deukgong advocated the proper study of Balhae as part of Korean history, and coined the term "North and South States Period" to refer to this era.
Later Three Kingdoms
The Later Three Kingdoms period (892 – 936) consisted of Later Silla and the revival of Baekje and Goguryeo, known historiographically as "Later Baekje" and "Later Goguryeo". During the late 9th century, as Silla declined in power and exorbitant taxes were imposed on the people, rebellions erupted nationwide and powerful regional lords rose up against the waning kingdom.
Later Baekje was founded by the general Gyeon Hwon in 892, and its capital was established in Wansanju (modern Jeonju). The kingdom was based in the southwestern regions in the former territories of Baekje. In 927, Later Baekje attacked Gyeongju, the capital of Later Silla, and placed a puppet on the throne. Eventually, Gyeon Hwon was ousted by his sons due to a succession dispute and escaped to Goryeo, where he served as a general in the conquest of the kingdom he personally founded.
Later Goguryeo was founded by the Buddhist monk Gung Ye in 901, and its original capital was established in Songak (modern Kaesong). The kingdom was based in the northern regions, which were the strongholds of Goguryeo refugees. Later Goguryeo's name was changed to Majin in 904, and Taebong in 911. In 918, Wang Geon, a prominent general of Goguryeo descent, deposed the increasingly despotic and paranoid Gung Ye, and established Goryeo. By 936, Goryeo conquered its rivals and achieved the unification of the Later Three Kingdoms.
Goryeo Dynasty of Korea
Goryeo was founded by Wang Geon in 918 and became the ruling dynasty of Korea by 936. It was named "Goryeo" because Wang Geon, a descendant of Goguryeo nobility, deemed the nation as the successor of Goguryeo. Wang Geon made his hometown Kaesong (in present-day North Korea) the capital. The dynasty lasted until 1392, although the government was controlled by military regime leaders between 1170 and 1270. Goryeo (also spelled as Koryŏ) is the source of the English name "Korea".
During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon pottery flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The production of the Tripitaka Koreana onto 81,258 wooden printing blocks, and the invention of the metal movable type attest to Goryeo's cultural achievements.
In 1018, the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, invaded Goryeo but was defeated by General Gang Gam-chan at the Battle of Kuju to end the Goryeo–Khitan War. After defeating the Khitan Empire, Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists.
In 1231, the Mongols began their invasions of Korea during seven major campaigns and 39 years of struggle, but was unable to conquer Korea. Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, and for the following 80 years Goryeo existed under the overlordship of the Mongol-ruled Yuan dynasty in China. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess.[self-published source]
In the 1350s, the Yuan dynasty declined rapidly due to internal struggles, enabling King Gongmin to reform the Goryeo government. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, including the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated an invading Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou menace and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships.
The Goryeo dynasty would last until 1392. Taejo of Joseon, the founder of the Joseon dynasty, took power in a coup in 1388 and after serving as the power behind the throne for two monarchs, established the Joseon dynasty in 1392.
Joseon Dynasty of Korea
In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye, later known as Taejo, established the Joseon dynasty (1392–1897), named in honor of the ancient kingdom Gojoseon, and based on idealistic Confucianism-based ideology. The prevailing philosophy throughout the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity.
Taejo moved the capital to Hanyang (modern-day Seoul) and built Gyeongbokgung palace. In 1394 he adopted Neo-Confucianism as the country's official religion, and pursued the creation of a strong bureaucratic state. His son and grandson, King Taejong and Sejong the Great, implemented numerous administrative, social, and economic reforms and established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. Most notable among them was Sejong the Great (r. 1418–50), who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. This golden age saw great cultural and scientific advancements, including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere.
Internal conflicts within the royal court, civil unrest and other political struggles plagued the nation in the years that followed, worsened by the Japanese invasion of Korea between 1592 and 1598. Toyotomi Hideyoshi marshalled his forces and tried to invade the Asian continent through Korea, but was eventually repelled by the Korean military, with the ethnieassistance of the righteous armies and Ming China. This war also saw the rise of the career of Admiral Yi Sun-sin with the turtle ship. As Korea was rebuilding, it had to repel invasions by the Manchu in 1627 and 1636. Internal politics were bitterly divided and settled by violence. Historian JaHyun Kim Haboush, in the summary by her editor William Haboush in 2016, interpreted the decisive impact of the victories against the Japanese and Manchu invaders:
- Out of this great war at the end of the 16th century and the Manchu invasions of 1627 and 1636–1637, Koreans emerged with a discernible sense of themselves as a disethnic united by birth, language, and belief forged by this immense clash of the three great powers of East Asia ... Korea arrived at the brink of the seventeenth century as a nation.
After the second Manchu invasion and stabilized relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of external peace. However internally, the bitter and violent factional battles raged on. In the 18th century, King Yeongjo (reigned 1724–76) and his grandson King Jeongjo (reigned 1776–1800) led a new renaissance. Yeongjo and Jeongjo reformed the tax system which grew the revenue stream into the treasury, strengthened the military and sponsored a revival of learning. The printing press was rejuvenated by using movable metal type; the number and quality of publications sharply increased. Jeongjo sponsored scholars from various factions to work in the Kyujanggak, or Inner Royal Library, established in 1776.
However, corruption in government and social unrest prevailed in the years thereafter, causing numerous civil uprisings and revolts. The government made sweeping reforms in the late 19th century, but adhered to a strict isolationist policy, earning Korea the nickname "Hermit Kingdom". The policy had been established primarily for protection against Western imperialism, but soon the Joseon dynasty was forced to open trade, beginning an era leading into Japanese rule.
Culture and society
Korea's culture was based on the philosophy of Neo-Confucianism, which emphasizes morality, righteousness, and practical ethics. Wide interest in scholarly study resulted in the establishment of private academies and educational institutions. Many documents were written about history, geography, medicine, and Confucian principles. The arts flourished in painting, calligraphy, music, dance, and ceramics.
The most notable cultural event of this era is the creation and promulgation of the Korean alphabet Hunmin jeongeom (later called Hangul) by Sejong the Great in 1446. This period also saw various other cultural, scientific and technological advances.
During Joseon dynasty, a social hierarchy system existed that greatly affected Korea's social development. The king and the royal family were atop the hereditary system, with the next tier being a class of civil or military officials and landowners known as yangban, who worked for the government and lived off the efforts of tenant farmers and slaves.
A middle class, jungin, were technical specialists such as scribes, medical officers, technicians in science-related fields, artists and musicians. Commoners, i.e. peasants, constituted the largest class in Korea. They had obligations to pay taxes, provide labor, and serve in the military. By paying land taxes to the state, they were allowed to cultivate land and farm. The lowest class included tenant farmers, slaves, entertainers, craftsmen, prostitutes, laborers, shamans, vagabonds, outcasts, and criminals. Although slave status was hereditary, they could be sold or freed at officially set prices, and the mistreatment of slaves was forbidden.
