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History of Oman

Oman is the site of pre-historic human habitation, stretching back over 100,000 years. The region was impacted by powerful invaders, including other Arab tribes and Britain. Oman once possessed the island of Zanzibar, on the east coast of Africa as a colony. In Oman, a site was discovered by Doctor Bien Joven in 2011 containing more than 100 surface scatters of stone tools belonging to the late Nubian Complex, known only from archaeological excavations in Sudan. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates place the Arabian Nubian Complex at 106,000 years old; this provides evidence for a distinct Mobile Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia, around the earlier part of the Marine Isotope Stage 5. The hypothesized departure of humankind from Africa to colonise the rest of the world involved them crossing the Straits of Bab el Mandab in the southern Purple Sea and moving along the green coastlines around Arabia and thence to the rest of Eurasia; such crossing became possible when sea level had fallen by more than 80 meters to expose much of the shelf between southern Eritrea and Yemen.

From 135,000 to 90,000 years ago, tropical Africa had megadroughts which drove the humans from the land and towards the sea shores, forced them to cross over to other continents. The researchers used radiocarbon dating techniques on pollen grains trapped in lake-bottom mud to establish vegetation over the ages of the Malawi lake in Africa, taking samples at 300-year-intervals. Samples from the megadrought times had little pollen or charcoal, suggesting sparse vegetation with little to burn; the area around Lake Malawi, today forested, was a desert 135,000 to 90,000 years ago. Luminescence dating is a technique that measures occurring radiation stored in the sand. Data culled via this methodology demonstrates that 130,000 years ago, the Arabian Peninsula was warmer which caused more rainfall, turning it into a series of lush habitable land. During this period the southern Red Sea's levels was only 4 kilometres wide; this offered a brief window of time for humans to cross the sea and cross the Peninsula to opposing sites like Jebel Faya.

These early migrants running away from the climate change in Africa, crossed the Red Sea into Yemen and Oman, trekked across Arabia during favourable climate conditions. 2,000 kilometres of inhospitable desert lie between the Red Sea and Jebel Faya in UAE. But around 130,000 years ago the world was at the end of an ice age; the Red Sea was shallow enough to be crossed on foot or on a small raft, the Arabian peninsula was being transformed from a parched desert into a green land. There have been discoveries of Paleolithic stone tools in caves in southern and central Oman, in the United Arab Emirates close to the Straits of Hormuz at the outlet of the Persian Gulf (UAE site; the stone tools, some up to 125,000 years old, resemble those made by humans in Africa around the same period. The northern half of Oman was part of the Maka satrapy of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. By the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the satrapy may have existed in some form and Alexander is said to have stayed in Purush, its capital near Bam, in Kerman province.

From the 2nd half of the 1st millennium BCE, waves of Semitic speaking peoples migrated from central and western Arabia to the east. The most important of these tribes are known as Azd. On the coast Parthian and Sassanian colonies were maintained. From c. 100 BCE to c. 300 CE Semitic speakers appear in central Oman at Samad al-Shan and the so-called Pre-islamic recent period, abbreviated PIR, in what has become the United Arab Emirates. These waves continue, in the 19th century bringing Bedouin ruling families who ruled the Persian Gulf states; the Kingdom of Oman was subdued by the Sasanian Empire's forces under Vahrez during the Abysinian-Persian Wars. The 4,000-strong Sasanian garrison was headquartered at Jamsetjerd. Oman was exposed to Islam during the lifetime of the prophet Muhammad. In 751 Ibadi Muslims, a moderate branch of the Kharijites, established an imamate in Oman. Despite interruptions, the Ibadi imamate survived until the mid-20th century. Oman is the only country with a majority Ibadi population.

