click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Nepal

The history of Nepal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia and East Asia. It is a multi-ethnic, multicultural, multi-religious, multilingual country; the most spoken language of Nepal is Nepali followed by several other ethnic languages. Nepal experienced a struggle for democracy at times in early 21st century. During the 1990s and until 2008, the country was in a civil strife. A peace treaty was signed in 2006 and elections were held in the same year. In a historical vote for the election of the constituent assembly, Nepalese parliament voted to oust the monarchy in June 2006. Nepal became a federal republic on 28 May 2008 and was formally renamed the'Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal' ending the 200 year old Shah dynasty. In a Licchavi-era inscription found in Tistung, the local people have been addressed are the'Nepals'. Experts are of the opinion that some or all of the inhabitants of Nepal in the ancient period were called'Nepals', which meant that the word'Nepal' was used to refer to both the land and its population.

These Nepals are considered the progenitors of modern-day Newars. The terms'Nepal' and'Newar' are variations of the same term. Other variants found in medieval texts are'Nepar' and'Newal'; the derivation of the word Nepal is the subject of a number of other theories: Nep are the people that used to be cow herders who came to the Nepal valley from the Ganges Plain of modern-day India. Combining the two words yields Nepal; the Sanskrit word nepalaya means "at the foot of the mountains" or "abode at the foot". The Tibetan word niyampal means "holy land". Nepal may be derived from it; some inhabitants of northern Nepal came from Tibet, where they produced wool. In Tibetan, ne means "wool" and pal means "house". Thus, Nepal is "house of wool". A popular theory is that Lepcha people used the words ne and pal and thus Nepal to describe a "holy cave". According to Buddhist legend, the deity Manjusri drained the water from Nagadaha; the valley became inhabitable and was ruled by Bhumigupta, a cow-herder, who took advice from a sage named "Ne".

Pāla means "protector" or "taking care", so Nepal reflected the name of the sage who took care of the place, according to Nepali scholar Rishikesh Shaha. Prehistoric sites of palaeolithic and Neolithic origins have been discovered in the Siwalik hills of Dang District; the earliest inhabitants of modern Nepal and adjoining areas are believed to be people from the Indus Valley Civilization. It is possible that the Dravidian people whose history predates the onset of the Bronze Age in the Indian subcontinent, before the coming of other ethnic groups like the Tibeto-Burmans and Indo-Aryans from across the border. Though concrete evidence to support the theory is lacking. Tharus, Tibeto-Burmans who mixed with Indians in the southern regions, are natives of the Cental Terai region of Nepal; the first documented tribes in Nepal are the Kirat people, who arrived into Nepal from Tibet 2000 to 2500 years ago and moved into the Kathmandu Valley and Southern parts of Nepal, before being made to retreat elsewhere by the invading Licchavais from India who ruled Kathmandu Valley in modern-day Southern parts of Nepal.

Other ethnic groups of Indo-Aryan origin migrated to southern part of Nepal from Indo-Gangetic Plain of northern India. It is possible. According to Hogdson in 1847 the earliest inhabitants of Nepal were properly the Kusunda people and were properly of proto-Australoid origin. Little is known about the early history of Nepal and documented references reach far back to the 30th century BC: Also, the presence of historical sites, e.g. Valmiki ashram, indicates the presence of Sanatana Hindu culture in parts of Nepal at that period. According to some legendary accounts in the chronicles, the successors of Nepal were the gopālavaṃśi/gopal bansa or "Cowherd family" are said to have ruled for some 491 years, they are said to have been followed by the mahaiṣapālavaṃśa or "Buffalo-herder Dynasty", established by a Rajput named Bhul Singh. The context of Kirats ruling in Nepal before Licchavi Dynasty and after Mahispal or Avir Dynasty can be found in different manuscripts. Mentioning the area between Sun Kosi and Tama Kosi as their native land, the list of Kirati kings is given in the Gopal genealogy.

By defeating the last king of Avir Dynasty Bhuwansingh in a battle, Kirati King Yalung or Yalamber had taken the regime of the valley under his control. In the Hindu mythological perspective, this event is believed to have taken place in the final phase of Dwaparyug or initial phase of Kaliyug or around the 6th century BC. We can find descriptions of 32, 28 and 29 Kirati kings according in Gopal genealogy, language-genealogy and Wright genealogy respectively. By means of the notices contained in the classics of the East and West, we are assured that Kiranti people was forth-coming in their present abode from 2000 to 2500 years back, that their powers was great and their dominion extensive, reaching at one time to the delta of the Ganges; the kings of the Lichhavi dynasty ruled what is the Kathmandu Valley in modern-day Nepal after the Kirat monarchical dynasty. The context that'Suryavansi Kshetriyas had established new regime by defeating the Kirats' can be found in some genealogies and Puranas.

