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History of Macau

Macau is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. In 1557 it was leased to Portugal as a trading post in exchange for an annual rent of 500 tael in order to stay in Macau, it remained under Chinese sovereignty and authority until 1887, the Portuguese came to consider and administer it as a de facto colony. Following the signing of the Treaty of Nanking between China and Britain in 1842, the signing of treaties between China and foreign powers during the 1860s, establishing the benefit of "the most favoured nation" for them, the Portuguese attempted to conclude a similar treaty in 1862, but the Chinese refused, owing to a misunderstanding over the sovereignty of Macau. In 1887 the Portuguese managed to secure an agreement from China that Macao was Portuguese territory. In 1999 it was handed over to China. Macau was the last extant European territory in continental Asia; the human history of Macau stretches back up to 6,000 years, includes many different and diverse civilisations and periods of existence.

Evidence of human and culture dating back 4,000 to 6,000 years has been discovered on the Macau Peninsula and dating back 5,000 years on Coloane Island. During the Qin Dynasty, the region came under the jurisdiction of Panyu County, Nanhai Prefecture of the province of Guangdong, it was administratively part of Dongguan Prefecture in the Jin dynasty, alternated under the control of Nanhai and Dongguan in dynasties. In 1152, during the Song dynasty, it was under the jurisdiction of the new Xiangshan County. Since the 5th century, merchant ships travelling between Southeast Asia and Guangzhou used the region as a port for refuge, fresh water, food; the first recorded inhabitants of the area are some 50,000 people seeking refuge in Macau from invading Mongols in 1277, during the Southern Song dynasty. They were able to establish themselves there. Mong Há has long been the center of Chinese life in Macau and the site of what may be the region's oldest temple, a shrine devoted to the Buddhist Guanyin.

In the Ming dynasty, fishermen migrated to Macau from various parts of Guangdong and Fujian provinces and built the A-Ma Temple where they prayed for safety on the sea. The Hoklo Boat people were the first to show interest in Macau as a trading centre for the southern provinces. However, Macau did not develop as a major settlement until the Portuguese arrived in the 16th century. During the age of discovery Portuguese sailors explored the coasts of Asia; the sailors established posts at Goa in 1510, conquered Malacca in 1511, driving the Sultan to the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula from where he kept making raids on the Portuguese. The Portuguese under Jorge Álvares landed at Lintin Island in the Pearl River Delta of China in 1513 with a hired junk sailing from Portuguese Malacca, they erected a stone marker at Lintin Island claiming it for the King of Portugal, Manuel I. In the same year, the Indian Viceroy Afonso de Albuquerque commissioned Rafael Perestrello — a cousin of Christopher Columbus to sail to China in order to open up trade relations.

Rafael traded with the Chinese merchants in Guangzhou in that year and in 1516, but was not allowed to move further. Portugal's king Manuel I in 1517 commissioned a diplomatic and trade mission to Guangzhou headed by Tomé Pires and Fernão Pires de Andrade; the embassy lasted until the death of the Zhengde Emperor in Nanjing. The embassy was further rejected by the Chinese Ming court, which now became less interested in new foreign contacts; the Ming Court was influenced by reports of misbehaviour of Portuguese elsewhere in China, by the deposed Sultan of Malacca seeking Chinese assistance to drive the Portuguese out of Malacca. In 1521 and 1522 several more Portuguese ships reached the trading island Tamão off the coast near Guangzhou, but were driven away by the now hostile Ming authorities. Pires was died in Canton. Good relations between the Portuguese and Chinese Ming dynasty resumed in the 1540s, when Portuguese aided China in eliminating coastal pirates; the two began annual trade missions to the offshore Shangchuan Island in 1549.