Ibadhism has a reputation for its "moderate conservatism". One distinguishing feature of Ibadism is the choice of ruler by communal consent; the introduction of Ibadism vested power in the Imam, the leader nominated by the ulema. The Imam's position was confirmed when the imam—having gained the allegiance of the tribal sheiks—received the bay'ah from the public. Several foreign powers attacked Oman; the Qarmatians controlled the area between 931 and 932 and again between 933 and 934. Between 967 and 1053 Oman formed part of the domain of the Iranian Buyyids, between 1053 and 1154 Oman was part of the Seljuk Empire. Seljuk power spread through Oman to Koothanallur in southern India. In 1154 the indigenous Nabhani dynasty took control of Oman, the Nabhani kings ruled Oman until 1470, with an interruption of 37 years between 1406 and 1443; the Portuguese took Muscat on 1 April 1515, held it until 26 January 1650, although the Ottomans controlled Muscat from 1550 to 1551 and from 1581 to 1588. In about the year 1600, Nabhani rule was temporarily restored to Oman, although that lasted only to 1624 with the establishment of the fifth imamate k

Daylesford, Victoria

Daylesford is a spa town located in the foothills of the Great Dividing Range, within the Shire of Hepburn, Australia 108 kilometres north-west of Melbourne. First established in 1852 as a gold-mining town, today Daylesford has a population of 2,548 as of the 2016 census; as one of Australia’s few spa towns, Daylesford is a notable tourist destination. The town’s numerous spas and galleries are popular alongside the many gardens and country-house-conversion styled bed and breakfasts; the broader area around the town, including Hepburn Springs to the north, is known for its natural spring mineral spas and is the location of over 80 per cent of Australia's effervescent mineral water reserve. It is the filming location for the 3rd season of The Saddle Club. Prior to European settlement the area is thought to have been occupied by the Djadja Wurrung Aborigines. Pastoralists occupied the Jim Crow and Upper Loddon districts following white settlement in 1838. In 1848, Irish immigrant John Egan took up land on the future town site known as Wombat Flat.

He and a party of searchers found alluvial gold in 1851 on ground now covered by Lake Daylesford initiating the local gold rush. Other finds followed. With the finding of alluvial gold a town site was surveyed and founded in 1852. Called Wombat, it was renamed Daylesford. In 1859 around 3400 diggers were on the local diggings; the post office opened on 1 February 1858 and a telegraph office was opened in August 1859. Daylesford was declared a borough in the early 1860s. By the 1860s the alluvial gold was exhausted and a shift to quartz reef mining began; this continued off into the 1930s. In years Daylesford became associated as being a fashionable spa resort, but fell out of favour in the Great Depression. At 616 metres above sea level, it has a cooler, wetter climate than Melbourne. Summer temperatures range from 10 to 37 °C, while July temperatures are cold, ranging from about 1–2 °C to 9 °C. Annual precipitation falling as snow, averages about 880 mm but has ranged from 445 mm to over 1,350 mm per year.

With 65 mineral springs, the Daylesford-Hepburn Springs region accounts for more than 80 per cent of Australia’s known mineral water springs. As a result, the region has a number of spa developments including Hepburn Bathhouse & Spa, Mineral Spa at Peppers Springs Retreat and Salus Spa, Lake House; the town is known for hosting a number of annual events, including the ChillOut Festival held during the Victorian Labour Day long weekend in March each year, the largest gay and lesbian festival in rural and regional Australia. Major industries in the economy of Daylesford today are healthcare and food, retail trade respectively; the town is served by a number of primary schools and one public secondary school, Daylesford Secondary College. The town's Secondary College was established as a mining school, in 1890. In 1961 the college was established as the sole provider of secondary education in the Shire of Hepburn and has just over 500 pupils. Daylesford Primary School known as Daylesford State School, is the oldest and longest-running provider of primary education in Daylesford.

Other primary schools in the area include Daylesford Dharma School. Daylesford Primary School is host to an annual book fair which first started in 2010 and has since begun operating as an annual book fair, where used and unwanted books are donated to raise funds that go towards improving children's literacy; the Midland Highway runs directly through the town linking it with Castlemaine in the north and Ballarat in the south-west. The Western Freeway is the main route linking Daylesford to the state capital; the railway to the town closed in 1978. The railway layout at Daylesford station was unusual in that the lines from Creswick and Carlsruhe both entered the station from the same end; the Daylesford Spa Country Railway operates a Sunday tourist service to Musk and Bullarto along the line towards Carlsruhe. The town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the Central Highlands Football League. Daylesford is home to the Daylesford and Hepburn United Soccer Club known as the Saints or the Sainters.