It has been written in Gopal genealogy that'then, defeating the Kirat King with the impact of Suryavanshi, Lichhavi dynasty was es

Germany–Iraq relations

German-Iraqi relations are foreign relations between Germany and Iraq. Iraq has an embassy in Berlin. There are some 84,000–150,000 Iraqis living in Germany. Iraq had full diplomatic recognition to the GDR, being the only non communist regime to do so at the time. Iraq's full diplomatic recognition of East Germany and Foreign Minister Otto Winzer's acknowledgement of that recognition were announced in Neues Deutschland on 2 May 1969; the Iraqi decision did not come as a surprise, following as it did the extended visit by Foreign Minister Abdul Karim al-Shaykhli to the Soviet Union and East Germany from 20 to 31 March 1969, in which as a result of this visit, discussions amounted to both countries tightening relations and taking further "steps for deepening cooperation in political and cultural fields." Iraq had thus become the fourteenth state to recognize East Germany and the first of the non aligned or "third" world nation to make this decision. During the Baath Party Congress in Bagdad in early February 1969, recognition of East Germany was loudly demanded for the first time, thereafter Foreign Minister Otto Winzer warmly greeted his Iraqi counterpart both in Baghdad and in East Berlin.

In an interview given to the East German weekly Horizont, where the head of the Iraqi state, Hassan El-Bakr, stated: "Aside from the fact that we are two socialist republics and have common aims, we recall with pride and joy the attitude taken by the GDR in condemning aggression, in supporting the Arab cause, we remember the fact that the GDR does not maintain any relations with the aggressor, that it combats imperialism and colonialism. Again, we have to thank the GDR for this attitude."The thanks had been made in the form of statehood recognition. Concerning East German–Iraqi trade, at that time, Iraqi exports to the whole Eastern Bloc amount only to one half of its exports to the Federal Republic. In 1968, West Germany imported Iraqi crude oil valued at 184 million marks, in addition to other imports for two million marks. West German exports at that same time amounted to 81 million marks, with a regressive tendency since East Germany was exporting to Iraq. Although Iraq had relations with East Germany, the Federal Republic of Germany and Iraq maintained ease relations.

In 1965, Iraq and the other Arab states severed relations with the FRG following the establishment of relations with Israel. The ties were restored. Germany along with China, Russia and Belgium, steadfastly countered the proposal for the 2003 Invasion. After the Gulf War in 1990/91 and during the period of occupation after the fall of Saddam Hussein's regime, diplomatic relations had been continued to a limited degree. In August 2014, the German government announced that it would be supplying weapons to Kurdish peshmerga forces fighting ISIL; the shipments include arms and communications equipment. The military aid, worth €70 million, includes 8,000 G36 rifles and four million rounds of ammunition, 8,000 G3 rifles and two million rounds of ammunition, 8,000 P1 pistols and one million rounds of ammunition, 40 MG3 machine guns and one million rounds of ammunition, 200 Panzerfaust 3 rocket-propelled grenade launchers and 2,500 rocket propelled grenades, 30 MILAN anti tank missile systems and 500 missiles, 40 Wolf light utility vehicle and 20 armored Wolf light utility vehicles, 40 UNIMOG trucks, 5 Dingo-1 infantry mobility vehicles.

By December 2014, in support of the US-led military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, the German Cabinet approved the deployment of up to 100 Bundeswehr troops to northern Iraq to train peshmerga forces. Iraq was a strong partner for Germany, in the 1980s bilateral trade reached four billion euros a year. Estimates for 2006 put imports from Iraq at EUR 13.5 million and exports to Iraq at EUR 368.4 million. Between February 2006 and February 2007, Germany imported approx. 66,000 t of crude oil from Iraq. Iraq thus accounted for 0.05% of Germany’s total crude oil imports and ranked 26th among Germany’s suppliers of crude oil. In June 2008, a German–Iraqi economic commission was resuscitated for the first time since 1987, under the oversight of Economy Minister Michael Glos to Baghdad and Iraqi Industry Minister Fawzi al-Hariri. Foreign relations of Iraq Foreign relations of Germany Anglo-Iraqi War Iraq and the European Union Media related to Relations of Germany and Iraq at Wikimedia Commons German Ministry of Foreign Affairs about relations with Iraq