This yangban focused system started to change in the late 17th century as political, economic and social changes came into place. By the 19th century, new commercial groups emerged, and the active social mobility caused the yangban class to expand, resulting in the weakening of the old class system. The Korea government ordered the freedom of government slaves in 1801. The class system of Korea was completely banned in 1894.
Korea dealt with a pair of Japanese invasions from 1592 to 1598 (Imjin War or the Seven Years' War). Prior to the war, Korea sent two ambassadors to scout for signs of Japan's intentions of invading Korea. However, they came back with two different reports, and while the politicians split into sides, few proactive measures were taken.
This conflict brought prominence to Admiral Yi Sun-sin as he contributed to eventually repelling the Japanese forces with the innovative use of his turtle ship, a massive, yet swift, ramming/cannon ship fitted with iron spikes. The use of the hwacha was also highly effective in repelling the Japanese invaders from the land.
Subsequently, Korea was invaded in 1627 and again in 1636 by the Manchus, who went on to conquer China and establish the Qing dynasty, after which the Joseon dynasty recognized Qing suzerainty. Though Joseon respected its traditional subservient position to China, there was persistent loyalty for the perished Ming and disdain for the Manchus, who were regarded as barbarians.
During the 19th century, Joseon tried to control foreign influence by closing its borders to all nations but China. In 1853 the USS South America, an American gunboat, visited Busan for 10 days and had amiable contact with local officials. Several Americans shipwrecked on Korea in 1855 and 1865 were also treated well and sent to China for repatriation. The Joseon court was aware of the foreign invasions and treaties involving Qing China, as well as the First and Second Opium Wars, and followed a cautious policy of slow exchange with the West.
In 1866, reacting to greater numbers of Korean converts to Catholicism despite several waves of persecutions, the Joseon court clamped down on them, massacring French Catholic missionaries and Korean converts alike. Later in the year France invaded and occupied portions of Ganghwa Island. The Korean army lost heavily, but the French abandoned the island.
The General Sherman, an American-owned armed merchant marine sidewheel schooner, attempted to open Korea to trade in 1866. After an initial miscommunication, the ship sailed upriver and became stranded near Pyongyang. After being ordered to leave by the Korean officials, the American crewmen killed four Korean inhabitants, kidnapped a military officer and engaged in sporadic fighting that continued for four days. After two efforts to destroy the ship failed, she was finally set aflame by Korean fireships laden with explosives.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
This incident is celebrated by the DPRK as a precursor to the later USS Pueblo incident.
In response, the United States confronted Korea militarily in 1871, killing 243 Koreans in Ganghwa island before withdrawing. This incident is called the Sinmiyangyo in Korea. Five years later, the reclusive Korea signed a trade treaty with Japan, and in 1882 signed a treaty with the United States, ending centuries of isolationism.
Conflict between the conservative court and a reforming faction led to the Gapsin Coup in 1884. The reformers sought to reform Koreans institutionalized social inequality, by proclaiming social equality and the elimination of the privileges of the yangban class. The reformers were backed by Japan, and were thwarted by the arrival of Qing troops, invited by the conservative Queen Min. The Chinese troops departed but the leading general Yuan Shikai remained in Korea from 1885-1894 as Resident, directing Korean affairs. Korea became linked by telegraph to China in 1888 with Chinese controlled telegraphs. China permitted Korea to establish embassies with Russia (1884), Italy (1885), France (1886), the United States, and Japan. China attempted to block the exchange of embassies in Western countries, but not with Tokyo. The Qing government provided loans. China promoted its trade in an attempt to block Japanese merchants, which led to Chinese favour in Korean trade. Anti-Chinese riots broke out in 1888 and 1889 and Chinese shops were torched. Japan remained the largest foreign community and largest trading partner.
After a rapidly modernizing Meiji Japan forced Korea to open its ports in 1876, it successfully challenged the Qing Empire in the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), forcing it to abandon its long-standing claims to deference. In 1895, the Japanese were involved in the murder of Empress Myeongseong, who had sought Russian help, and the Russians were forced to retreat from Korea for the time.
Korean Empire (1897–1910)
As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), the 1895 Treaty of Shimonoseki was concluded between China and Japan. It stipulated the abolition of traditional relationships Korea had with China, the latter of which recognised the complete independence of Joseon and repudiated the former's political influence over the area.
In 1897, Joseon was renamed the Korean Empire, and King Gojong became Emperor Gojong. The imperial government aimed to become a strong and independent nation by implementing domestic reforms, strengthening military forces, developing commerce and industry, and surveying land ownership. Organizations like the Independence Club also rallied to assert the rights of the Joseon people, but clashed with the government which proclaimed absolute monarchy and power.
Russian influence was strong in the Empire until being defeated by Japan in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905). Korea effectively became a protectorate of Japan on 17 November 1905, the 1905 Protectorate Treaty having been promulgated without Emperor Gojong's required seal or commission.
Following the signing of the treaty, many intellectuals and scholars set up various organizations and associations, embarking on movements for independence. In 1907, Gojong was forced to abdicate after Japan learned that he sent secret envoys to the Second Hague Conventions to protest against the protectorate treaty, leading to the accession of Gojong's son, Emperor Sunjong. In 1909, independence activist An Jung-geun assassinated Itō Hirobumi, former Resident-General of Korea, for Ito's intrusions on the Korean politics. This prompted the Japanese to ban all political organisations and proceed with plans for annexation.
Japanese rule (1910–1945)
In 1910 Japan effectively annexed Korea by the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty. Along with all other prior treaties between Korea and Japan, this was confirmed to be null and void in 1965. While Japan asserts that the treaty was concluded legally, Korea disputes this argument: the treaty was not signed by the Emperor of Korea as required and it violated the international convention on external pressures regarding treaties.
Korea was controlled by Japan under a Governor-General of Korea from 1910 until Japan's unconditional surrender to the Allied Forces on 15 August 1945. De jure sovereignty was deemed to have passed from the Joseon dynasty to the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
After the annexation, Japan set out to repress Korean traditions and culture, and to develop and implement policies primarily for the Japanese benefit. Its officials constructed European-styled transport and communication networks across the nation in order to extract resources and labor. This infrastructure was mostly destroyed later during the Korean War. The banking system was consolidated and the Korean currency abolished. The Japanese removed the Joseon hierarchy, destroyed much of the Gyeongbokgung palace, and replaced it with the government office building.
