History of Lesotho

The history of people living in the area now known as Lesotho goes back as many as 40,000 years. The present Lesotho emerged as a single polity under paramount chief Moshoeshoe I in 1822. Under Moshoeshoe I, Basutoland joined other tribes in their struggle against the Lifaqane associated with the reign of Shaka Zulu from 1818 to 1828. Subsequent evolution of the state was shaped by contact with the British and Dutch colonists from Cape Colony. Missionaries invited by Moshoeshoe I developed orthography and printed works in the Sotho language between 1837 and 1855; the country set up diplomatic channels and acquired guns for use against the encroaching Europeans and the Korana people. Territorial conflicts with both British and Boer settlers arose periodically, including Moshoeshoe's notable victory over the Boers in the Free State–Basotho War, but the final war in 1867 with an appeal to Queen Victoria, who agreed to make Basutoland a British suzerainty. In 1869, the British signed a treaty at Aliwal with the Boers that defined the boundaries of Basutoland and Lesotho, which by ceding the western territories reduced Moshoeshoe's kingdom to half its previous size.

The extent to which the British exerted direct control over Basutoland waxed and waned until Basutoland's independence in 1966, when it became the Kingdom of Lesotho. However, when the ruling Basotho National Party lost the first post-independence general elections to the Basotho Congress Party, Leabua Jonathan refused to cede and declared himself Tona Kholo; the BCP began an insurrection that culminated in a January 1986 military coup forced the BNP out of office. Power was transferred to King Moshoeshoe II, until a ceremonial monarch, but forced into exile when he lost favour with the military the following year, his son was installed as King Letsie III. Conditions remained tumultuous, including an August 1994 self-coup by Letsie III, until 1998 when the Lesotho Congress for Democracy came to power in elections which were deemed fair by international observers. Despite protests from opposition parties, the country has remained stable since. At some stage during their migration south from a tertiary dispersal area Bantu speaking peoples came to settle the lands that now make up Lesotho as well as a more extensive territory of fertile lands that surround modern day Lesotho.

These people called themselves the Basotho. There were several severe disruptions to the Basotho peoples in the early 19th century. One view states that the first of these were marauding Zulu clans, displaced from Zululand as part of the Lifaqane, wrought havoc on the Basotho peoples they encountered as they moved first west and north; the second that no sooner than the Zulu has passed to the north than the first Voortrekkers arrived, some of whom obtained hospitality during their difficult trek north. Early Voortrekker accounts describe how the lands surrounding the mountain retreat of the Basotho had been burnt and destroyed, in effect leaving a vacuum that subsequent Voortrekkers began to occupy. However, this interpretation of history for the entire southern region of Africa is a matter of dispute. One attempt at refutation came by Norman Etherington in The Great Treks: The Transformation of Southern Africa, 1815-1854. Etherington argues that no such thing as the Mfecane occurred, the Zulu were no more marauding than any other group in the region, the land the Voortrekkers saw as empty was not settled by either Zulu or Basotho because those people did not value open lowland plains as pasture.

In 1818, Moshoeshoe I became their king. During Moshoeshoe's reign, a series of wars were fought with the Boers who had settled in traditional Basotho lands; these wars resulted in the extensive loss of land, now known as the "Lost Territory". A treaty was signed with the Boers of Griqualand in 1843 and an agreement was made with the British in 1853 following a minor war; the disputes with the Boers over land, were revived in 1858 with Senekal's War and again, more in 1865 with the Seqiti War. The Boers had a number of military successes, killing 1,500 Basotho soldiers, annexed an expanse of arable land which they were able to retain following a treaty at Thaba Bosiu. Further conflict led to an unsuccessful attack on Thaba Bosiu and the death of a Boer commandant, Louw Wepener, but by 1867, much of Moshoeshoe's land and most of his fortresses had been taken. Fearing defeat, Moshoeshoe made further appeals to High Commissioner Philip Edmond Wodehouse for British assistance. On 12 March 1868, the British Cabinet agreed to place the territory under British protection and the Boers were ordered to leave.

In February 1869, the British and the Boers agreed to the Convention of Aliwal North, which defined the boundaries of the protectorate. The arable land west of the Caledon River remained in Boer hands and is referred to as the Lost or Conquered Territory. Moshoeshoe was buried atop Thaba Bosiu. In 1871 the protectorate was annexed to Cape Colony; the Basotho resisted the British and in 1879 a southern chief, rose in revolt. His campaign was crushed, he was killed in the fighting; the Basotho began to fight amongst themselves over the division of Moorosi's lands. The British extended the Cape Peace Preservation Act of 1878 to cover Basutoland and attempted to disarm the natives. Much of the colony rose in revolt in the Gun War, inflicting significant casualties upon the colonial British forces sent to subdue it. A peace treaty of 1881 failed to quell sporadic fighting. Cape Town's inability to control the territory led


Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 13 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF13 gene. Initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II requires the activities of more than 70 polypeptides; the protein that coordinates these activities is transcription factor IID, which binds to the core promoter to position the polymerase properly, serves as the scaffold for assembly of the remainder of the transcription complex, acts as a channel for regulatory signals. TFIID is composed of the TATA-binding protein and a group of evolutionarily conserved proteins known as TBP-associated factors or TAFs. TAFs may participate in basal transcription, serve as coactivators, function in promoter recognition or modify general transcription factors to facilitate complex assembly and transcription initiation; this gene encodes a small subunit associated with a subset of TFIID complexes. This subunit interacts with TBP and with two other small subunits of TFIID, TAF10 and TAF11. There is a pseudogene located on chromosome 6.

