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History of Nicaragua

Nicaragua is the third least densely populated nation in Central America, with a demographic similar in size to its smaller neighbors. It is located about midway between Mexico and Colombia, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. Nicaragua ranges from the Caribbean Sea on the nation's east coast, the Pacific Ocean bordering the west. Nicaragua possesses a series of islands and cays located in the Caribbean Sea. Nicaragua's name is derived from Nicarao, the name of the Nahuatl-speaking tribe which inhabited the shores of Lake Nicaragua before the Spanish conquest of the Americas, the Spanish word'Agua', meaning water, due to the presence of the large Lake Cocibolca and Lake Managua, as well as lagoons and rivers in the region; the people migrated from Central Mexico after 500 CE. Most of Nicaragua's Caribbean lowlands area was inhabited by tribes that migrated north from what is now Colombia; the various dialects and languages in this area are related to Chibcha, spoken by groups in northern Colombia.

Eastern Nicaragua's population consisted of extended tribes. Food was obtained by hunting and slash-and-burn agriculture. Crops like cassava and pineapples were the staple foods; the people of eastern Nicaragua appear to have traded with and been influenced by the native peoples of the Caribbean, as round thatched huts and canoes, both typical of the Caribbean, were common in eastern Nicaragua. When the Spanish arrived in western Nicaragua in the early 16th century, they found three principal tribes, each with a different culture and language: the Niquirano, the Chorotegano, the Chontal; each one of these diverse groups occupied much of Nicaragua territory, with independent chieftains who ruled according to each group's laws and customs. Their weapons consisted of swords and arrows made out of wood. Monarchy was the form of government of most tribes. Laws and regulations were disseminated by royal messengers who visited each township and assembled the inhabitants to give their chief's orders. Occupying the territory between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific Coast, the Niquirano were governed by chief Nicarao, or Nicaragua, a rich ruler who lived in Nicaraocali, now the city of Rivas.

The Chorotegano lived in the central region. These two groups had intimate contact with the Spanish conquerors, paving the way for the racial mix of native and European stock now known as mestizos; the Chontal occupied the central mountain region. This group was smaller than the other two, it is not known when they first settled in Nicaragua. In the west and highland areas where the Spanish settled, the indigenous population was completely wiped out by the rapid spread of new diseases brought by the Spaniards, for which the native population had no immunity, the virtual enslavement of the remainder of the indigenous people. In the east, where the Europeans did not settle, most indigenous groups survived; the English introduced guns and ammunition to one of the local peoples, the Bawihka, who lived in northeast Nicaragua. The Bawihka intermarried with runaway slaves from Britain's Caribbean possessions, the resulting population, with its access to superior weapons, began to expand its territory and push other indigenous groups into the interior.

This Afro-indigenous group became known to the Europeans as Miskito, the displaced survivors of their expansionist activities were called the Sumu. Nicaragua was first "cancer" by Europeans when Christopher Columbus invaded from Honduras and explored the eastern coast on his fourth voyage in 1502. In 1522, the first Spaniards entered the region of. Gil González Dávila with a small force reached its western portion after a trek through Costa Rica, he proceeded to explore the fertile western valleys and was impressed with the Indian civilization he found there. He and his small army baptized Indians along the way, they became so imposed upon the Indians that they were attacked and nearly annihilated. González Dávila returned to his expedition's starting point in Panama and reported on his find, naming the area Nicaragua. However, governor Pedrarias Dávila attempted to confiscate his treasure, he was forced to flee to Santo Domingo to outfit another expedition. Within a few months, Nicaragua was invaded by several Spanish forces, each led by a conquistador.

González Dávila came in from the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Francisco Hernández de Córdoba at the command of the governor of Panama approached from Costa Rica. Pedro de Alvarado and Cristóbal de Olid at the command of Hernán Cortés, came from Guatemala through San Salvador and Honduras. Córdoba came with the intention of colonization. In 1524, he established permanent settlements in the region, including two of Nicaragua's principal towns: Granada on Lake Nicaragua and León west of Lake Managua, but he soon found it necessary to prepare defenses for the cities and go on the offensive against incursions by the other conquistadores. The inevitable clash between the Spanish forces devastated the indigenous population; the Indian civilization was destroyed. The series of battles came to be known as The War of the Captains. By 1529, the conquest of Nicaragua was complete. Several conquistadores came out winners, some were executed or murdered. Pedrarias Dávila was one such winner. Although he lost control of Panama, he established his base in León.

