click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

History of Oceania

The History of Oceania includes the history of Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and other Pacific island nations. The prehistory of Oceania is divided into the prehistory of each of its major areas: Polynesia, Micronesia and Australasia, these vary as to when they were first inhabited by humans—from 70,000 years ago to 3,000 years ago; the Polynesian people are considered to be by linguistic and human genetic ancestry a subset of the sea-migrating Austronesian people and tracing Polynesian languages places their prehistoric origins in the Malay Archipelago, in Taiwan. Between about 3000 and 1000 BCE speakers of Austronesian languages began spreading from Taiwan into Island South-East Asia, as tribes whose natives were thought to have arrived through South China about 8,000 years ago to the edges of western Micronesia and on into Melanesia, although they are different from the Han Chinese who now form the majority of people in China and Taiwan. There are three theories regarding the spread of humans across the Pacific to Polynesia.

These are outlined well by Kayser et al. and are as follows: Express Train model: A recent expansion out of Taiwan, via the Philippines and eastern Indonesia and from the north-west of New Guinea, on to Island Melanesia by 1400 BCE, reaching western Polynesian islands right about 900 BCE. This theory is supported by the majority of current human genetic data, linguistic data, archaeological data Entangled Bank model: Emphasizes the long history of Austronesian speakers' cultural and genetic interactions with indigenous Island South-East Asians and Melanesians along the way to becoming the first Polynesians. Slow Boat model: Similar to the express-train model but with a longer hiatus in Melanesia along with admixture, both genetically and linguistically with the local population; this is supported by the Y-chromosome data of Kayser et al. which shows that all three haplotypes of Polynesian Y chromosomes can be traced back to Melanesia. In the archaeological record there are well-defined traces of this expansion which allow the path it took to be followed and dated with some certainty.

It is thought that by 1400 BCE, "Lapita Peoples", so-named after their pottery tradition, appeared in the Bismarck Archipelago of north-west Melanesia. This culture is seen as having adapted and evolved through time and space since its emergence "Out of Taiwan", they had given up rice production, for instance, after encountering and adapting to breadfruit in the Bird's Head area of New Guinea. In the end, the most eastern site for Lapita archaeological remains recovered so far has been through work on the archaeology in Samoa; the site is at Mulifanua on Upolu. The Mulifanua site, where 4,288 pottery shards have been found and studied, has a "true" age of c. 1000 BCE based on C14 dating. A 2010 study places the beginning of the human archaeological sequences of Polynesia in Tonga at 900 BCE, the small differences in dates with Samoa being due to differences in radiocarbon dating technologies between 1989 and 2010, the Tongan site predating the Samoan site by some few decades in real time. Within a mere three or four centuries between about 1300 and 900 BCE, the Lapita archaeological culture spread 6,000 kilometres further to the east from the Bismarck Archipelago, until it reached as far as Fiji and Samoa.

The area of Tonga and Samoa served as a gateway into the rest of the Pacific region known as Polynesia. Ancient Tongan mythologies recorded by early European explorers report the islands of'Ata and Tongatapu as the first islands being hauled to the surface from the deep ocean by Maui; the "Tuʻi Tonga Empire" or "Tongan Empire" in Oceania are descriptions sometimes given to Tongan expansionism and projected hegemony dating back to 950 CE, but at its peak during the period 1200–1500. While modern researchers and cultural experts attest to widespread Tongan influence and evidences of transoceanic trade and exchange of material and non-material cultural artifacts, empirical evidence of a true political empire ruled for any length of time by successive rulers is lacking. Modern archeology and linguistic studies confirm widespread Tongan cultural influence ranging through East'Uvea, Futuna and Niue, parts of Micronesia and New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, while some academics prefer the term "maritime chiefdom", others argue that, while different from examples elsewhere..."empire" is the most convenient term.

Pottery art from Fijian towns shows that Fiji was settled before or around 3500 to 1000 BC, although the question of Pacific migration still lingers. It is believed that the Lapita people or the ancestors of the Polynesians settled the islands first but not much is known of what became of them after the Melanesians arrived; the first settlements in Fiji were started by voyaging traders and settlers from the west about 5000 years ago. Lapita pottery shards have been found at numerous excavations around the country. Aspects of Fijian culture are similar to the Melanesian culture of the western Pacific but have a stronger connection to the older Polynesian cultures. Across 1,000 kilometres from east to west, Fiji has been a nation of many languages. Fiji's history was one of settlement but of mobility. Over the centuries, a unique Fijian culture developed. Constant warfare and cannibalism between warring tribes were quite rampant and much part of everyday life. In centuries, the ferocity of the cannibal lifestyle d