After Emperor Gojong died in January 1919, with rumors of poisoning, independence rallies against Japanese invaders took place nationwide on 1 March 1919 (the March 1st Movement). This movement was suppressed by force and about 7,000 persons were killed by Japanese soldiers and police. An estimated 2 million people took part in peaceful, pro-liberation rallies, although Japanese records claim participation of less than half million. This movement was partly inspired by United States President Woodrow Wilson's speech of 1919, declaring support for right of self-determination and an end to colonial rule after World War I. No comment was made by Wilson on Korean independence. A pro-Japan faction in the USA sought trade inroads into China through the Korean peninsula.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was established in Shanghai, China, in the aftermath of the March 1 Movement, which coordinated the Liberation effort and resistance against Japanese control. Some of the achievements of the Provisional Government include the Battle of Chingshanli of 1920 and the ambush of Japanese Military Leadership in China in 1932. The Provisional Government is considered to be the de jure government of the Korean people between 1919 and 1948. Its legitimacy is enshrined in the preamble to the constitution of the Republic of Korea.
Continued anti-Japanese uprisings, such as the nationwide uprising of students in November 1929, led to the Japanese strengthening their military rule in 1931. After the outbreaks of the Sino-Japanese War in 1937 and World War II, Japan attempted to destroy Korea as a nation. The continuance of Korean culture itself began to be illegal. Worship at Japanese Shinto shrines was made compulsory.
The school curriculum was radically modified to eliminate teaching in the Korean language and history. The Korean language was banned, Koreans were forced to adopt Japanese names, and newspapers were prohibited from publishing in Korean. Numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed or taken to Japan. According to an investigation by the South Korean government, 75,311 cultural assets were taken from Korea.
Some Koreans left the Korean peninsula to exile in Manchuria and Primorsky Krai. Koreans in Manchuria formed resistance groups known as Dongnipgun (Liberation Army); they would travel in and out of the Sino-Korean border, fighting guerrilla warfare with Japanese forces. Some of them would group together in the 1940s as the Korean Liberation Army, which took part in allied action in China and parts of South East Asia. Tens of thousands of Koreans also joined the Peoples Liberation Army and the National Revolutionary Army.
During World War II, Koreans at home were forced to support the Japanese war effort. Tens of thousands of men were conscripted into Japan's military. Around 200,000 girls and women, many from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for Japanese soldiers, with the euphemism "comfort women".
Religion and ideology
Korean nationalist historiography, centered on minjok, an ethnically or racially defined Korean nation, emerged in the early twentieth century among Korean intellectuals who wanted to foster national consciousness to achieve Korean independence from Japanese domination. Its first proponent was journalist and independence activist Shin Chaeho (1880–1936). In his polemical New Reading of History (Doksa Sillon), which was published in 1908 three years after Korea became a Japanese protectorate, Shin proclaimed that Korean history was the history of the Korean minjok, a distinct race descended from the god Dangun that had once controlled not only the Korean peninsula but also large parts of Manchuria. Shin and other Korean intellectuals like Park Eun-sik (1859–1925) and Choe Nam-seon (1890–1957) continued to develop these themes in the 1910s and 1920s. They rejected two prior ways of representing the past: the Neo-Confucian historiography of Joseon Korea's scholar-bureaucrats, which they blamed for perpetuating a servile worldview centered around China, and Japanese colonial historiography, which portrayed Korea as historically dependent and culturally backward. The work of these prewar nationalist historians has shaped postwar historiography in both North and South Korea. Despite ideological differences between the two regimes, the dominant historiography in both countries since the 1960s has continued to reflect nationalist themes, and this common historical outlook is the basis for talks about Korean unification.
Protestant Christian missionary efforts in Asia were quite successful in Korea. American Presbyterians and Methodists arrived in the 1880s and were well received. They served as medical and educational missionaries, establishing schools and hospitals in numerous cities. In the years when Korea was under Japanese control, some Koreans adopted Christianity as an expression of nationalism in opposition to the Japan's efforts to promote the Japanese language and the Shinto religion. In 1914 of 16 million Koreans, there were 86,000 Protestants and 79,000 Catholics. By 1934 the numbers were 168,000 and 147,000, respectively. Presbyterian missionaries were especially successful. Harmonizing with traditional practices became an issue. The Protestants developed a substitute for Confucian ancestral rites by merging Confucian-based and Christian death and funerary rituals.
Division and Korean War (1945–1953)
At the Cairo Conference on November 22, 1943, the US, UK, and China agreed that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent"; at a later meeting in Yalta in February 1945, the Allies agreed to establish a four-power trusteeship over Korea. On August 14, 1945, Soviet forces entered Korea by amphibious landings, enabling them to secure control in the north. Japan surrendered to the Allied Forces on August 15, 1945.
The unconditional surrender of Japan, combined with fundamental shifts in global politics and ideology, led to the division of Korea into two occupation zones, effectively starting on September 8, 1945. The United States administered the southern half of the peninsula and the Soviet Union took over the area north of the 38th parallel. The Provisional Government was ignored, mainly due to American belief that it was too aligned with the communists. This division was meant to be temporary and was intended to return a unified Korea back to its people after the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, and Republic of China could arrange a single government.
In December 1945, a conference convened in Moscow to discuss the future of Korea. A 5-year trusteeship was discussed, and a joint Soviet-American commission was established. The commission met intermittently in Seoul but members deadlocked over the issue of establishing a national government. In September 1947, with no solution in sight, the United States submitted the Korean question to the United Nations General Assembly. On December 12, 1948, the General Assembly of the United Nations recognised the Republic of Korea as the sole legal government of Korea.
In June 25, 1950, the Korean War broke out when North Korea breached the 38th parallel line to invade the South, ending any hope of a peaceful reunification for the time being. After the war, the 1954 Geneva conference failed to adopt a solution for a unified Korea.
Modern Korea (1953–present)
Beginning with Syngman Rhee, a series of autocratic governments took power in South Korea with American support and influence. The country eventually transitioned to become a market-oriented democracy in 1987 largely due to popular demand for reform, and its economy rapidly grew and became a developed economy by the 2000s. Due to Soviet Influence, North Korea established a communist government with a hereditary succession of leadership, with ties to China and the Soviet Union. Kim Il-sung became the supreme leader until his death in 1994, after which his son, Kim Jong-il took power. Kim Jong-il's son, Kim Jong-un, is the current leader, taking power after his father's death in 2011. After the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, the North Korean economy went on a path of steep decline, and it is currently heavily reliant on international food aid and trade with China.
- Korean monarchs' family trees: Silla; Goryeo; Joseon
- Korean nationalist historiography
- Korean influence on Japanese culture
- List of Korea-related topics
- List of monarchs of Korea
- Military history of Korea
- National Treasure of South Korea
- Prehistory of Korea
- South Korea–United States relations
- Timeline of Korean history
- Eckert & Lee 1990, p. 2
- Christopher J. Norton, "The Current State of Korean Paleoanthropology", (2000), Journal of Human Evolution, 38: 803-825.