See More Business

See More Business was a top-class National Hunt chaser in the late 1990s and early 2000s. He won the 1999 Cheltenham Gold Cup as well as the 1999 King George VI Chase. See More Business was a bay horse with no white markings bred in Ireland by Ian Bryant. Born at Winnal Common in Herefordshire, he was trained by Paul Nicholls at Ditcheat in Somerset, he was ridden in to his biggest victories by Andrew Thornton. He made his hurdling debut on 4 November 1995 at Chepstow with a win and followed with two further wins including the Grade 2 Winter Novices' Hurdle He reappeared nearly a year as a novice chaser, he started by winning the Grade 2 Rising Stars Novices' Chase and was second in a Grade 1 chase and a Grade 2 chase to Dorans Pride. He was a fancied second favourite at 5/2 for the Racing Post Chase. However, he suffered a heavy fall on the second circuit. See More Business returned the next season with a win in the Rehearsal Chase at Chepstow and ran in the King George VI Chase; the joint favourities One Man and Suny Bay disappointed and coming to the last fence he was challenged by Challenger du Luc.

He went on to win the Pillar Chase at Cheltenham ahead of Cyborgo. He went into the Cheltenham Gold Cup as the second favourite behind old rival Dorans Pride. However, disaster struck as Cyborgo's jockey Tony McCoy felt his horse had suffered an injury and urgently tried to pull him up before the next fence. See More Business was running wide of the field and when McCoy pulled Cyborgo out he gave See More Business nowhere to go and took him out of the race. See More Business' first run of the new season was in the Edward Hanmer Chase but he could only finish fourth, he retained the Rehearsal Chase in a 3-runner field. He went into the King George VI Chase as the favourite but fared badly and was pulled up as Teeton Mill won, he ran again in the Pillar Chase but could only finish third of five behind new star Cyfor Malta and Go Ballistic. He was now the forgotten horse of the 1999 Gold Cup, his chances were made easier by Cyfor Malta suffering an injury and being unable to run and Teeton Mill suffering a career-ending injury early in the race and having to be pulled up.

Towards the final three fences there were only four horses with a chance of winning. Double Thriller faded and so did favourite Florida Pearl; the scene was set for a thrilling finish between 66/1 outsider Go Ballistic. See More Business just prevailed by 1 length; the following season See More Business went into the Cheltenham Gold Cup in fantastic form. He'd won the Charlie Hall Chase and defeated Go Ballistic by 17 lengths in winning the King George VI Chase for a second time; this was the last time the race was first-scheduled for Monday December 27. He won the Aon Chase by 18 lengths, he went into the Gold Cup as the 9/4 favourite. However, no horse since L'Escargot had retained the crown and, nearly 30 years earlier. In the end he could only come fourth behind Looks Like Florida Pearl and Strong Promise. However, he ended. See More Business' first port of call the next season was the Charlie Hall Chase where he defeated three rivals by 30 lengths, he went into the King George VI Chase as the hot favourite with Looks Like Trouble injured.

However, he finished a well-beaten fifth. He won another Pillar Chase before running another disappointing race this time in the Martell Cup Chase; the next year it looked like time would be called on See More Business' impressive career. He was pulled up in the Welsh National, he bounced back with a convincing win in the Jim Ford but it was a weak field. Still he lined up in that year's Cheltenham Gold Cup. To the racing public's delight he ran a wonderful race, he was unable to hold off Best Mate and Commanche Court but his third place showed him back towards his best. Sadly, he was well-beaten in the Martell Cup Chase. See More Business' four races the following season were a mixed bag, he was defeated by More Than A Stroll in Down Royal, won another Rehearsal Chase and Jim Ford before coming well down the field in the Cheltenham Gold Cup. See More Business' last race was on 6 December 2003, he was behind on this occasion and went on to a well-deserved retirement

Trinidad and Tobago Unified Teachers Association

The Trinidad and Tobago Unified Teachers Association is a trade union in Trinidad and Tobago and is the representative organisation for teachers who are employed in the public education sector. Its membership approximates 10,800 teachers in 1,200 retiree members. TTUTA's Head Office is in Curepe and it has other offices in San Fernando and Tobago with a further six District Offices. In 1978 teachers were represented by four unions: de Public Services Association, led by James Manswell, the Tobago Unified Teachers Association, the Trinidad and Tobago Teachers’ Union, whose leader was St. Elmo Gopaul; the three Trinidad unions were all recognized by the Education Act No. 1 of 1966 as the representative unions for teachers. Teacher dissatisfaction with representation by the three Trinidad unions had grown in the 1970s. There was the view that adversarial relations between the three units had hampered Industrial Relations in the Teaching Service; as early as 1966 there was a struggle between two of the three unions to be the sole representative for any class of, or classes of teachers.