The land was parceled out to the conquistadores. The area of most interest was the western portion, it included a wide, fertile valley with huge, fres

Karl Pulotu-Endemann

Fuimaono Karl Pulotu-Endemann is a Samoan-born, New Zealand-based academic, nursing professional and fa'afafine and is called by Te Ara: The Encyclopedia of New Zealand "one of New Zealand's best-known and most honoured fa'afafine". Pulotu-Endemann moved to New Zealand as a child in 1959. After training as a psychiatric nurse, Pulotu-Endemann became a health consultant on the Pacific Health issue, created the Fonofale Model of Pacific Health has been accepted by the Mental Health Commission of New Zealand; as an educator, Pulotu-Endemann rose to be associate-head of Manawatu Polytechnic's Nursing and Health Studies. In 1990, he became one of only two Pacifica Justice of the Peace in New Zealand. In the 2001 New Year Honours, Pulotu-Endemann was appointed a Member of the New Zealand Order of Merit, for services to public health, he is a sitting member of the CreativeNZ Pacific Arts Committee

Laguna Creek, Elk Grove, California

Laguna Creek is a former census-designated place in Sacramento County, United States. It is now part of the incorporated City of Elk Grove. Laguna Creek is located at 38°25′26″N 121°25′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 6.8 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 34,309 people, 11,314 households, 9,153 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 5,087.1 people per square mile. There were 11,610 housing units at an average density of 1,721.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 59.10% White, 9.70% African American, 0.66% Native American, 17.99% Asian, 0.36% Pacific Islander, 5.48% from other races, 6.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.53% of the population. There were 11,314 households out of which 52.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.8% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 19.1% were non-families.

14.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.38. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 33.8% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 37.8% from 25 to 44, 17.8% from 45 to 64, 4.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $67,447, the median income for a family was $70,804. Males had a median income of $51,604 versus $40,895 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $25,280. About 3.4% of families and 4.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 5.7% of those age 65 or over. In the state legislature, Laguna Creek is in the 5th Senate Districts; the first is vacant due to the death of the late Dave Cox and the fifth is represented by Democrat Lois Wolk and in the 10th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Alyson Huber.

Federally, Laguna Creek is in California's 7th congressional district, represented by Democrat Ami Bera

Subramaniam Badrinath

Subramaniam Badrinath is a former Indian cricketer. He is a right-handed middle order batsman. Badrinath has represented India in One test matches. In first class cricket, he was captain of Tamil Nadu earlier. In the Indian Premier League, he represented Chennai Super Kings till 2013 and Royal Challengers Bangalore in 2015, he has represented the Indian Board President's XI on several occasions. He was named in the 30 man provisional squad for the 2007 Cricket World Cup but did not make it to the final squad. Badrinath studied in Padma Seshadri Bala Bhavan school located in K. K. Nagar, After School He Completed His Studies In GURU NANAK COLLEGE Chennai. Badrinath was a prolific scorer for Tamil Nadu in first class cricket. In 2008, Badrinath has signed for the Indian Premier League side Chennai Super Kings, he was considered as one of the candidates in line for a spot in the middle order of the Indian test team and made his Test debut on 6 February 2010, scoring 56 in the first innings at the VCA Stadium in Nagpur.

He gained the selectors attention during the 2011 IPL season, playing an important role in the team's success and becoming known as "Mr Dependable" and reliable for Chennai Super Kings. Due to that, his performance in the domestic season, he received a spot in the Indian squad for their tour of the West Indies. Following the retirement of V. V. S. Laxman, Badrinath was called back to the Indian Test cricket team to play New Zealand at home, he was unsold in IPL 2014 players auction and was picked up the Bangalore franchise as a backup in 2015. In 2015, he moved to represent Vidarbha in first class due to limited opportunities with Tamil Nadu. In August 2018, he retired from all forms of cricket. Cricinfo Player Profile: Badrinath Subramaniam Badrinath from RoyalChallengers