- Sin 2005, p. 17
- Eckert & Lee 1990, p. 9
- Connor 2002, p. 9
- Jong Chan Kim, Christopher J Bae, "Radiocarbon Dates Documenting The Neolithic-Bronze Age Transition in Korea" Archived 2012-10-22 at the Wayback Machine., (2010), Radiocarbon, 52: 2, pp. 483-492.
- Sin 2005, p. 19.
- Lee Ki-baik 1984, pp. 14, 167
- Seth 2010, p. 17.
- Hwang 2010, p. 4
- Peterson & Margulies 2009, p. 6.
- Pratt 2007, p. 63-64.
- Peterson & Margulies 2009, p. 35-36.
- Kim Jongseo, Jeong Inji, et al. "Goryeosa (The History of Goryeo)", 1451, Article for July 934, 17th year in the Reign of Taejo
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0674615762.
When Parhae perished at the hands of the Khitan around this same time, much of its ruling class, who were of Koguryŏ descent, fled to Koryŏ. Wang Kŏn warmly welcomed them and generously gave them land. Along with bestowing the name Wang Kye ("Successor of the Royal Wang") on the Parhae crown prince, Tae Kwang-hyŏn, Wang Kŏn entered his name in the royal household register, thus clearly conveying the idea that they belonged to the same lineage, and also had rituals performed in honor of his progenitor. Thus Koryŏ achieved a true national unification that embraced not only the Later Three Kingdoms but even survivors of Koguryŏ lineage from the Parhae kingdom.
- "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112
- Djun Kil Kim, 《The History of Korea: 2nd edition》, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610695828, p.65-68
- Early Human Evolution: Homo ergaster and erectus Archived 2007-12-19 at the Wayback Machine.. Anthro.palomar.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-12.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 8–12.
- Chong Pil Choe, Martin T. Bale, "Current Perspectives on Settlement, Subsistence, and Cultivation in Prehistoric Korea", (2002), Arctic Anthropology, 39: 1-2, pp. 95-121.
- Stark 2005, p. 137.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 23–26.
- Nelson 1993, pp. 110–116
- See also Jewang Ungi (1287) and Dongguk Tonggam (1485).
- Hwang 2010, p. 2.
- Connor 2002, p. 10.
- Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-7425-6717-7.
- "An extreme manifestation of nationalism and the family cult was the revival of interest in Tangun, the mythical founder of the first Korean state... Most textbooks and professional historians, however, treat him as a myth."
- "Although Kija may have truly existed as a historical figure, Tangun is more problematical."
- Schmid, Andre (2013). Korea Between Empires. Columbia University Press. p. 270. ISBN 978-0-231-50630-4.
- "Most [Korean historians] treat the [Tangun] myth as a later creation."
- "The Tangun myth became more popular with groups that wanted Korea to be independent; the Kija myth was more useful to those who wanted to show that Korea had a strong affinity to China."
- "If a choice is to be made between them, one is faced with the fact that the Tangun, with his supernatural origin, is more clearly a mythological figure than Kija."
- Eckert & Lee 1990, p. 11.
- Lee Ki-baik 1984, p. 14.
- (in Korean) Gojoseon territory at Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
- Timeline of Art and History, Korea, 1000 BC-1 AD Archived 2010-02-07 at the Wayback Machine., Metropolitan Museum of Art
- Academy of Korean Studies, The Review of Korean Studies, vol. 10권,3–4, 2007, p. 222
- Lee Injae, Owen Miller, Park Jinhoon, Yi Hyun-Hae, Korean History in Maps, Cambridge University Press, 2014, p. 20
- Yayoi Period History Summary Archived 2008-07-26 at the Wayback Machine., BookRags.com
- Japanese Roots Archived 2012-05-25 at Archive.is, Jared Diamond, Discover 19:6 (June 1998)
- The Genetic Origins of the Japanese Archived 2016-02-09 at the Wayback Machine., Thayer Watkins
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 92–95.
- "Early Korea". Archived from the original on 2015-06-25.
- Gochang, Hwasun and Ganghwa Dolmen Sites Archived 2017-02-18 at the Wayback Machine., UNESCO
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 82–85.
- "Large-scale 2nd to 3rd century AD bloomery iron smelting in Korea".
- Wontack Hong, "The Yemaek Tungus of Central Manchuria and Korean Peninsula: Interactions between the Xianbei and the Yemaek Tungus"
- (in Korean) Proto-Three Kingdoms period at Doosan Encyclopedia
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 109–116.
- (in Korean) Buyeo Archived 2012-07-01 at Archive.is at Encyclopedia of Korean Culture
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 128–130.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 130–131.
- (in Korean) Samhan at Doosan Encyclopedia
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 135–141.
- (in Korean) Goguryeo at Doosan Encyclopedia
- (in Korean) Buddhism in Goguryeo at Doosan Encyclopedia
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 199–202
- Fan Ye, Book of the Later Han, volume 85; the Dongyi Liezhuan
- Roberts, John Morris; Westad, Odd Arne. The History of the World. Oxford University Press. p. 443. ISBN 9780199936762. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Gardner, Hall. Averting Global War: Regional Challenges, Overextension, and Options for American Strategy. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 158–159. ISBN 9780230608733. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Laet, Sigfried J. de. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century. UNESCO. p. 1133. ISBN 9789231028137. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2016.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson. East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. pp. 6–7. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0253000781. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Kotkin, Stephen; Wolff, David. Rediscovering Russia in Asia: Siberia and the Russian Far East: Siberia and the Russian Far East. Routledge. ISBN 9781317461296. Retrieved 15 July 2016.
- Yi, Hyŏn-hŭi; Pak, Sŏng-su; Yun, Nae-hyŏn. New history of Korea. Jimoondang. p. 201. ISBN 9788988095850. Archived from the original on 2016-12-04.
He launched a military expedition to expand his territory, opening the golden age of Goguryeo.
- Hall, John Whitney. The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 362. ISBN 9780521223522. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Embree, Ainslie Thomas. Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 324. ISBN 9780684188997. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Cohen, Warren I. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press. p. 50. ISBN 9780231502511. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0253000781. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 11 October 2016.
- "Kings and Queens of Korea". KBS World Radio. Korea Communications Commission. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- Lee, Ki-Baik (1984). A New History of Korea. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-0674615762.
- Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 9780674615762. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson. East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 104. ISBN 9781477265161. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson. East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 161. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- White, Matthew. Atrocities: The 100 Deadliest Episodes in Human History. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 78. ISBN 9780393081923. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Grant, Reg G. 1001 Battles That Changed the Course of World History. Universe Pub. p. 104. ISBN 9780789322333. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Bedeski, Robert. Human Security and the Chinese State: Historical Transformations and the Modern Quest for Sovereignty. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN 9781134125975. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780674615762. Archived from the original on December 4, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2016.
Koguryŏ was the first to open hostilities, with a bold assault across the Liao River against Liao-hsi, in 598. The Sui emperor, Wen Ti, launched a retaliatory attack on Koguryŏ but met with reverses and turned back in mid-course. Yang Ti, the next Sui emperor, proceeded in 612 to mount an invasion of unprecedented magnitude, marshalling a huge force said to number over a million men. And when his armies failed to take Liao-tung Fortress (modern Liao-yang), the anchor of Koguryŏ's first line of defense, he had a nearly a third of his forces, some 300,000 strong, break off the battle there and strike directly at the Koguryŏ capital of P'yŏngyang. But the Sui army was lured into a trap by the famed Koguryŏ commander Ŭlchi Mundŏk, and suffered a calamitous defeat at the Salsu (Ch'ŏngch'ŏn) River. It is said that only 2,700 of the 300,000 Sui soldiers who had crossed the Yalu survived to find their way back, and the Sui emperor now lifted the siege of Liao-tung Fortress and withdrew his forces to China proper. Yang Ti continued to send his armies against Koguryŏ but again without success, and before long his war-weakened empire crumbled.
- Nahm, Andrew C. (2005). A Panorama of 5000 Years: Korean History (Second revised ed.). Seoul: Hollym International Corporation. p. 18. ISBN 978-0930878689.
China, which had been split into many states since the early 3rd century, was reunified by the Sui dynasty at the end of the 6th century. Soon after that, Sui China mobilized a large number of troops and launched a sagiwar against Koguryŏ. However, the people of Koguryŏ were united and they were able to repel the Chinese aggressors. In 612, Sui troops invaded Korea again, but Koguryŏ forces fought bravely and destroyed Sui troops everywhere. General Ŭlchi Mundŏk of Koguryŏ completely wiped out some 300,000 Sui troops which came across the Yalu River in the battles near the Salsu River (now Ch'ŏngch'ŏn River) with his ingenious military tactics. Only 2,700 Sui troops were able to flee from Korea. The Sui dynasty, which wasted so much energy and manpower in aggressive wars against Koguryŏ, fell in 618.
- Tucker, Spencer C. (2009-12-23). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East [6 volumes]: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 406. ISBN 9781851096725. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- Walker, Hugh Dyson (2012-11-20). East Asia: A New History. AuthorHouse. p. 161. ISBN 9781477265178. Retrieved 4 November 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 214–222.
- Kim, Jinwung (2012-11-05). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 50. ISBN 978-0253000781. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Ring, Trudy; Watson, Noelle; Schellinger, Paul (2012-11-12). Asia and Oceania: International Dictionary of Historic Places. Routledge. p. 486. ISBN 9781136639791. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi (2014-12-15). Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. p. 29. ISBN 9781107098466. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2016.
- Kim, Jinwung (2012-11-05). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 51. ISBN 978-0253000781. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Kim, Djun Kil (2014-05-30). The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 49. ISBN 9781610695824. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780674615762. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 67. ISBN 9780674615762. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 5 August 2016.
Loath to let slip such an opportunity, T'ang mounted a fresh invasion under Li Chi in 667 and Silla launched a coordinated offensive. This time the T'ang army received every possible assistance from the defector Namsaeng, and although Koguryŏ continued to hold out for another year, the end finally came in 668.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 224–225.
- Jonathan W. Best, A History of the Early Korean Kingdom of Paekche, together with an annotated translation of "The Paekche Annals" of the "Samguk sagi" (Harvard East Asian Monographs, 2007).
- The National Folk Museum of Korea (South Korea) (2014). Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Literature: Encyclopedia of Korean Folklore and Traditional Culture Vol. III. 길잡이미디어. p. 41. ISBN 9788928900848. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 202–206.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Houghton Mifflin. p. 123. ISBN 9780618133840. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Kitagawa, Joseph. The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 9781136875908. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne; Palais, James B. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage Learning. p. 104. ISBN 978-1111808150. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Korean Buddhism Basis of Japanese Buddhism Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine., Seoul Times, 2006-06-18
- Buddhist Art of Korea & Japan Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine., Asia Society Museum
- Kanji Archived 2012-05-10 at the Wayback Machine., JapanGuide.com
- Pottery - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. "The pottery of the Yayoi culture (300? BC-AD 250?), made by a Mongol people who came from Korea to Kyūshū, has been found throughout Japan. "
- History of Japan Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., JapanVisitor.com
- Archived 2009-10-31.
- A Brief History of Korea. Ewha Womans University Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 9788973006199. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Yu, Chai-Shin. The New History of Korean Civilization. iUniverse. p. 27. ISBN 9781462055593. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 21 November 2016.
- Baekje history Archived 2009-02-14 at the Wayback Machine., Baekje History & Culture Hall
- Kenneth B. Lee (1997, pp. 48–49)
- Sarah M. Nelson, (1993, pp. 243–258)
- Kim, Jinwung. A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0253000248. Archived from the original on 2016-12-04.
- Wells, Kenneth M. Korea: Outline of a Civilisation. BRILL. pp. 18–19. ISBN 9789004300057. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 222–225.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 159–162.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 241–242.
- DuBois, Jill. Korea. Marshall Cavendish. p. 22. ISBN 9780761417866. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Randel, Don Michael. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. p. 273. ISBN 9780674011632. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Hopfner, Jonathan. Moon Living Abroad in South Korea. Avalon Travel. p. 21. ISBN 9781612386324. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Kim, Djun Kil. The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. p. 47. ISBN 9780313038532. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Isabella Bird (9 January 2014). "1". Korea and Her Neighbours.: A Narrative of Travel, with an Account of the Recent Vicissitudes and Present Position of the Country. With a Preface by Sir Walter C. Hillier. Adegi Graphics LLC. ISBN 978-0-543-01434-4.
- Seokguram Grotto and Bulguksa Temple Archived 2016-07-16 at the Wayback Machine., UNESCO
- "Cultural ties put Iran, S Korea closer than ever for cooperation". Tehran Times. 2016-05-05. Archived from the original on 2017-04-13. Retrieved 2017-04-13.
