History of Mexico

The written history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia. First populated more than 13,000 years ago and southern Mexico, saw the rise and fall of complex indigenous civilizations. Uniquely in the Western Hemisphere, Mesoamerican civilizations developed glyphic writing systems, recording the political history of conquests and rulers. Mesoamerican history before Europeans arrived is variously called the prehispanic era and the precolumbian era. Knowledge of this era is enriched by archeology. What is now termed "Mexico" did not come into being until the early nineteenth century; the Spanish conquest of Mexico that toppled the Aztec Empire in 1521 with the aid of indigenous allies, created a political entity known as New Spain, now called "colonial Mexico." The Spanish victories were followed by expanded regions into the Spanish Empire. The Spanish crown created the Viceroyalty of New Spain with the former Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan becoming Mexico City.

Mexico City was the center of Spanish rule in the northern part of the Western Hemisphere and remains the most populous urbanized area in Mexico. During the colonial era, Mexico's indigenous culture mixed with European culture, producing a hybrid culture best seen in the local use of language: the country is both the most populous Spanish-speaking country in the world and home to the largest number of Native American language speakers in North America; the legacy of three centuries of Spanish rule is a country with a Spanish-speaking, Roman Catholic, Western culture. The three main institutions of the early colonial era were the Roman Catholic Church and the civil hierarchy of the State, both overseen by the Spanish monarchy. In the late eigtheenth century, the crown created a standing military to prevent foreign invasions; the royal army and militias became a way for American-born Spaniares could achieve upward mobility when other paths to advancement were blocked by the Spanish crown's preference for Iberian-born Spaniards for high civil and ecclesiastical offices.

After a protracted struggle for independence, New Spain became the sovereign nation of Mexico, with the signing of the Treaty of Córdoba. A brief period of monarchy, called the First Mexican Empire, was followed by the founding of the Republic of Mexico, established under a federal constitution in 1824, which abolished legal racial categories and the system of castas. Slavery was abolished in 1829. Mexico continues to be constituted as a federated republic, under the Mexican Constitution of 1917. Mexico consisted of not just the land within its modern-day borders, but most of the American West in the US states of California, New Mexico, Texas and elsewhere. From the late 1820s to the early 1850s, Antonio López de Santa Anna, a criollo military man, ruled as president, in a period conventionally called the Age of Santa Anna. In 1846, the United States provoked the Mexican–American War, which ended two years with Mexico ceding half its territory via the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo to the United States.

Santa Anna bore significant responsibility for the defeat. Mexican liberals overthrew him in 1854, initiating a liberalizing movement; the Mexican Constitution of 1857 codified the principles of liberalism in law the separation of church and state and individuals' equality before the law, stripping corporate entities of special status. This reform sparked a civil war between liberals, who defended the constitution, conservatives, who opposed it; the War of the Reform saw the defeat of the conservatives on the battlefield, but they remained strong and took the opportunity to invite foreign intervention against the liberals to forward their own cause. France invaded Mexico in 1861 on a pretext of collecting on defaulted loans to the government of Benito Juárez, but at the invitation of Mexican conservatives seeking to restore monarchy in Mexico, set Maximilian I on the Mexican throne; the United States, engaged in their own civil war at that time, did not attempt to counter the French invasion.

Cinco de Mayo celebrations, famous in the United States, refer to the victory of the Mexican army in 1862 over the invaders. France had planned to support the Southern Confederacy in the US after conquering Mexico but was foiled in that effort by the Mexicans, so in this sense, Mexico inadvertently aided the Union. For that reason, Abraham Lincoln supported the Mexican liberals. With the triumph of Union forces, the United States aided Mexican liberals against Maximilian's regime. France withdrew its support of Maximilian in 1867. With the end of the Second Mexican Empire, the period called the Restored Republic brought back Benito Juárez as president. Following his death, Sebastian Lerdo de Tejada succeeded him but was overthrown by Porfirio Díaz, an army hero and liberal military man, who led a period of stability and economic growth. A half-century of economic stagnation and political chaos following independence ended, Díaz held power as president of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, a period known as the Porfiriato.

Díaz promoted what he called order and progress, suppressing violence, modernizing the economy, inviting an inflow of foreign investment. Under him, Mexico's industry and infrastructure were modernized by a strong, but autocratic central government. Increased tax revenues and better administration brought dramatic improvements in public safety, public health, mining, foreign trade, nat

Malayala Manorama

Malayala Manorama is a morning newspaper in Malayalam published from Kottayam, India by the Malayala Manorama Company Limited. Headed by Mammen Mathew, it is the second oldest Malayalam newspaper in Kerala in circulation, after Deepika, published from Kottayam. Manorama publishes an online edition. According to World Association of Newspapers, as of 2016, it was the fourteenth most circulated newspaper in the world. According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations 2013 figures, it is the third largest circulating newspaper in India and the largest circulating newspaper in Kerala. Malayala Manorama Company is a private LLC corporation owned by the Kandathil family of Kottayam. Malayala Manorama Company was incorporated by Kandathil Varghese Mappillai at, the then-town of, Kottayam in south-west Kerala on 14 March 1888; the company started with one hundred shares of Rs 100 each. The investors paid in four equal instalments. With the first instalment, the company brought a Cope press, made in London. A local craftsman, Konthi Achari, was hired to make Malayalam types for the imported press.