A few years Lampacau Island, closer to the Pearl River Delta, became the main base of the Portuguese trade in the region. Diplomatic relations were further improved and salvaged by the Leonel de Sousa agreement with Cantonese authorities in 1554. In 1557, the Ming court gave consent for a permanent and official Portuguese trade base at Macau. In 1558, Leonel de Sousa became the second Portuguese Governor of Macau, they built some rudimentary stone-houses around the area now called Nam Van. But not until 1557 did the Portuguese establish a permanent settlement in Macau, at an annual rent of 500 taels of silver; that year, the Portuguese established a walled village there. Ground rent payments began in 1573. China retained sovereignty and Chinese residents were subject to Chinese law, but the territory was under Portuguese administration. In 1582 a land lease was signed, annual rent was paid to Xiangshan County; the Portuguese continued to pay an annual tribute up to 1863 in order to stay in Macau.

The Portuguese married Tanka women since Han Chinese women would not have relations with them. Some of the Tanka's descendants became Macanese people; some Tanka children were enslaved by Portuguese raiders. The Chinese poet Wu Li wrote a poem, which included a line about the Portuguese in Macau being supplied with fish by the Tanka. After the Portuguese were allowed to permanently settle in Macau, both Chinese and Portuguese merchants flocked to Macau, although the Portuguese were never numerous (numbering just 900 in 1583 and 1200 out of 26,0

Aksel Magdahl

Aksel Magdahl, is a Norwegian yacht racing navigator, author of the tactics that took the boat Ericsson 3 to the victory in the fifth leg of the Volvo Ocean Race. The stage was the longest in the history of the race and it was disputed between the Chinese city of Qingdao and in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In early 1985, master painter and yachtsman Kjell-Rune Magdahl bought an Optimist dinghy for his son Aksel, who had just turned six; the hope was. But Aksel's interest in boats never set sail, he sailed his Optimist at home off Tönsberg on the Oslofjord’s west coast, but at the age of 11, other interests, such as computers and football, took the upper hand. When he was 19, he rekindled his interest in regatta sailing after he completed his military service, not in the navy but with an assault team in the Norwegian cavalry. Aksel studied economics at the BI Norwegian School of Management in Oslo but his sailing career bloomed and in 2004 two-time Volvo Ocean Race skipper Knut Frostad brought him onboard his ORMA60 trimaran Nokia Academy, winning the Nokia Oops Cup total in their first season together.

With Nokia Academy he combined his computer skills and sailing talent to become a full-blood professional racing navigator, he managed this project for two of his three years there. It was the same Knut Frostad who, in early 2007, told Aksel that he might be Anders Lewander’s and Magnus “Mange” Olsson's first choice as navigator for Ericsson in the Volvo Ocean Race 2008-09. Aksel and Mange went on to lead the underdog team Ericsson 3, the inexperienced team surprised the sailing world with three consecutive third places in the first three legs of the race after solid offshore sailing and some unusual navigation, he applied new decision-making- and analysis techniques and became established as one of the top offshore navigators in his first try. Outside sailing, Aksel won the regional road cycling championship in Vestfold, Norway in 2011, is a keen private pilot. 2004-´06 Nokia Oops Cup with Team Nokia Academy ORMA60 trimaran 2008-´09 Volvo Ocean Race Participation Fourth place Offshore: Legs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 In-Port: Alicante, Boston, Stockholm 2011-´12 Volvo Ocean Race, Team Sanya Sailing Achievements 2004–Nokia Oops Cup, multihull 60-foot, SORC, North American Championship, Farr40 2005–Nokia Oops Cup, multihull 60-foot, IMS Nationals, mainsail/tactics 2004–Nokia Oops Cup, multihull 60-foot, Faerder-Skagen, multihull record, Soling Nationals 2003–IMS European Championship, Several 1st-3rd positions with WCST

Eurosport 2

Eurosport 2 is a European sports television network. It is part of the Eurosport Network. Several different versions of the channel exist across Europe, where television rights for sport differ. Eurosport 2 launched on 10 January 2005, it is available in 50 million homes and 47 countries, broadcasting in 18 different languages English, French, German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Portuguese, Serbian, Czech, Dutch and Danish. Eurosport 2 considers itself "the new generation sports channel", is dedicated to team sports and in particular'alternative' and niche sports including European basketball, National Lacrosse League, Twenty20 cricket, AFL Aussie Rules and the Handball Champions League, amongst others. On 2 July 2010, the Arena Football League announced that Eurosport 2 would show matches that the NFL Network broadcast in the United States on a tape delay for the rest of the season, as well as coverage of ArenaBowl XXIII; the deal includes rights for the entire 2011 season to be broadcast on the channel.