- Kitagawa, Joseph. The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture. Routledge. p. 348. ISBN 9781136875908. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 291. ISBN 9780521497817. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Reischauer, Edwin Oldfather. Ennins Travels in Tang China. John Wiley & Sons Canada, Limited. pp. 276–283. ISBN 9780471070535. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
From what Ennin tells us, it seems that commerce between East China, Korea and Japan was, for the most part, in the hands of men from Silla. Here in the relatively dangerous waters on the eastern fringes of the world, they performed the same functions as did the traders of the placid Mediterranean on the western fringes. This is a historical fact of considerable significance but one which has received virtually no attention in the standard historical compilations of that period or in the modern books based on these sources. . . . While there were limits to the influence of the Koreans along the eastern coast of China, there can be no doubt of their dominance over the waters off these shores. . . . The days of Korean maritime dominance in the Far East actually were numbered, but in Ennin's time the men of Silla were still the masters of the seas in their part of the world.
- Kim, Djun Kil. The History of Korea, 2nd Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 9781610695824. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- Seth, Michael J. A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 65. ISBN 9780742540057. Retrieved 21 July 2016.
- MacGregor, Neil. A History of the World in 100 Objects. Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141966830. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Chŏng, Yang-mo; Smith, Judith G.; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.). Arts of Korea. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 230. ISBN 9780870998508. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- International, Rotary. The Rotarian. Rotary International. p. 28. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Ross, Alan. After Pusan. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571299355. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Mason, David A. "Gyeongju, Korea's treasure house". Korea.net. Korean Culture and Information Service (KOCIS). Archived from the original on 3 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Adams, Edward Ben. Koreaʾs pottery heritage. Seoul International Pub. House. p. 53. Retrieved 30 September 2016.
- Mun, Chanju; Green, Ronald S. Buddhist Exploration of Peace and Justice. Blue Pine Books. p. 147. ISBN 9780977755301. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- McIntire, Suzanne; Burns, William E. Speeches in World History. Infobase Publishing. p. 87. ISBN 9781438126807. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Jr, Robert E. Buswell; Jr, Donald S. Lopez. The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism. Princeton University Press. p. 187. ISBN 9781400848058. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Poceski, Mario. Ordinary Mind as the Way: The Hongzhou School and the Growth of Chan Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 24. ISBN 9780198043201. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Wu, Jiang; Chia, Lucille. Spreading Buddha's Word in East Asia: The Formation and Transformation of the Chinese Buddhist Canon. Columbia University Press. p. 155. ISBN 9780231540193. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Wright, Dale S. The Zen Canon: Understanding the Classic Texts. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199882182. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Su-il, Jeong. The Silk Road Encyclopedia. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120763. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Nikaido, Yoshihiro. Asian Folk Religion and Cultural Interaction. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. p. 137. ISBN 9783847004851. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Leffman, David; Lewis, Simon; Atiyah, Jeremy. China. Rough Guides. p. 519. ISBN 9781843530190. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Leffman, David (2014-06-02). The Rough Guide to China. Penguin. ISBN 9780241010372. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- DK Eyewitness Travel Guide: China. Penguin. 2016-06-21. p. 240. ISBN 9781465455673. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 266–269.
- Old records of Silla 新羅古記(Silla gogi): ... 高麗舊將祚榮
- Rhymed Chronicles of Sovereigns 帝王韻紀(Jewang ungi): ... 前麗舊將大祚榮
- Solitary Cloud 孤雲集(Gounjib): ... 渤海之源流也句驪未滅之時本爲疣贅部落靺羯之屬寔繁有徒是名栗末小蕃甞逐句驪, 內徙其首領乞四羽及大祚榮等至武后臨朝之際自營州作孼而逃輒據荒丘始稱振國時有句驪遺燼勿吉雜流梟音則嘯聚白山鴟義則喧張黑姶與契丹濟惡旋於突厥通謀萬里耨苗累拒渡遼之轍十年食葚晚陳降漢之旗.
- Solitary Cloud 孤雲集(Gounjip): ... 其酋長大祚榮, 始受臣藩第五品大阿餐之秩
- Comprehensive Institutions 通典(Tongdian): ... 渤海夲栗末靺鞨至其酋祚榮立國自號震旦, 先天中 玄宗王子始去靺鞨號專稱渤海
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 244–248
- Injae, Lee; Miller, Owen; Jinhoon, Park; Hyun-Hae, Yi (2014-12-15). Korean History in Maps. Cambridge University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 9781107098466. Archived from the original on 25 February 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
- North Korea: A Country Study. Government Printing Office. p. 12. ISBN 9780160882784. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 13 March 2017.
- "후삼국시대(後三國時代)". Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Academy of Korean Studies. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- "일리천(一利川)전투". 문화콘텐츠닷컴 (in Korean). Korea Creative Content Agency. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- 이상각 (2014). 고려사 - 열정과 자존의 오백년 (in Korean). 들녘. ISBN 9791159250248. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "(2) 건국―호족들과의 제휴". 우리역사넷 (in Korean). National Institute of Korean History. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- 장덕호 (1 March 2015). "한반도 중심에 터 닦으니 화합·통합의 새시대 '활짝'". 중앙일보 (in Korean). JoongAng Ilbo. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- 박, 종기 (2015-08-24). 고려사의 재발견: 한반도 역사상 가장 개방적이고 역동적인 500년 고려 역사를 만나다 (in Korean). 휴머니스트. ISBN 9788958629023. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, p. 266.
- Rossabi, Morris (1983-05-20). China Among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. University of California Press. p. 323. ISBN 9780520045620. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- Yi, Ki-baek (1984). A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 103. ISBN 9780674615762. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Kim, Djun Kil (2005-01-30). The History of Korea. ABC-CLIO. p. 57. ISBN 9780313038532. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Grayson, James H. Korea - A Religious History. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136869259. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 120–121.
- (in Korean) Korea at Doosan Encyclopedia
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 360–361.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 122–123.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 309–312.
- "Korean Classics : Asian Collections: An Illustrated Guide (Library of Congress - Asian Division)". Library of Congress. United States Congress. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Gutenberg Bible". British Library. The British Library Board. Archived from the original on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Korea, 1000–1400 A.D. | Chronology | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art". The Met's Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- "Movable type - Oxford Reference". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Ebrey, Patricia Buckley; Walthall, Anne. East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Cengage Learning. ISBN 978-1285528670. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- Bulliet, Richard; Crossley, Pamela; Headrick, Daniel; Hirsch, Steven; Johnson, Lyman. The Earth and Its Peoples, Brief: A Global History. Cengage Learning. p. 264. ISBN 9781285445519. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Cohen, Warren I. East Asia at the Center: Four Thousand Years of Engagement with the World. Columbia University Press. p. 107. ISBN 9780231502511. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 61. ISBN 9780275958237. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Bowman, John. Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780231500043. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 72. ISBN 9780275958237. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 343–350.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 142–145.
- Currie, Lorenzo. Through the Eyes of the Pack. Xlibris Corporation. p. 181. ISBN 9781493145164. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 351–353.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 152–155.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 369–370.
