The history of London, the capital city of England and the United Kingdom, extends over 2000 years. In that time, it has become one of the world's most significant financial and cultural capital cities, it has withstood plague, devastating fire, civil war, aerial bombardment, terrorist attacks, riots. The City of London is the historic core of the Greater London metropolis, is today its primary financial district, though it represents only a small part of the wider metropolis. According to Historia Regum Britanniae, by Geoffrey of Monmouth, London was found by Brutus of Troy about 1000–1100 B. C. E. after he defeated the native giant Gogmagog. Trinovantes were the Iron Age tribe. Geoffrey provides prehistoric London with a rich array of legendary kings, such as Lud who, he claims, renamed the town Caer Ludein, from which London was derived, was buried at Ludgate; some recent discoveries indicate probable early settlements near the Thames in the London area. In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the Thames's south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge.
This bridge either went to a now lost island in the river. Dendrology dated the timbers to between 1750 B. C. E and 1285 B. C. E. In 2001, a further dig found that the timbers were driven vertically into the ground on the south bank of the Thames west of Vauxhall Bridge. In 2010, the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4,800 B. C. E. and 4,500 B. C. E. were found, again on the foreshore south of Vauxhall Bridge. The function of the mesolithic structure is not known. All thescovery.org"/> e structures are on the south bank at a natural crossing point where the River Effra flows into the Thames. Archaeologist Leslie Wallace notes that "Because no LPRIA settlements or significant domestic refuse have been found in London, despite extensive archaeological excavation, arguments for a purely Roman foundation of London are now common and uncontroversial." Londinium was established as a civilian town by the Romans about four years after the invasion of AD 43. London, like Rome, was founded on the point of the river where it was narrow enough to bridge and the strategic location of the city provided easy access to much of Europe.
Early Roman London occupied a small area equivalent to the size of Hyde Park. In around AD 60, it was destroyed by the Iceni led by their queen Boudica; the city was rebuilt as a planned Roman town and recovered after 10 years. During the 2nd century Londinium was at its height and replaced Colchester as the capital of Roman Britain, its population was around 60,000 inhabitants. It boasted major public buildings, including the largest basilica north of the Alps, bath houses, an amphitheatre and a large fort for the city garrison. Political instability and recession from the 3rd century onwards led to a slow decline. At some time between AD 180 and AD 225, the Romans built the defensive London Wall around the landward side of the city; the wall was about 3 kilometres long, 6 metres high, 2.5 metres thick. The wall would survive for another 1,600 years and define the City of London's perimeters for centuries to come; the perimeters of the present City are defined by the line of the ancient wall. Londonium was an ethnically diverse city with inhabitants from across the Roman Empire, including natives of Britannia, continental Europe, the Middle East, North Africa.
In the late 3rd century, Londinium was raided on several occasions by Saxon pirates. This led, to the construction of an additional riverside wall. Six of the traditional seven city gates of London are of Roman origin, namely: Ludgate, Aldersgate, Cripplegate and Aldgate. By the 5th century, the Roman Empire was in rapid decline and in AD 410, the Roman occupation of Britannia came to an end. Following this, the Roman city went into rapid decline and by the end of the 5th century was abandoned; until it was believed that Anglo-Saxon settlement avoided the area around Londinium. However, the discovery in 2008 of an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at Covent Garden indicates that the incomers had begun to settle there at least as early as the 6th century and in the 5th; the main focus of this settlement was outside the Roman walls, clustering a short distance to the west along what is now the Strand, between the Aldwych and Trafalgar Square. It was known as the - wic suffix here denoting a trading settlement.