TAF13 has been shown to interact with TAF11, TAF10 and TATA binding protein. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: Q15543 at the PDBe-KB

Titanic (magazine)

Titanic is a German monthly satirical magazine based in Frankfurt. It has a circulation of 100,000. Titanic was founded in 1979 by former contributors and editors of pardon, a satirical monthly, which the group had left after conflicts with its publisher; the founding writers and cartoonists of Titanic were based in Frankfurt. They called alluding to the Frankfurter Schule of the 1930s; the heading of Titanic's monthly reviews of humorous publications bears the portrait of philosopher Theodor W. Adorno wearing a fake goatee; as of October 2013, the editor-in-chief of Titanic is Tim Wolff, succeeding Leo Fischer. Chancellor Helmut Kohl was a favourite subject of the magazine, appearing on the front page more than any other person. In the 1980s, Titanic coined the German word for pear. One of Titanic's most known cover pages appeared in November 1989, following the Fall of the Berlin Wall; the East Germans' perceived obsession with bananas was spoofed by a Titanic cover depicting "Zonen-Gaby im Glück: My first banana", where Gaby is shown holding a large peeled cucumber.

"Zone" refers to the GDR's informal name "sowjetische Besatzungszone". To make light of the prevailing public sentiment that favoured German reunification, Titanic purported to oppose it; this culminated in the founding of the Titanic party Die PARTEI, whose sole agenda is to revoke reunification and to reconstruct the inner German border. The former editor-in-chief Martin Sonneborn is the party leader. In addition, Titanic changed its mission to "The ultimate division of Germany — our commitment". Titanic staff members have engaged in activities that took aim at the media and entertainment. For example editor-in-chief, Bernd Fritz, made an incognito appearance at the game show Wetten, dass..?, followed by his revelation of how easy it was for him to cheat on the show. In recent years, the magazine has attracted attention, for example by taking the football world cup to Germany by bribing a FIFA delegate. Before the German federal election, 2005 Titanic was running a campaign against "das Merkel" and was publicly searching for a female contender for chancellor with the slogan "Frau?

Ja, aber schön". Titanic has generated a number of scandals, some of which have resulted in lawsuits against the magazine. Up to 2001, 40 plaintiffs had brought lawsuits against Titanic. Politician Björn Engholm, for example, received 40,000 Deutsche Mark in compensation, this, coupled with 190,000 DM in legal fees, drove Titanic close to bankruptcy; the July 2012 issue of the magazine was banned by a state court in Hamburg due to its front cover being an image of Pope Benedict XVI soiling himself. In July 2000, Martin Sonneborn sent hoax bribery faxes to a number of delegates of the FIFA World championship committee. In these letters, he offered the delegates gifts if they showed their support of the German bid for the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Before this incident, it had been expected that the tournament would take place in South Africa. However, New Zealand's representative, Charlie Dempsey, instructed to vote for South Africa by the Oceania Football Confederation, abstained from voting at the last minute.

His vote for South Africa would have brought the tally to 12:12, resulting in FIFA's President Sepp Blatter—who had supported South Africa's bid—having to break the tie. Dempsey was one of the eight members of the executive committee who had received Sonneborn's fax on Wednesday, the night before the vote. In his letter to Dempsey, Sonneborn promised him a cuckoo clock and Black Forest ham in exchange for Dempsey's vote for Germany: In this difficult situation, Germany would like to emphasize the urgency of its appeal to hold the World Cup 2006 in Germany. Let me come straight to the point: In appreciation of your support we would like to offer you a small gift for your vote in favor of Germany: A fine basket with specialties from the black forest, including some good sausages, ham and — hold on to your seat — a wonderful KuKuClock! And a beer mug, too! Do we leave you any choice? We trust in the wisdom of your decision tomorrow, sincerely yours Martin Sonneborn Secretary TDES Dempsey himself famously stated "This final fax broke my neck."

He argued. In July 2000, the biggest German tabloid BILD-Zeitung urged its readers to phone Titanic and express their outrage at damaging Germany's reputation through bribery. Titanic recorded those phone calls and published an audio CD with a selection of the funniest of them, called "BILD-Leser beschimpfen Titanic"; the German soccer association threatened Sonneborn with DM 600 million in damages, requiring him to swear never again to influence a FIFA decision through the use of a fax machine. In November 2005, Sonneborn published a book about the affair, "Ich tat es für mein Land" — Wie TITANIC einmal die Fußball-WM 2006 nach Deutschland holte. Protokoll einer erfolgreichen Bestechung, Bombus Verlag, ISBN 3-936261-37-7. In 2006, the year the World Cup took place in Germany, Titanic arranged an exhibition called "Wie Titanic einmal die Fußball-WM 2006 nach Deutschland holte" in the Historical Museum of Frankfurt am Main, which displayed the events surrounding