- Yi, Ki-baek. A New History of Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 165. ISBN 9780674615762. Retrieved 19 November 2016.
- Literally "old Joseon", the term was first coined in the 13th century AD to differentiate the ancient kingdom from Wiman Joseon and is now used to differentiate it from the Joseon dynasty.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 160–163.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 371–375.
- Lee, Kenneth B. Korea and East Asia: The Story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 86. ISBN 9780275958237. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- "알고 싶은 한글". 국립국어원. National Institute of Korean Language. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
- Haralambous, Yannis; Horne, P. Scott. Fonts & Encodings. "O'Reilly Media, Inc.". p. 155. ISBN 9780596102425. Archived from the original on 17 January 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- Selin, Helaine. Encyclopaedia of the History of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Westen Cultures. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 505–506. ISBN 9789401714167. Archived from the original on 4 December 2016. Retrieved 27 July 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 413–416.
- Foreword by William Haboush, in JaHyun Kim Haboush (2016). The Great East Asian War and the Birth of the Korean Nation. Columbia UP. p. ix.
- A Brief History of Korea. Ewha Womans University Press. ISBN 9788973006199. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 421–424.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 469–470.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 391–401.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005a, pp. 168–173.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 387–389.
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, pp. 435–437.
- Hawley 2005, p. 195f.
- Turnbull 2002, p. 244.
- Roh, Young-koo: "Yi Sun-shin, an Admiral Who Became a Myth", The Review of Korean Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3 (2004), p.13
- Seth 2010, p. 225.
- Schmid 2002, p. 72.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005b, p. 43.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005b, pp. 51-55.
- Association of Korean History Teachers 2005b, pp. 58-61.
- Lee Ki-baik 1984, pp. 309–317.
- Hoare & Pares 1988, pp. 50–67
- An Jung-geun, Korea.net
- Kawasaki, Yutaka (July 1996). "Was the 1910 Annexation Treaty Between Korea and Japan Concluded Legally?". Murdoch University Journal of Law. 3 (2). Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Japan's Annexation of Korea 'Unjust and Invalid' Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine., Chosun Ilbo, 2010-05-11. Retrieved 2010-07-05.
- (in Korean) After the reconstruction Gyeongbok Palace of 1865–1867 at Doosan Encyclopedia
- "March 1st Movement". Archived from the original on 2007-12-11.
- Lee Ki-baik, pp. 340–344
- Constitution of the Republic of Korea: Preamble Archived 2012-07-10 at Archive.is, The National Assembly of the Republic of Korea. (In English)
- Miyata 1992.
- Kay Itoi; B. J. Lee (2007-10-17). "Korea: A Tussle over Treasures — Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?". Newsweek. Retrieved 2008-06-06.
- Lost treasures make trip home Archived 2016-06-09 at the Wayback Machine., Korea Times, 2008-12-28.
- Yamawaki 1994.
- Japan court rules against 'comfort women' Archived 2006-09-22 at the Wayback Machine., CNN, 2001-03-29.
- Congress backs off of wartime Japan rebuke Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine., The Boston Globe, 2006-10-15.
- "Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues, Inc". Archived from the original on 2009-11-03.
- Danielle Kane, and Jung Mee Park, "The Puzzle of Korean Christianity: Geopolitical Networks and Religious Conversion in Early Twentieth-Century East Asia", American Journal of Sociology (2009) 115#2 pp 365–404
- Kenneth Scott Latourette, A History of the Expansion of Christianity: Volume VII: Advance through Storm: A.D. 1914 and after, with concluding generalizations (1945) 7:401–407
- Lee Hyun-hee 2005, p. 581.
- Cairo Conference is held Archived 2013-04-13 at the Wayback Machine., Timelines; Cairo Conference Archived 2011-03-19 at the Wayback Machine., BBC
- "The Avalon Project : Yalta (Crimea) Conference". Archived from the original on 2016-02-02.
- Robinson 2007, pp. 107–108.
- "Avalon Project - A Decade of American Foreign Policy 1941-1949 - Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers, Moscow". Archived from the original on 2009-04-30.
- "Resolution 195, UN Third General Assembly" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-10-23.
- Association of Korean History Teachers (2005a). Korea through the Ages, Vol 1 Ancient. Seoul: Academy of Korean Studies. ISBN 9788-9710-5545-8.
- Association of Korean History Teachers (2005b). Korea through the Ages, Vol. 2 Modern. Seoul: Academy of Korean Studies. ISBN 9788-9710-5546-5.
- Buzo, Adrian. The Making of Modern Korea (Routledge, 2002) online
- Cha M. S.; Kim N. N. "Korea's first industrial revolution, 1911–1940," Explorations in Economic History (2012) 49#1 pp 60–74
- Connor, Mary E. (2002). The Koreas, A global studies handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 307. ISBN 9781-5760-7277-6.
- Cumings, Bruce. (2005) Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History (2nd ed. W W Norton, 2005).
- Eckert, Carter J.; Lee, Ki-Baik (1990). Korea, old and new: a history. Korea Institute Series. Published for the Korea Institute, Harvard University by Ilchokak. p. 454. ISBN 9780-9627-7130-9.
- Hoare, James; Pares, Susan (1988). Korea: an introduction. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780-7103-0299-1.
- Hwang, Kyung-moon (2010). A History of Korea, An Episodic Narrative. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 328. ISBN 9780230364530.
- Kim, Chong Ik Eugene; Han-Kyo Kim (1967). Korea and the Politics of Imperialism, 1876-1910.
- Korea National University of Education. Atlas of Korean History (2008)
- Lee Ki-baik (1984). A new history of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard UP. ISBN 9780-6746-1576-2.
- Lee, Kenneth B. (1997). Korea and East Asia: the story of a Phoenix. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780-2759-5823-7.
- Lee, Chong-Sik (1963). The Politics of Korean Nationalism (University of California Press), online
- Lee, Yur-Bok and Wayne Patterson. One Hundred Years of Korean-American Relations, 1882-1982 (1986) online
- Lee, Hyun-hee; Park, Sung-soo; Yoon, Nae-hyun (2005). New History of Korea. Paju: Jimoondang. ISBN 9788-9880-9585-0.
- Lee, Hong-yung; Ha, Yong-Chool; Sorensen, Clark W., eds. (2013). Colonial Rule and Social Change in Korea, 1910-1945. U of Washington Press. ISBN 9780-2959-9216-7.
- Li, Narangoa and Robert Cribb. Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590-2010: Korea, Manchuria, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia (2016) ISBN 0231160704
- Nahm, Andrew C.; Hoare, James (2004). Historical dictionary of the Republic of Korea. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780-8108-4949-5.