The Special Tribunal No. 10 of 1974, which stated that any one of the three unions could represent any class or classes of teachers decided this issue. This resulted in rapid changes of membership among teachers. However, not one of these unions emerged as the majority union; the implications of teacher representation by four unions had several serious consequences. Any issue raised by one union with the Chief Personnel Officer had to be discussed with each union separately; this resulted in the presentation of conflicting arguments to the CPO and his advisor's by the different unions, a situation which acted to the disadvantage of teachers. Additionally, negotiations were lengthy with a longer period for settlement; the relationship between the three unions was thus described as one involving a great deal of “inter-union rivalry and fragmentation”, seen as “the biggest disadvantage when negotiating a collective agreement,”. Mr. Frank B. Seepersad, the first General Secretary of TTUTA, noted that fragmentation of the unions had caused them to pay little attention to advancing the cause of teacher professionalism.

Two existing committees, the Appeals Committee and the Assessment of Qualifications Committee were not being monitored. The unions were paying little attention to issues, for example, like in-service training for teachers and refresher courses; the unions were not pressing for much needed changes to the syllabuses of both the primary and secondary schools. This failure to adequately address teachers’ issues resulted in irrational promotions and transfers, non-recognition of extra qualifications, the absence of a clear policy on study leave, staff shortages and late staffing. Seepersad observed that the unions were using teachers as “pawns in a power play”, not addressing those issues which were vital to teachers professional development and to education. In 1971 the problems over negotiations continued with the PSA refusing to sit in joint negotiations with what they described as "minority unions"; as a result, the salaries issue was referred to the Special Tribunal and teachers had to wait nine years for a settlement of this issue.

In 1974, the Special Tribunal called for joint negotiations through a joint negotiations committee but again the PSA refused to join in the process. There was an additional problem in that, in 1971, the PSA, which went in first in negotiations, signed a four-contract contrary to the usual procedure as three-year contracts; this contributed to an exodus of teachers from the PSA. As the decade came to a close, dissatisfaction came to a head in 1979 and on March 31, 1979 150 teachers gathered at the Mt. Hope Junior Secondary School, headed by Frank B Seepersad, a teacher there, to discuss the unsatisfactory state of the teaching profession, the meeting adopted a resolution seeking to ensure one autonomous body for teachers. A decision was arrived at to establish a steering Committee of 22 to oversee the formation of one union for all teachers. Volunteers were sought to serve on this committee - the Committee for the Unification of Teachers Another mass meeting of May 5, 1979 at the Mucurapo Senior Secondary School, adopted a resolution to have COMFUT seek legal advice as to how it should proceed towards its goal of establishing a “…single autonomous professional organisation of teachers, where every individual teacher has a say in policy-determining decisions of the organisation through proper representation in the management of the organisation.”

The Unification Committee drew up an action plan which included: Stirring up teacher participation by using several publicity techniques, bumper stickers, buttons and public meetings. Included in the campaign was the demand for an amendment of the Education Act to ensure that one union, the majority union would be recognised as the bargaining body for teachers. Ten thousand teachers’ signatures were needed to ensure recognition as the majority union The period from March 1979 to December 1981, when TTUTA was recognised by the Registration and Certification Board, was one of relentless struggle with the authorities in support of the cause for

2014 Wake Forest Demon Deacons football team

The 2014 Wake Forest Demon Deacons football team represented Wake Forest University during the 2014 NCAA Division I FBS football season. The team was coached by Dave Clawson, coaching his first season at the school, play its home games at BB&T Field. Wake Forest competed in the Atlantic Coast Conference as part of the Atlantic Division, as they have since the league's inception in 1953, they finished the season 3–9, 1–7 in ACC play to finish in a tie for sixth place in the Atlantic Division. Schedule Source: 2nd meeting. 0–1 all time. Last meeting 2013, 21-19 Warhawks in Winston-Salem. 2nd meeting. 1–0 all time. Last meeting 2011, 48-5 Deacons in Winston-Salem. 1st meeting. 14th meeting. 9–4 all time. Last meeting 2013, 25-11 Deacons in West Point. 2nd meeting. 0–1 all time. Last meeting 2007 Orange Bowl, 24-13 Cardinals in Miami Gardens. 33rd meeting. 6–25–1 all time. Last meeting 2013, 59-3 Seminoles in Winston-Salem. 4th meeting. 1–2 all time. Last meeting 2013, 13-0 Orange in Syracuse. 22nd meeting. 8–11–2 all time.