Eurosport 2 HD, a high-definition version of the channel is available. In central and northern Europe, it carries some exclusive programming such as Bundesliga football from Germany, WWE wrestling shows and live Australian Rules Football matches, which are not available on other versions due to local networks holding the rights. Eurosport DK was a Danish television channel owned by Discovery Networks Northern Europe; the channel replaced Canal 8 Sport and Eurosport 2 in Denmark on 1 July 2015. On 28 May 2015, Discovery Networks Northern Europe announced that they would merge Canal 8 Sport and Eurosport 2 into Eurosport DK in Denmark, broadcasting football from Danish Superliga, the Bundesliga, Major League Soccer, Capital One Cup, UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying, Tennis from ATP Tour, WTA Tour and 3 Grand Slams, Cycling from UCI World Tour, Winter sport, Motorsports. On 15 February 2016, the channel was replaced by Eurosport 2. Eurosport Norway is a Norwegian television channel that replaced Eurosport 2 since 3 September 2015..

It is owned by Discovery Networks Norway and broadcasts Norwegian eliteserien and other Eurosport programming. Lattelecom: Channel 51 Mediaset Premium: Channel 385 Max TV: Channel Boom TV: Channel 52 Bulsatcom: Channel 206 Canal Digitaal: Channel 29 CanalSat: Channel 62 CanalSat: Channel 125 Cyfrowy Polsat: Channel 15, Channel 121 and Channel 514 Digiturk: Channel 72 Joyne: Channel 19 Movistar+: Channel 62 n: Channel 112 NTV Plus: Channel OTE TV: Channel 306 Sky: Channel 411 and Channel 865 Sky Italia: Channel 211 TV Vlaanderen: Channel 76 UPC Direkt: Channel 86 Caiway: Channel 137 Com Hem: Channel 103 DELTA: Channel 151 Global Destiny: Channel 36 Digi TV: Channel 37 Hot: Channel 59 Kabel Deutschland: Channel 373 Kabel Noord: Channel 301 Lattelecom: Channel 402 Nacional'nye kabel'nye seti: Channel 56 Naxoo: Channel 81 Numericable: Channel 152 RCS&RDS: Channel 30 Serbia Broadband: Channel 268 and Channel 137 Telenet: Channel 211 T-Home: Channel 38 T-Home Digital: Channel S38 UPC Digital: Channel 46 UPC Poland: Channel 564 UPC Poland: Channel 566 and Channel 567 UPC Romania: Channel 211 Virgin Media Ireland: Channel 425 and Channel 426 Virgin Media: Channel 522 Vodafone TV: Channel 251 WightFibre: Channel 88 Ziggo: Channel 411 ZON TV: Channel 28 Belgacom TV: Channel 74 and Channel 85 BT TV: Channel 413 and Channel 436 eir Vision: Channel 414 and Channel 428 KPN: Channel 36 MEO: Channel 38 MojaTV: Channel 35 Movistar+: Channel 62 On Telecoms: Channel 47 Open IPTV: Channel 562 Orange TV: Channel 101 Tele2: Channel 208 T-Home: Channel T-Mobile: Channel 132 Tivibu: Channel 86 Vodafone Tv Net Voz: Channel 27 iNES: Channel Sky Go: Watch live TVPlayer: Watch live Eurosport Player: Watch live Horizon GO: Horizon.tv Virgin TV Anywhere: Watch live Ziggo GO: ZiggoGO.tv Official Site Danish Presentation