- Nelson, Sarah M. (1993). The archaeology of Korea. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. p. 1013. ISBN 9780-5214-0783-0.
- Pratt, Keith (2007). Everlasting Flower: A History of Korea. Reaktion Books. p. 320. ISBN 9781861893352.
- Robinson, Michael Edson (2007). Korea's twentieth-century odyssey. Honolulu: U of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780-8248-3174-5.
- Schmid, Andre (2002). Korea Between Empires, 1895–1919. New York: Columbia UP. ISBN 9780-2311-2538-3.
- Seth, Michael J. (2006). A Concise History of Korea. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780-7425-4005-7.
- Seth, Michael J. (2010). A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 520. ISBN 9780-7425-6716-0.
- Sin, Hyong-sik (2005). A Brief History of Korea. The Spirit of Korean Cultural Roots. 1 (2nd ed.). Seoul: Ewha Womans University Press. ISBN 9788-9730-0619-9.
- Yang, Sung-chul (1999). The North and South Korean political systems: A comparative analysis. Seoul: Hollym. ISBN 9781-5659-1105-5.
- Em, Henry H. (2013). The Great Enterprise: Sovereignty and Historiography in Modern Korea. Duke University Press. p. 272. ISBN 9780-8223-5372-0.
Examines how Korean national ambitions have shaped the work of the country's historians.
- Hong Sung-gi. "Trends in Western historiography on Korea," Korea Journal (1999) 39#3 pp 377
- Kim, Han Kyo. Studies on Korea: A Scholar's Guide (1980); 458pp comprehensive guide; ISBN 0824806735
- Kim, Duol, and Ki-Joo Park. " A Cliometric Revolution in the Economic History of Korea: A Critical Review," Australian Economic History Review (2012) 52#1 pp 85–95
- Yuh, Leighanne (2010). "The Historiography of Korea in the United States". International Journal of Korean History. 15#2: 127–144.
- Lee, Peter H. and Wm. Theodore De Bary, eds. Sources of Korean Tradition (2 vol. 1997) 472 pages vol 1 online
Other books used in this page
- Cwiertka, Katarzyna J. (2012). Cuisine, Colonialism, and Cold War: Food in Twentieth-Century Korea. Reaktion Books and University of Chicago Press. p. 237. ISBN 9781-7802-3025-2.
Scholarly study of how food reflects Korea's history
- Hawley, Samuel (2005). The Imjin War. Japan's Sixteenth-Century Invasion of Korea and Attempt to Conquer China. The Royal Asiatic Society, Korea Branch, Seoul. ISBN 978-89-954424-2-5.
- Kim, Byung-Kook; Vogel, Ezra F. (2011). The Park Chung Hee Era: The Transformation of South Korea. Harvard University Press. p. 744. ISBN 9780-6740-5820-0.
Studies of on modernization under Park, 1961–1979.
- Peterson, Mark; Margulies, Phillip (2009). A Brief History of Korea. Infobase Publishing. p. 328. ISBN 9781-4381-2738-5.
- Byeon Tae-seop (변태섭) (1999). 韓國史通論 (Hanguksa tongnon) (Outline of Korean history), 4th ed (in Korean). Seoul: Samyeongsa. ISBN 978-89-445-9101-3.
- Yamawaki, Keizo (1994). Japan and Foreign Laborers: Chinese and Korean Laborers in the late 1890s and early 1920s (近代日本と外国人労働者―1890年代後半と1920年代前半における中国人・朝鮮人労働者問題) (in Japanese). Tokyo: Akashi-shoten (明石書店). ISBN 978-4-7503-0568-4.
- United States Congress (2016). North Korea: A Country Study. Nova Science Publishers. p. 6. ISBN 978-1590334430.
- "Han Chinese built four commanderies, or local military units, to rule the peninsula as far south as the Han River, with a core area at Lolang (Nangnang in Korean), near present-day P'yongyang. It is illustrative of the relentlessly different historiography practiced in North Korea and South Korea, as well as both countries' dubious projection backward of Korean nationalism, that North Korean historians denied that the Lolang district was centered in Korea and placed it northwest of the peninsula, possibly near Beijing."
- Connor, Edgar V. (2003). Korea: Current Issues and Historical Background. Nova Science Publishers. p. 112. ISBN 978-1590334430.
- "They place it northwest of the peninsula, possibly near Beijing, in order to de-emphasize China's influence on ancient Korean history."
- Kim, Jinwung (2012). A History of Korea: From "Land of the Morning Calm" to States in Conflict. Indiana University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0253000248.
- "Immediately after destroying Wiman Chosŏn, the Han empire established administrative units to rule large territories in the northern Korean peninsula and southern Manchuria."
- Hyung, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins. Harvard University Press. p. 129. ISBN 9780674002449.
- "When material evidence from the Han commandery site excavated during the colonial period began to be reinterpreted by Korean nationalist historians as the first full-fledged "foreign" occupation in Korean history, Lelang's location in the heart of the Korean peninsula became particularly irksome because the finds seemed to verify Japanese colonial theories concerning the dependency of Korean civilization on China."
- Hyung, Hyung Il (2000). Constructing "Korean" Origins. Harvard University Press. p. 128. ISBN 9780674002449.
- "At present, the site of Lelang and surrounding ancient Han Chinese remains are situated in the North Korean capital of Pyongyang. Although North Korean scholars have continued to excavate Han dynasty tombs in the postwar period, they have interpreted them as manifestations of the Kochoson or the Koguryo kingdom."
- Xu, Stella Yingzi (2007). That glorious ancient history of our nation. University of California, Los Angeles. p. 223. ISBN 9780549440369.
- "Lelang Commandery was crucial to understanding the early history of Korea, which lasted from 108 BCE to 313 CE around the Pyongyang area. However, because of its nature as a Han colony and the exceptional attention paid to it by Japanese colonial scholars for making claims of the innate heteronomy of Koreans, post 1945 Korean scholars intentionally avoided the issue of Lelang."
- Lee, Peter H. (1993). Sourcebook of Korean Civilization. Columbia University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0231079129.
- "But when Emperor Wu conquered Choson, all the small barbarian tribes in the northeastern region were incorporated into the established Han commanderies because of the overwhelming military might of Han China."
- modern historians including Graff consider such a figure greatly exaggerated
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Korea.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for History of Korea.|
- the National Institute of Korean History.
- Korean History online, Korean History Information Center
- Timeline of Korean Dynasties
- Kyujanggak Archive, pdf files of Korean classics in their original written classical Chinese
- Korean History :Bibliography, Center for Korean Studies, University of Hawaii at Manoa
- History of Korea, KBS World
- History of Corea, Ancient and Modern; with Description of Manners and Customs, Language and Geography by John Ross, 1891