Anne Polinario

Anne Cecile Polinario is a S10 classified Canadian para-swimmer. Born to parents on Cuba's national swim team, she was on Canada's National Team. Polinario has competed at the 2004 and 2008 Paralympic Games. Polinario was born on 5 August 1979 in Havana and now resides in Montreal, Quebec, she had Drop Foot Paralysis in her left foot at birth. She moved to Canada as a teenager, she made it into Canada's national swimming team while her mother and father were in Cuba's National Swimming Team. Polinario's headed for here first Paralympic games in 2000 Sydney, where she won three bronze medals in 100m Backstroke, 100m Freestyle, 50m Freestyle. In 2004 Athens, she won 3 gold and 2 silver."I was pretty happy. I had a bit of tears in my eyes, it was pretty emotional for sure." She said. In 2008, Polinario's final Paralympic game, she competed in three races but had only won one medal, a gold. "I was disappointed with my first two races so I'm glad to finish with a victory, It was a good race for me. But I'll need to work harder to get that world record."

She said

Village Hotel Club

Village Hotels operates 30 hotels in the United Kingdom. The company was founded in 1995, is now owned by Denver-based private equity firm KSL Capital Partners. In March 2014, Village Urban Resorts was acquired from De Vere Group by KSL Capital Partners for £435m as part of the group disposal with sale proceedings being used to payback debts of over £1.75bn. Village hotels are located on the outskirts of large towns and cities within England and Scotland. Hotels operate at the luxury/lifestyle end of the market; each hotel has between 110 and 160 rooms, a bar, a restaurant, a Starbucks, a gym and meeting & conference rooms. Most hotels have a spa and the Village Hotel Blackpool boasts an 18-hole championship golf course; the chain has 30 hotels. Village operates 20 legacy hotels and 10 black box style hotels. Scotland Aberdeen Edinburgh GlasgowNorth East & Yorkshire Hull Leeds North Leeds South NewcastleNorth West Blackpool Liverpool Manchester Ashton Manchester Bury Manchester Cheadle Manchester Hyde Warrington WirralMidlands Birmingham Dudley Birmingham Walsall Coventry Nottingham SolihullWales Cardiff Chester St David’s SwanseaSouth Bournemouth Bristol Farnborough Maidstone London Watford Swindon PortsmouthBasingstoke

Nicola McLean

Nicola June McLean is an English glamour model and media personality. She was a contestant in I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! in 2008, Celebrity Big Brother in 2012 and again in 2017, an All-Star vs. New Star season. McLean returned as an All-Star and left the house on the final night in fifth place, beating her original season's position of seventh place. McLean's parents are Scottish: her mother is from Port Glasgow. Before becoming a model, McLean was an Army cadet, she modelled for Page Three of The Sun between September 1999 and July 2004, the Daily Star from 2000 until 2006. One of the UK's most successful glamour models, she appeared on Page 3 in The Sun and Daily Star every week for around five years - notching up 300 appearances in total. After having her bust increased from 32C to a 32E in 2004, she left The Sun and continued doing Page Three for Daily Star, until she became pregnant in 2006. In November 2007, she underwent her second breast enlargement, which took her up to a 32G.

McLean came fourth in The Sun poll for the "Best Page 3 Girl Of All Time" beating Samantha Fox, Jo Hicks, Leilani Dowding and Jordan, whose rivalry with McLean has been publicised. In addition to Page Three, she appeared on the cover of lads' mags including Zoo, Front and Ice. During her time as a glamour model, McLean featured on tabloid showbiz gossip pages and latterly as a guest on television shows including The Weakest Link, Richard & Judy, The Big Breakfast, Test The Nation and The Sexiest Girls In Britain. McLean retired from modelling in 2006 after giving birth, she decided to return to modelling, TV work, acting in early 2008, after being asked to feature as a main star in the Channel Five TV documentary Help! I've Got a High Maintenance Wife. Since she starred in the TV show WAGS' World… With Nicola McLean on Wedding TV and Channel Five's Generation Sex, she returned to glamour modelling assignments in February 2008 with the Daily Star, she has appeared on more lads' mags covers. McLean was a contestant in the November 2008 edition of ITV reality TV show I'm A Celebrity, Get Me Out Of Here!.