Australia-Asia Literary Award

Australia-Asia Literary Award was an initiative of the Government of Western Australia Department of Culture and the Arts. It was Australia's richest literary prize, with a purse of A$110,000; the award was established in 2007 and the first and only winner was announced in November 2008, from entries published in 2007. In 2010 it was announced the award would be discontinued, with resources merged with the Western Australian Premier's Book Awards. "The AALA will be discontinued so we can free up some of those funds for an improved Premier’s Book Awards." On 15 February 2010, the PBA began accepting for entry books published in 2008 and 2009 for the 2010 PBA. Winner announced in November 2008 for books published in 2007. Winner David Malouf, The Complete Stories Shortlist Michelle de Kretser, The Lost Dog Mohsin Hamid, The Reluctant Fundamentalist David Malouf, The Complete Stories Ceridwen Dovey, Blood Kin Janette Turner Hospital, Orpheus Lost

Albion, Dane County, Wisconsin

Albion is a town in Dane County, United States, located about 27 miles southeast of Madison on Interstate 90. The population was 1,823 at the 2000 Census; the unincorporated communities of Albion, Highwood and Indian Heights are located in the town. Freeborn Sweet was the first settler of the Town of Albion, migrating from Oneida County, New York in August, 1841. Other settlers began arriving that fall. In 1842, the first inhabitants in what would become the hamlet of Albion arrived, the following year they organized a Seventh Day Baptist Church, which became a prominent institution in the community. In 1844, settlement began in the northern part of the town, known as "Albion Prairie". A school was organized the same year. A Primitive Methodist Church burned down in the 1860s. A building, constructed in the early 1870s, still stands near Rice Lake. In 1868, a Methodist Episcopal Church was built near the Primitive Methodist Church, but that building was demolished in the 1930s. In the 1800s, the hamlet of Albion was a retail center for the area, with a general store, a wagon and blacksmith shop, a steam mill that manufactured wagons and sleighs, a harness shop, a hotel.

In 1854, Albion Academy was founded by the Seventh Day Baptists in the hamlet of Albion. It offered a classical education, including courses in the classics, mathematics and music, it is considered one of the first co-educational colleges in Wisconsin. Among faculty members at this school were the famed Swedish-American naturalist, Thure Kumlien, the Norwegian-American author and diplomat, Rasmus Anderson. Graduates of the college included naturalist Edward Lee Greene, educator John Q. Emery, newspaper editor Christopher J. Rollis, Colorado governor Alva Adams, Minnesota's U. S. Senator Knute Nelson; the last remaining building of the academy, Kumlien Hall, was destroyed by fire in the 1960s. However, it was rebuilt and a museum devoted to the academy and the early education of southern Wisconsin is now located on the Albion green. Among the treasures at the museum is the canoe paddle created by Sterling North, author of the 1963s bestseller Rascal, for the canoe that North built at his childhood home.

The canoe was destroyed in the 1960s fire of Kumlien Hall. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which, 35.2 square miles of it is land and 0.6 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,823 people, 726 households, 516 families residing in the town; the population density was 51.8 people per square mile. There were 869 housing units at an average density of 24.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.19% White, 0.16% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 726 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.9% were non-families. 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 2.96. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 25.5% from 45 to 64, 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,118, the median income for a family was $55,938. Males had a median income of $37,000 versus $25,750 for females; the per capita income for the town was $24,643. About 2.1% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.9% of those under age 18 and 2.6% of those age 65 or over. Town of Albion official website

Esperance Stonehenge

Esperance Stonehenge is a full-sized replica of Stonehenge located in Esperance, Western Australia. It was built from 137 locally quarried stones of up to 50 tonnes, is aligned to the summer and winter solstices, it is designed to be a copy of original, intact Stonehenge from c. 2000 BC, rather than the extant ruins. The stone was quarried and shaped for a similar project in Margaret River in 2008, funded by a millionaire; that project fell through after 12 months, after the stone had been cut. The Rotary Club of Esperance promoted the idea of building a Stonehenge replica locally, but the plan was controversial, received mixed reactions from the community, there was no agreed-upon site. Kim and Jillian Beale, who owned a hobby farm across from the quarry, decided to build the replica on their property with their own money in 2011, after receiving approval from the Shire of Esperance in 2010, it was designed by architect Michael Sorensen of Sorensen Architects, used 1,200 cubic metres of Desert Brown granite supplied and installed by AustralAsian Granite.

It is operated as a tourist attraction, charging $10 per adult as of 2017