History of Liechtenstein

Political identity came to the territory now occupied by the Principality of Liechtenstein in 814, with the formation of the subcountry of Lower Rhætia. Liechtenstein's borders have remained unchanged since 1434, when the Rhine established the border between the Holy Roman Empire and the Swiss cantons. A Roman road crossed the region from south to north, traversing the Alps by the Splügen Pass and, following the right bank of the Rhine at the edge of the floodplain, was uninhabited for long lengths of time because of periodic flooding. Roman villas have been excavated in Nendeln; the late Roman influx of the Alemanni from the north is memorialized by the remains of a Roman fort at Schaan. The area, part of Raetia, was incorporated into the Carolingian empire, divided into countships, which became subdivided over the generations; because the Duchy of Swabia lost its duke in 1268 and was never restored, all vassals of the duchy became immediate vassals of the Imperial Throne. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German gained ground, in 1300 an Alemannic population called the Walsers entered the region.

In the 21st century, the mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect. The medieval county of Vaduz was formed in 1342 as a small subdivision of the Werdenberg county of the dynasty of Montfort of Vorarlberg; the 15th century brought some devastation. The Principality takes its name from the Liechtenstein family, rather than vice versa, the family in turn takes its name from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria, which it owned from at least 1140 until the 13th century and from 1807 onwards. Over the centuries, the family acquired huge landed estates in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria. All of these rich territories were held in fief under other more senior feudal lords under various lines of the Habsburg family, to which many Liechtensteins were close advisors. Thus, without holding any land directly under the Holy Roman Emperors, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet the primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial Diet, although its head was elevated to princely rank in the late 17th century.

The area, to become Liechtenstein was invaded by both Austrian and Swedish troops during the Thirty Years' War of 1618–1648. During the 17th century the country was afflicted by a plague and by a witch hunt, in which more than 100 persons were persecuted and executed. Prince Johann Adam Andreas of Liechtenstein bought the domain of Schellenberg in 1699 and the county of Vaduz in 1712; this Prince of Liechtenstein had wide landholdings in Austria and Moravia, but none of his lands were held directly from the Emperor. Thus, the prince was barred from entry to the Council of Princes and the prestige and influence that would entail. By acquiring the Lordships of Schellenberg and Vaduz, modest areas of mountain villages each of, directly subordinate to the Emperor because there no longer being a Duke of Swabia, the Prince of Liechtenstein achieved his goal; the territory took the name of the family. On January 23, 1719, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that the counties of Vaduz and Schellenberg be promoted to a principality with the name Liechtenstein for his servant Anton Florian of Liechtenstein whereby he and his successors became Princes of the Holy Roman Empire.

After having narrowly escaped mediatization to Bavaria in 1806, Liechtenstein became a sovereign state that year when it joined Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine upon the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. The French under Napoleon occupied the country for a few years, but Liechtenstein retained its independence in 1815. Soon afterward, Liechtenstein joined the German Confederation. In 1818, Johann I granted a constitution, although it was limited in its nature. 1818 saw the first visit of a member of the house of Liechtenstein, Prince Alois. However, the first visit by a sovereign prince would not occur until 1842. In 1862, a new Constitution was promulgated. During the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, Prince Johann II placed his soldiers at the disposal of the Confederation but only to “defend the German territory of Tyrol”; the Prince refused to have his men fight against other Germans. The Liechtenstein contingent took up position on the Stilfse Joch in the south of Liechtenstein to defend the Liechtenstein/Austrian border against attacks by the Italians under Garibaldi.

A reserve of 20 men remained in Liechtenstein. When the war ended on July 22, the army of Liechtenstein marched home to a ceremonial welcome in Vaduz. Popular legend claims that 80 men went to war but 81 came back. An Italian liaison officer joined up with the contingent on the way back. In 1868, after the German Confederation dissolved, Liechtenstein disbanded its army of 80 men and declared its permanent neutrality, respected during both World Wars. Liechtenstein did not participate in World War I. However, until the end of the war, Liechtenstein was tied to Austria. In response, the Allied Powers imposed an economic embargo on the principality; the economic devastation forced the country to conclude a customs and monetary union with Switzerland. In 1919 Liechtenstein and Switzerland signed a treaty under which Switzerland assumes the representation of Liechtenstein interests at the diplomatic and consular level in countries where it maintains a representati