She clashed with fellow camp mate David Van Day during the series. McLean become the seventh celebrity to be eliminated and finished in sixth place on Day 18. On 22 November 2008, McLean was chosen by Ultimo to model. On 5 January 2012, McLean became a housemate on Channel 5's Celebrity Big Brother, she clashed with cast member Denise Welch in a now infamous row dubbed Pantsgate by the press and viewers and controversially shredded her fellow housemates' letters from home in order to gain her own, shouting "Shred Shred Shred!" as she did so. She was nominated on Day 7 of the series, but survived this eviction on Day 9, she was nominated again on Day 14, but survived this eviction on Day 16. McLean was the sixth housemate to be evicted, on Day 21 of the series, finishing in seventh place overall. After her popular and controversial stint in Celebrity Big Brother, McLean become a regular fixture on the side show Big Brother's Bit on the Side and in one episode dated 18 September 2015, had a significant row with reality television star Farrah Abraham.

McLean entered the Celebrity Big Brother house for the second time in January 2017 as an All Star housemate. She was nominated for eviction on Day 20 of the series,but survived this eviction on Day 22. On Day 25, she was nominated for eviction but survived this eviction once again on Day 27. On Day 29, after surviving the final public vote of the series, McLean become one of the show's finalists. During the final on Day 32, McLean finished in fifth place, she returned for Big Brother 18 as a special guest during a shopping task along with fellow ex-celebrity housemates Marnie Simpson and Gemma Collins. The trio stayed for 3 days before departing during a live show, during which Nicola gave immunity to Raph Korine.< McLean stayed in the Big Brother house for a total of 56 days, one of the longest tenures of any celebrity in the show’s history. McLean is a supporter of PETA. In May 2009, she was spotted at a protest in London holding a sign that read "Unhappy Birthday Selfridges! Drop Cruel Foie Gras".

McLean has one sister. She married footballer Tom Williams on 13 June 2009; the couple have two sons and Striker Williams. Nicola McLean on IMDb Nicola McLean on Twitter

Daniel Borzutzky

Daniel Borzutzky is a Chicago-based poet and translator. His collection The Performance of Becoming Human won the 2016 National Book Award; the son of Chilean immigrants, Borzutzky's work addresses immigration, worker exploitation, political corruption, economic disparity. He teaches at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Full Length Collections Lake Michigan, University of Pittsburgh Press, 2018. ISBN 9780822965220, OCLC 1007923836 The Performance of Becoming Human Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn Arts Press, 2016. ISBN 9781936767465, OCLC 994060924 In the Murmurs of the Rotten Carcass Economy New York: Nightboat Books, 2015. ISBN 9781937658335, OCLC 894937620 The Book of Interfering Bodies Callicoon, NY: Nightboat Books Lebanon, NH, 2011. ISBN 9780984459827, OCLC 838471857 The Ecstasy of Capitulation Buffalo, N. Y.: Blaze Vox Books, 2007. ISBN 9781934289242, OCLC 105635040Chapbooks Bedtime Stories for the End of the World Bloof Books, 2014. OCLC 906944426 Data Bodies Failure in the imagination, Milwaukee, WI: Bronze Skull Press, 2007.

OCLC 181911375Poetry/Essay Memories of my Overdevelopment Chicago: Kenning Editions, 2015. OCLC 944444558 Arbitrary tales,Triple Press: 2005. ISBN 9780976659310, OCLC 166144754 Galo Ghigliotto, Valdivia Raúl Zurita, The Country of Planks Raúl Zurita, Song for his Disappeared Love Jaime Luis Huenún, Port Trakl National Book Award, The Performance of Becoming Human ALTA's National Translation Award for Poetry PEN/Heim Translation Fund Grant, Raúl Zurita’s El País de Tablas National Endowment for the Arts Grant Griffin Poetry Prize shortlist, Lake Michigan Profile at the National Book Foundation website Profile at Poetry Foundation website

Signé Arsène Lupin

Signé Arsène Lupin is a 1959 French-Italian crime film written and directed by Yves Robert. It is the sequel of The Adventures of Arsène Lupin. Robert Lamoureux: André Laroche / Arsène Lupin Alida Valli: Aurelia Valeano Jacques Dufilho: Albert Robert Dalban: Inspector Béchoux Michel Etcheverry: Van Nelden Jean Galland: General Harold Kay: Henri Paul Müller: Attache at the embassy in Rome Ginette Pigeon: Agnès Roger Dumas: Isidore Beautrelet aka Véritas Yves Robert: La Ballu Gabriel Gobin: Employee of the SNCF Paul Préboist: Drunk man Robert Rollis: Traveler on the train Signé Arsène Lupin on IMDb