Recent excavations have highlighted the population density and sophisticated urban organisation of this earlier Anglo-Saxon London, laid out on a grid pattern and grew to house a population of 10-12,000. Early Anglo-Saxon London belonged to a people known as the Middle Saxons, from whom the name of the county of Middlesex is derived, but who also occupied the approximate area of modern Hertfordshire and Surrey. However, by the early 7th century the London area had been incorporated into the kingdom of the East Saxons. In 604 King Saeberht of Essex converted to Christianity and London received Mellitus, its first post-Roman bishop. At this time Essex was under the overlordship of King Æthelberht of Kent, it was under Æthelberht's patronage that Mellitus founded the first St. Paul's Cathedral, traditionally said to be on the site of an old Roman Temple of Diana (although Christopher Wren found no evidence
Mark Johannes van der Laan is the Jiann-Ping Hsu/Karl E. Peace Professor of Biostatistics and Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, he has made contributions to survival analysis, semiparametric statistics, multiple testing, causal inference. He developed the targeted maximum likelihood methodology, he is a founding editor of the Journal of Causal Inference. He received his Ph. D. from Utrecht University in 1993 with a dissertation titled "Efficient and Inefficient Estimation in Semiparametric Models". He received the COPSS Presidents' Award in 2005, the Mortimer Spiegelman Award in 2004, the van Dantzig Award in 2005. Van Der Laan, M. J.. M.. Unified Methods for Censored Longitudinal Data and Causality. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer. ISBN 0-387-95556-9. Van Der Laan, M. J.. Targeted Learning: Causal Inference for Observational and Experimental Data. Springer Series in Statistics. Springer. ISBN 1-441-99781-4. Dudoit, S.. J.. Multiple Testing Procedures with Applications to Genomics.
Springer Series in Statistics. Springer. ISBN 0-387-49316-6
"The Soup" is the 93rd episode of the NBC sitcom Seinfeld. This was the seventh episode of the sixth season, it aired on November 10, 1994. The character Kenny Bania made his first appearance in the episode, in which he tries to cultivate friendship with Jerry by giving him an Armani suit. Meanwhile, George becomes uncomfortable at Monk's Café after he has an awkward first date with a waitress there, leading him and his circle of friends to try eating at one of their competitors. Kelly, a waitress from Monk's Café, flirts with George. At Jerry's goading, he takes her out for a walk. George mentions how he likes the word "manure", Kelly makes a casual remark revealing that she has a boyfriend. Jerry and George speculate whether she made that up to avoid George and whether the manure comment had anything to do with it. After having a kidney stone in "The Gymnast", Kramer decides to dump his refrigerator and eat only fresh foods, he starts dating Hildy, a waitress at Reggie's, her appetite forces him to raid Jerry's apartment for food.
Kenny Bania, an obnoxious comedian, gives Jerry a brand-new Armani suit, but insists Jerry should buy him a meal in exchange. Jerry and Bania meet up at Mendy's restaurant for the agreed-upon meal, but Bania only orders soup, which, he says, cannot count as the "meal". Elaine has just returned from a trip to England with Mr. Pitt, she has flown him back with her frequent-flyer miles. Simon, the Englishman, doesn't seem to have plans to return to England. Bania joins Jerry at Monk's. Jerry insists his obligation is fulfilled, overruling Bania's protests that they didn't eat in a fancy restaurant. Jerry is so overcome with disgust for Bania's manipulations. George feels uncomfortable in Monk's, because the playful banter he enjoyed with Kelly before has been replaced on her part with a cold formality that borders on rudeness. After asking Hildy, Kramer informs George. George badgers Elaine to go to Reggie's. However, Reggie's doesn't offer the meals. At his apartment, Jerry is out of food for Hildy, in a bad mood because she got fired after Kramer made too many calls to her workplace.
George decides to try the same trick with Kelly, reasoning that Kelly is the one who should have to leave because he had been going to Monk's far longer than she had been working there. Back at Monk's, Kelly informs Elaine that she isn't going to work there anymore, her boss, fed up with calls, bans George from Monk's. Bania attempts to reclaim the suit from Jerry. Simon arrives to announce that he has a job interview and is a shoe-in thanks to the suit Jerry gave him, so he will be staying in the country indefinitely; as he's leaving, Elaine tells Bania where his suit is, a heated Bania rushes outside to attack Simon. Jerry and Elaine salute each other in triumph, while George has no option but to eat by himself at Reggie's; the walk scene in Central Park was filmed at the CBS Radford lagoon, best known as the set for Gilligan's Island. Sequences which were filmed but deleted prior to broadcast include George giving Kramer advice on asking Hildy out, George confronting the manager at Reggie's in an attempt to persuade him to add their favorite meals to the menu, Hildy breaking up with Kramer over his inability to keep her fed, Kenny Bania revealing he asked Kelly out as soon as she gave her notice at Monk's, since he wanted to avoid the situation George ended up in in the episode.