Birmingham bid for the 1992 Summer Olympics

The Birmingham bid for the 1992 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was an unsuccessful campaign, first recognized by the International Olympic Committee on 28 February 1986. It lost, having only gained eight votes with Barcelona going on to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, its failure was due to a number of factors, including a perceived lack of support by the British Government for the bid as well as the international relations that the UK had at the time with South Africa and the United States. Birmingham was selected as the city for the UK bid ahead of Manchester; the city had long been described as Britain's "second city". It was led by Denis Howell, former Minister for Sport of the United Kingdom. Howell was a member of the Labour Party, which at the time was in opposition and therefore was not a member of the sitting government of the United Kingdom. Birmingham's bid was previewed at the Sports Council seminar in Harrogate on 26 February 1986 prior to being submitted to the IOC on 28 February.

Howell had returned from touring Eastern European countries to promote the bid in order to conduct discussions with IOC president Ashwini Kumar. An initial estimate of £500 million was given for hosting the games, with the bid team expecting the city to make a profit of around £200 million on that; the bidding process. The main venues for the Birmingham bid were centred on the National Exhibition Centre, attempted to highlight the ease of access between the venues and the proposed athlete's village and other transport links; the NEC had seven indoor arenas, it was expected that 85% of the sporting events would be hosted within 5 miles. The shooting would have been hosted at the Aldersley Stadium, where an £8 million complex was to have been built under the bid proposal. Weymouth was suggested as a suitable venue for sailing events for the Birmingham 1992 Olympic bid; the location was described as the "Henley of sailing" having hosted numerous sailing competitions. It was anticipated that a new Olympic village would be constructed as opposed to using existing buildings in order to facilitate security precautions being built into the new properties.

A secondary Olympic village at Weymouth was planned for the competitors in the sailing events. The Pontins holiday camp near Weymouth was identified as a location following a study conducted by the Royal Yachting Association in 1985. Birmingham began to host international sporting events in order to boost its profile as a potential city for the 1992 Olympics; these included an inner city Formula 3000 road race at a cost of £1.5 million. Support by the British Government for the bid was seen as lacking, with a letter of support signed by Kenneth Baker the Secretary of State for the Environment instead of Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher; the question of the Government support was brought up in discussion in the House of Lords, with Lord Skelmersdale stating, "My Lords, it is the responsibility of Birmingham City Council to make and promote its own bid. In doing so, the city has sought Government support to enable it to meet the requirements of the Olympic Charter and to help Birmingham secure the nomination to host the Games.

The Government are giving that support." Shortly prior to the IOC vote there was a boycott by 21 countries of the 1986 Commonwealth Games in protest against Thatcher's ongoing support of maintaining sporting links with South Africa. In addition the United Kingdom had supported the United States in their bombing raid on Libya, seen as eliminating any Middle Eastern support for a UK bid; the Handsworth riots were seen to have had a detrimental effect on Birmingham's bid for the Olympics. The British press had presented Barcelona's bid as falling out of favour with the IOC due to the locating of the Olympic stadium on top of a hill which would have presented problems with the ending stages of the marathon; however Barcelona went on to win the bid process, with Birmingham being the second city to be eliminated after Amsterdam. Further bids were put forward for the 1996 and 2000 Games from Manchester, but these too failed to win. During the initial stages of putting together the bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics, the British bid team did look at putting forward Birmingham once more.

However, the IOC told the bid team that the only way that Britain could host the games was if the bid came from London instead. Birmingham will host the 2022 Commonwealth Games

List of events at Wrigley Field

Wrigley Field is a stadium that opened in 1914. It has served as the home field of the Chicago Cubs professional baseball club for over nine decades, but it hosted football games and other events in its 100 years of existence. April 23 the Federal League Chifeds played the first game at the brand-new Weeghman Park. After parades and ceremonies, the Chifeds defeated the visiting Kansas City Packers 9–1. In June and July, on select night the park hosted first-class "hippodrome acts" at night after the Whales' games. Separate admission fee was charged to view circus-style performers such as "The Five Juggling Normans", "The Clown of the Sawdust Ring" and "the great baseball pantomime comedian George Silvers" October 3 the renamed Chicago Whales clinched what would turn out to be the final Federal League pennant in the closest pennant race in history. Going into the last day of the season, Chicago was four points ahead of the Pittsburgh Rebels and five points ahead of the St. Louis Terriers. St. Louis won its game against Kansas City, putting them just two points behind Chicago and two ahead of Pittsburgh.