Hardly Kirk-ing

"Hardly Kirk-ing" is the thirteenth episode of the 24th season The Simpsons and the 521st episode overall. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on February 17, 2013; the first time the episode aired in the USA, the opening was shortened to allow time for Fox to air Maggie Simpson in: The Longest Daycare. The main plot is a parody of the 2008 movie Harold. Marge takes the family out on a TV-free day after finding Maggie watching a DVD from the Baby Poindexter collection, according to the news, was pulled for being ineffective in educating children. A flashback reveals the material in question sent a younger Bart into a drooling fit while Lisa turns the presentation's packaging into an interactive diorama; the family goes to a bookstore, where Homer becomes fascinated with hidden-object puzzles and begins using his skills to find people and common objects in the real world. Meanwhile, Bart hangs out at Milhouse's place. While bored, Bart squirts some epoxy in Milhouse's hair. Bart gives him a haircut to remove it, but he removes most of Milhouse's hair as a result, making him look just like his father Kirk.

With Bart's help, Milhouse dresses up like his dad, becoming taller with the help of homemade stilts made from paint cans and making his voice sound like Kirk's by tying a tie around his neck. Bart uses this to his advantage, as Milhouse, looking like an adult, is now able to commit adult activities, they bully Homer, purchase items for school bullies Jimbo and Dolph, participate in municipal voting. When Lisa wishes to go to downtown Springfield, Milhouse is able to buy tickets for himself and Bart, he collects a portion of the class action settlement being paid out to people who bought Baby Poindexter DVDs, but the money he receives is not enough to buy food for the three of them. They are forced to attend a condominium sales presentation for a free breakfast, but find that the doors have been locked to prevent them from leaving; the saleswoman, attempts to seduce him. Homer and Marge, rush to find them. Homer stops by for the free meal. Milhouse apologizes to Kirk for impersonating him, admits that he wants to grow up to be just like him.

The episode received positive reviews. Robert David Sullivan of The A. V. Club gave the episode a B-, saying, "We're still a long way past Simpsons episodes with emotional resonance, but plain weirdness works better than the constant cutaways and pop-culture-dropping of last week's episode. Milhouse is not an overused character, he still has kind of a Charlie Brown quality that allows us to see humor in his adult-like, well-articulated neuroses, so that it doesn't feel as if we're laughing at an actual little boy."Rob Dawson of TV Equals gave the episode a positive review, saying: "'Hardly Kirk-ing' is the kind of episode that I wish The Simpsons could pump out every week these days. It's well-constructed and funny, it is, it keeps itself together, plays off the larger extended universe of Springfield without seeming like a parade of'hey, I recognize that guy', is, most entertaining."Tom Gammill & Max Pross were nominated for a Writers Guild of America Award for Outstanding Writing in Animation at the 66th Writers Guild of America Awards for their script to this episode.

The episode received a 2.0 in the 18-49 demographic and was watched by a total of 4.57 million viewers. This made it the second most watched show on Fox's Animation Domination line up that night. "Hardly Kirk-ing" on IMDb "Hardly Kirk-ing" at TV.com "Hardly Kirk-ing" at theSimpsons.com

John Stowford

Sir John Stowford of Stowford, West Down in Devon, was Chief Baron of the Exchequer in 1346. He is one of John Prince's Worthies of Devon, he was born at the family estate of Stowford in the parish of West Down in North Devon. It is not known at which Inn of Court he trained as a lawyer, but he was called to the bar and became a serjeant at law. In 1341 he was appointed King's Serjeant to King Edward III. In 1346 he was appointed Chief Baron of the Exchequer. In 1349 he was appointed one of the Justices Itinerant for the county of Kent. Stowford built Pilton Causeway which links the towns of Barnstaple and Pilton, which were separated by the treacherous marshy ground in which flowed the tidal meanders of the small River Yeo, it is recounted by Prince that Stowford decided on building the causeway when on his way from his home at Stowford to Barnstaple, he met whilst fording the Yeo, the drowned bodies of a woman with her child. He is believed to have contributed to the financing of the long-bridge in Barnstaple.

He married a co-heiress of the Tracy family of Woolacombe Tracy, Devon. He died at Stowford and was buried in the Stowford Chapel in the north transept of West Down Church, where survives his much-worn life-size effigy carved in oak, dressed in his robes of office, set on the floor under a low recessed arch set into the north wall; the colouring of the effigy was renewed in 1873. Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 55, biography of Sir John StowfordStowford, John From Wikisource Prince, The Worthies of Devon, 1810 edition, pp. 727–729, biography of Sir John Stowford