Varghese Mappillai had worked for a year as editor of Kerala Mitram, a Malayalam newspaper run by Gujarati businessman Devji Bhimji, in Cochin and he took over the same position for Manorama. The Maharajah of Travancore Moolam Thirunal approved the logo of the newspaper, a slight modification of the Travancore Coat of Arms; the first issue was published on 22 March 1890 from M. D Seminary, while the town was hosting a popular cattle fair, it was a four-page weekly newspaper, published on Saturdays. The weekly newspaper became a bi-weekly in 1901, a tri-weekly on 2 July 1918 and a daily on 2 July 1928. After Varghese Mappillai death in 1904, his nephew K. C. Mammen Mappillai took over as editor. In 1938, Travancore state proscribed Malayala Manorama on charges of publishing news against the Diwan. Malayala Manorama re-commenced regular publication in 1947 after the Indian independence and the Diwan's downfall. On Mammen Mappillai's death, his eldest son K. M. Cheriyan took over as the Editor-in-Chief in 1954.

At this time, Malayala Manorama was produced in a single edition in Kottayam with a circulation of 28,666 copies. By the late 1950s, Manorama increased circulation and overtook Mathrubhumi in circulation, the dominant Malayalam daily at the time; the struggle between Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi demonstrated the forces that would drive the expansion of Indian regional newspapers. The contest illustrated the difficulties if expansion had to rely on Gutenberg-style printing as with the case of Manorama. Comparison of circulation Malayala Manorama and Mathrubhumi In 1962, Mathrubhumi launched its second edition in Kochi; the new edition sent Mathrubumi to a circulation of 170,000 copies by 1964, 19,000 more than its rival, Malayala Manorama. With Mathrubhoomi's circulation rising, it became a compulsion for Manorama to expand its reach, introduce new technology; the competition set off a keen struggle for more readers, faster equipment and national advertising from major consumer goods companies.

Manorama launched its printing centre at Kozhikode, Malabar in 1966 with a cast-off press from the paper's base at Kottayam and hand-composed type. But in the run-up to that event, it had installed an offset press at Kottayam and established a teleprinter line with New Delhi in 1965. By 1970, it was the leading daily in Kerala; the circulation of the newspaper rose from around 30,000 to 300,000 by this expansion across the Malabar. K. M. Mathew, who took charge as editor in 1973, began a series of renovations, just as the Anandabazar Patrika did in Bengal, he brought in a series of consultants in the management and editorial areas, accepted their guidance. He conducted frequent training sessions for Manorama other employees; the company restructured their organisation in 1980. K. M. Mathew said that the decision stemmed from the realisation that the daily had either to become "fully professional" or "risk decline". Mathew sent his best journalists and managers to training schools around theworld, imported the most effective techniques in international journalism and newspaper production, which brought in a contemporary look and feel to Malayala Manorama.

In 1979, a new printing centre was launched at Cochin and in 1987, the Trivandrum edition was launched. By 1998, the circulation of Malayala Manorama was increased to 1 million. In mid-2000s, the daily started units in the Middle East, focusing on the large Malayali population in the region. Mathew is credited with the introduction of the concept of "editionalising" with larger share for local news and reader-friendly packaging through professional page designing in Manorama, which in turn impacted the entire newspaper industry in Kerala. By 2007, Manorama become the only non-English and non-Hindi daily newspaper in India to cross 1.5 million copies in circulation. K. M. Mathew was succeeded by his son Mammen Mathew in 2010. In their obituary The Hindu praised Mathew as,"In what could only be described as a rarity in Indian language journalism, Mathew showed an unusual commitment to modernisation and professionalism and became a role model for the newspaper industry, which in the early 1980s was at the criti

Charles S. Baker

Charles Simeon Baker was an American politician and a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in Churchville, New York, Baker attended the common schools, Cary Collegiate Institute of Oakfield, New York, the New York Seminary at Lima, New York, he married Jane E. Baker. Baker taught school, he commenced practice in Rochester, New York. During the Civil War, Baker served in the Union Army as first lieutenant, Company E, Twenty-seventh Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry. Disabled in the first Battle of Bull Run, he was honorably discharged. Baker was a member of the New York State Assembly in 1879, 1880 and 1882, he was a member of the New York State Senate in 1884 and 1885. Elected as a Republican to the 49th, 50th, 51st United States Congresses, Baker was U. S. Representative for the thirtieth district of New York from March 4, 1885, to March 3, 1891, he served as Chairman of the House Committee on Commerce during the 51st Congress. He resumed the practice of law in New York. Baker died from vocal cord paralysis in Washington, D.

C. on April 21, 1902. He is interred at Mount Hope Cemetery, New York. United States Congress. "Charles S. Baker". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Charles S. Baker at Find a Grave