The Whales were scheduled to play a doubleheader against Pittsburgh at Weeghman Park. The Whales lost the first game, 5–4, in the 11th inning after having led 4–1 with two outs in the ninth inning. A loss or tie in the second game would give Pittsburgh the FL pennant, while a win would give the Whales the pennant; as the sun drew low during the second game, the game remained scoreless. In the sixth inning, the Whales scored three runs, two of them from a Max Flack double; the game was called due to darkness after Pittsburgh failed to score in the top of the seventh inning. The Whales ended up winners of the pennant by.001 over St. Louis, Pittsburgh ended up third, one-half game back. April 20 the Cubs played their first game in Weeghman Park; the franchise had merged with the Whales after the 1915 season, as a result acquired the park and made it their own. The Cubs beat the Cincinnati Reds 7–6 in 11 innings. May 2 Jim "Hippo" Vaughn and the Cincinnati Reds's Fred Toney both pitched nine-inning no-hitters before Jim Thorpe drives in a run in the 10th inning for a Reds victory.

August 29, with the season ending early due to war restrictions, the Chicago Cubs clinched the National League pennant with a 1–0 win over the Cincinnati Reds at Weeghman Park. The Cubs would play their home games of that year's World Series in Comiskey Park, home of the Chicago White Sox. Weeghman Park would not see its first World Series game until 1929, when it had become known as Wrigley Field. September 21 Grover Cleveland Alexander pitched a complete game, defeating the Boston Braves 3–0 in a 58-minute game; this is fastest nine-inning game in Cubs franchise history. June 26, 1920: In a high-school "inter-state championship" game between New York City's Commerce High and Chicago's Lane Tech, just-turned-17 New York player Lou Gehrig slugs a grand slam to lead his team to a comeback victory. October 10, 1920: First professional football game at Cubs Park; the Chicago Tigers hosted the Racine Cardinals in a 0–0 draw. The game was attended by a crowd of 8,000. 1920 American Professional Football League Championship Game 1921 The Chicago Staleys make Cubs Park their home venue.

July 12, 1922: Cubs Park hosts its first concert. Lights were brought in to illuminate the field, a platform and sound board was set up over the infield for an orchestra performance. August 25, 1922: The Cubs defeat the Philadelphia Phillies 26–23 in what remains the highest-scoring game in major league history. After spotting the Phillies an early 2–1 lead, the Cubs score 10 in the second and 14 in the fourth, leading 25–6 at that point; the Phillies outscore the Cubs 17–1 during the last five innings, but the Cubs hang on to win in the ninth, avoiding what would have been the most lopsided comeback in history. The winds shift the next day, as the Cubs lose to the Phils 3–0. In 1923 the park hosted the annual rivalry game between the Illinois and Northwestern college football teams; this was the first time the game had been played in Chicago. October 1, 1924: WGN broadcasts its first baseball game from the park, the first Chicago professional game broadcast on radio, with A. W. Kaney commentating.

The Cubs were hosting the White Sox, won 10–7. The Chicago Cubs arguably led the way among MLB teams when it came to adopting the medium of radio broadcasting. Many major-league owners in the 1920s had been reluctant to adopting radio, while William Wrigley Jr. believed that radio would bring in more spectators excited from what they heard on the radio. "The more outlets, the better." He told players. "That way we'll tie up the entire city." By the mid-1920s five different stations were transmitting home games from Wrigley Field. During the 1931 season as many as 7 Chicago radio stations carried Cubs from Wrigley Field, as the team charged no broadcast fee. December 3, 1926: Board of Directors votes to rename the park "Wrigley Field" in honor of William Wrigley Jr, it was the second ballpark with this name, as Mr. Wrigley's LA Minor League team, the Los Angeles Angels played at a Wrigley Field April 12, 1927: Cubs beat the St. Louis Cardinals 10–1 before 42,000 attendees for the first game in the newly renamed'Wrigley Field' May 31, 1927: Wrigley Field hosts the junior welterweight boxing championship.

Mushy Callahan defeated Spug Meyers for the title. September 1929: Doubleheader sets a single-day record with 81,000 in attendance. Septem