Last meeting 2013, 24-10 Eagles in Chestnut Hill. 80th meeting. 17–61–1 all time. Last meeting 2013, 56-7 Tigers in Clemson. 108th meeting. 38–63–6 all time. Last meeting 2013, 28-13 Deacons in Winston-Salem. 37th meeting. 11–24–1 all time. Last meeting 2011, 38-17 Hokies in Winston-Salem. 95th meeting. 37–55–2 all time. Last meeting 2013, 28-21 Blue Devils in Winston-Salem. List of Wake Forest Demon Deacons in the NFL Draft

Marion Talbot

Marion Talbot was Dean of Women at the University of Chicago from 1895 to 1925, an influential leader in the higher education of women in the United States during the early 20th century. In 1882, while still a student, she co-founded the American Association of University Women with her mentor Ellen Swallow Richards. During her long career at the University of Chicago, Talbot fought tenaciously and successfully to improve support for women students and faculty, against efforts to restrict equal access to educational opportunities. Talbot was born in Thun, while her parents were on a long European trip, but grew up in Boston, she was the eldest of six children born to Emily Fairbanks Talbot and Israel Talbot, dean of the Boston University School of Medicine. Her mother was former teacher. Talbot herself, was the eldest and did not benefit from that effort directly. Talbot earned an AB there in 1880 and an AM in 1882, she additionally obtained an BS from MIT, where she studied under domestic science pioneer Ellen Swallow Richards, who had established her own laboratory there.

Talbot dropped out due to poor conditions for women at MIT, but completed the degree in 1888. In 1882, she and Richards co-founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, which in 1921 became the American Association of University Women, she was secretary of the association from its founding to 1895, president from 1895 to 1897. Along with Dr. Lois Kimball Mathews Rosenberry, she co-authored the history of the Association, "A History of the American Association of University Women, 1881-1931". From 1890 to 1892, Talbot taught domestic science at Wellesley College. In 1892, she took up the position of assistant professor in the Department of Social Science and Anthropology, at the newly created University of Chicago, she took responsibility for the education of undergraduate women, as the assistant to Alice Freeman Palmer, dean of graduate women. Palmer ceded the deanship to Talbot in 1895. Talbot was appointed Dean of Women at the U of C in 1899, giving her responsibility for all women students at the university.

She worked to elevate deanship as a profession, establishing the first Midwestern regional meetings of deans in 1902. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae, which she had co-founded began hosting regular meetings of Deans of women in 1911. University of Chicago founder William Rainey Harper was a skeptic of coeducation, although he had been persuaded to accept it at the University from the beginning. Around the turn of the century, the university administration became concerned that a majority of the student body was now female, they pushed for sex-segregated education in the junior college, Talbot led the resistance against this. Because of her commitment to maintaining equal access to the university for women, Talbot was concerned about the risk that a breach of decorum on the part of female students might give the administration an excuse to limit access, she accordingly maintained strict standards for conduct, developed a democratic "house system" in which the women lived in dedicated residence halls under the supervision of faculty.

The house system, which excluded sororities and secret societies, was adopted by the university for male students as well. Talbot's leadership was popular among the female students. Talbot's prominent role brought her into the center of public controversy. A sensational slander case against Talbot drew nationwide press attention in 1912, she had expelled undergraduate student Esther Mercy on grounds of bad character, Mercy sued for $100,000 in damages. In 1915, Talbot publicly defended the action of the principal of Wendell Phillips High School to allow racially integrated social activities, receiving ferocious hate mail in response. Talbot was a specialist in domestic science, became head of the newly created Department of Household Administration at the University of Chicago in 1904, her assistant in the department was Sophonisba Breckinridge. Talbot co-founded the American Home Economics Association in 1908. Talbot advocated a much more active and scientific approach to home economics than prevailed in subsequent decades.

This was motivated in part by her concern that the field would become a female ghetto if standards of rigor were not upheld. However, this approach did not outlast her at the University of Chicago. Talbot joined the editorial board of the American Journal of Sociology in 1895. Talbot announced her retirement from the University of Chicago in 1925. After retiring, Talbot traveled to Turkey in 1927-1928 to serve as acting president of the Constantinople College for Women, returning to serve as full president in 1931-1932. In retirement, Talbot remained engaged in the affairs of the university.