History of Morocco

History of human habitation in Morocco spans since Lower Paleolithic, with the earliest known being Jebel Irhoud. Much Morocco was part of Iberomaurusian culture, including Taforalt, it dates from the establishment of Mauretania and other ancient Berber kingdoms, to the establishment of the Moroccan state by the Idrisid dynasty followed by other Islamic dynasties, through to the colonial and independence periods. Archaeological evidence has shown that the area was inhabited by hominids at least 400,000 years ago; the recorded history of Morocco begins with the Phoenician colonization of the Moroccan coast between the 8th and 6th centuries BCE, although the area was inhabited by indigenous Berbers for some two thousand years before that. In the 5th century BCE, the city-state of Carthage extended its hegemony over the coastal areas, they remained there until the late 3rd century BCE, while the hinterland was ruled by indigenous monarchs. Indigenous Berber monarchs ruled the territory from the 3rd century BCE until 40 CE, when it was annexed to the Roman Empire.

In the mid-5th century AD, it was overrun by Vandals, before being recovered by the Byzantine Empire in the 6th century. The region was conquered by the Muslims in the early 8th century AD, but broke away from the Umayyad Caliphate after the Berber Revolt of 740. Half a century the Moroccan state was established by the Idrisid dynasty. Under the Almoravid and the Almohad dynasties, Morocco dominated the Muslim Spain; the Saadi dynasty ruled the country from 1549 to 1659, followed by the Alaouites from 1667 onwards, who have since been the ruling dynasty of Morocco. Archaeological excavations have demonstrated the presence of people in Morocco that were ancestral to Homo sapiens, as well as the presence of early human species; the fossilized bones of a 400,000-year-old early human ancestor were discovered in Salé in 1971. The bones of several early Homo sapiens were excavated at Jebel Irhoud in 1991, these were dated using modern techniques in 2017 and found to be at least 300,000 years old, making them the oldest examples of Homo Sapiens discovered anywhere in the world.

In 2007, small perforated seashell beads were discovered in Taforalt that are 82,000 years old, making them the earliest known evidence of personal adornment found anywhere in the world. In Mesolithic times, between 20,000 and 5000 years ago, the geography of Morocco resembled a savanna more than the present arid landscape. While little is known of settlements in Morocco during that period, excavations elsewhere in the Maghreb region have suggested an abundance of game and forests that would have been hospitable to Mesolithic hunters and gatherers, such as those of the Capsian culture. During the Neolithic period, which followed the Mesolithic, the savanna was occupied by hunters and herders; the culture of these Neolithic hunters and herders flourished until the region began to desiccate after 5000 BCE as a result of climatic changes. The coastal regions of present-day Morocco in the early Neolithic shared in the Cardium pottery culture, common to the entire Mediterranean region. Archaeological excavations have suggested that the domestication of cattle and the cultivation of crops both occurred in the region during that period.

In the Chalcolithic period, or the copper age, the Beaker culture reached the north coast of Morocco. The arrival of Phoenicians on the Moroccan coast heralded many centuries of rule by foreign powers in the north of Morocco. Phoenician traders penetrated the western Mediterranean before the 8th century BCE, soon after set up depots for salt and ore along the coast and up the rivers of the territory of present-day Morocco. Major early settlements of the Phoenicians included those at Chellah and Mogador. Mogador is known to have been a Phoenician colony by the early 6th century BCE. By the 5th century BCE, the state of Carthage had extended its hegemony across much of North Africa. Carthage developed commercial relations with the Berber tribes of the interior, paid them an annual tribute to ensure their cooperation in the exploitation of raw materials Mauretania was an independent tribal Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa, corresponding to northern modern-day Morocco from about the 3rd century BCE.

The earliest known king of Mauretania was Bocchus I, who ruled from 110 BCE to 81 BCE. Some of its earliest recorded history relates to Phoenician and Carthaginian settlements such as Lixus and Chellah; the Berber kings ruled inland territories overshadowing the coastal outposts of Carthage and Rome as satellites, allowing Roman rule to exist. It became a client of the Roman empire in 33 BCE a full province after Emperor Caligula had the last king, Ptolemy of Mauretania, executed. Rome controlled the vast, ill-defined territory through alliances with the tribes rather than through military occupation, expanding its authority only to those areas, that were economically useful or that could be defended without additional manpower. Hence, Roman administration never extended outside the restricted area of the northern coastal plain and valleys; this strategic region formed part of the Roman Empire, governed as Mauretania Tingitana, with the city of Volubilis as its capital. During the time of the Roman emperor Augustus, Mauretania was a vassal state, its rulers, such as Juba II, controlled all the areas south of Volubilis.

But the effective control of Roman legionaries reached as far as the area of Sala Colonia. Some historians believe the Roman frontier reached present-day Casablanca, known as Anfa, settled by the Romans as a port. During the reign of Juba II, the Augustus founded three colonies, with Roman citizens, in Mauretania close to the

Robbins School

The Robbins School called Franklin School, is located at 4302 South 39th Avenue in South Omaha, United States. It was built in 1910 to serve a growing Polish community in south Omaha. A 2000 rehabilitation converted the former school to rental residential use. A pedimented central portico, Palladian window and detailed cornice make Robbins School one of the best Neoclassical Revival style buildings remaining in Omaha. After closing in 1994, the building was converted into apartments; the building was named Franklin School. In 1928 two local boys whose last name was Robbins rushed into their burning house to save their invalid mother. One of the boys died in his heroic attempt; the second survived, only to be killed in the same year in an unrelated sledding accident

Glenesk Folk Museum

Glenesk Folk Museum is a museum located in the Glen Esk valley, in Tarfside, Scotland, run by members of the local community. It is about 9 miles north of the village of Edzell, it is housed in a former shooting lodge, known as'The Retreat', which used to belong to the earls of Dalhousie. The museum contains documents related to the history of the surrounding area, it has a shop selling locally produced gifts and a tearoom. The museum organises demonstrations of local crafts; the Museum was established in 1955 by Greta Michie, a local schoolteacher, inspired by folk museums in Scandinavia. The building used for the museum, known as'the Retreat', had been constructed as a retirement cottage in the 1840s by Captain J. E. Wemyss, it was expanded and used as a shooting lodge, a summer house by the earls of Dalhousie, before falling into disuse. Lord and Lady Dalhousie assisted with the establishment of the museum on this site; the museum was refurbished and expanded in 2007. The museum's artefacts are arranged thematically into rooms, including spaces covering music and costume.

There are reconstructions including a children's room. The museum has a document archive for genealogical research, including Census records from 1841 to 1891 and a partial record of births and deaths in the Glen and the parishes of Edzell and Lethnot; this room has computers. The museum has a small collection of musical instruments, highlights of which include a trapezoidal Savart-style violin, played for many years on the streets of Aberdeen by an itinerant musician, a coach horn known to have been used locally as late as the 1930s on one of the last horse-drawn stagecoaches operating in the United Kingdom. Since its foundation, the Retreat has sold locally produced goods, this continues in the gift shop. There is a tearoom with home-cooked food; the Retreat has conference facilities, a function room, a nature trail and a children's play area. Regular craft workshops are run on-site, along with other events which have included music recitals and storytelling. List of music museums