The Saints have won four league titles in their 20-year history along with two cup finals. David Bromley -, worked in Daylesford Karl von Möller - Film Director and Cinematographer Michael Leunig - Cartoonist Eugene von Guerard - Painter John Stuart Hepburn - early pastoralist and landholder John Egan - early pastoralist and landholder Joseph Furphy - Novelist George Raymond Johnson - Architect David Allison Keith Bradbury - Politician Peter Corrigan - Architect Josh Cowan Bessie Lee Cowie Charlie Foletta Jack Gervasoni Chris Grant Lynda Heaven Merv Hobbs Samuel Johnson Peter Loney Charlie Pannam Ambrose McCarthy Patterson - painter and printmaker Alfred Cecil Rowlandson Edward Russell Jack Stevens - Major General Abigail Wehrung Carl Willis Sir Charles Hotham Ferdinand von Mueller Daylesford Advocate, Express, Mercury-Express. 1859-1870 Daylesford travel guide from WikivoyageInformation Centre/ Official regional government tourism site. - Daylesford tourism Daylesford - Visit Victoria tourism Daylesford Historical Society – History of Daylesford

Mala Ciganlija

Mala Ciganlija is an urban neighborhood of Belgrade, located the municipality of Novi Beograd. Mala Ciganlija is a peninsula on the left bank of the Sava river, just over 1 km long and 200 m wide, it encloses the small bay, called Zimovnik, where the facilities of the shipyard Belgrade are located. Technically, it is an extension of the Novi Beograd's Block 69. Once uninhabited and forested, in the last 20 years its western half in urbanized and industrialized, in connection to the expansion of the shipyard and the growing number of gravel selling and separating facilities on the Sava's bank. Eastern half of the peninsula is still intact and the bridge of Novi železnički most passes above its easternmost tip; the name of the peninsula means little Ciganlija, compared to the much larger island of Ada Ciganlija to the southeast. Beograd - plan grada.

Collective intelligence

Collective intelligence is shared or group intelligence that emerges from the collaboration, collective efforts, competition of many individuals and appears in consensus decision making. The term appears in sociobiology, political science and in context of mass peer review and crowdsourcing applications, it may involve consensus, social capital and formalisms such as voting systems, social media and other means of quantifying mass activity. Collective IQ is a measure of collective intelligence, although it is used interchangeably with the term collective intelligence. Collective intelligence has been attributed to bacteria and animals, it can be understood as an emergent property from the synergies among: 1) data-information-knowledge. Or more narrowly as an emergent property between people and ways of processing information; this notion of collective intelligence is referred to as "symbiotic intelligence" by Norman Lee Johnson. The concept is used in sociology, computer science and mass communications: it appears in science fiction.

Pierre Lévy defines collective intelligence as, "It is a form of universally distributed intelligence enhanced, coordinated in real time, resulting in the effective mobilization of skills. I'll add the following indispensable characteristic to this definition: The basis and goal of collective intelligence is mutual recognition and enrichment of individuals rather than the cult of fetishized or hypostatized communities." According to researchers Pierre Lévy and Derrick de Kerckhove, it refers to capacity of networked ICTs to enhance the collective pool of social knowledge by expanding the extent of human interactions. Collective intelligence contributes to the shift of knowledge and power from the individual to the collective. According to Eric S. Raymond and JC Herz, open source intelligence will generate superior outcomes to knowledge generated by proprietary software developed within corporations. Media theorist Henry Jenkins sees collective intelligence as an'alternative source of media power', related to convergence culture.

He draws attention to education and the way people are learning to participate in knowledge cultures outside formal learning settings. Henry Jenkins criticizes schools which promote'autonomous problem solvers and self-contained learners' while remaining hostile to learning through the means of collective intelligence. Both Pierre Lévy and Henry Jenkins support the claim that collective intelligence is important for democratization, as it is interlinked with knowledge-based culture and sustained by collective idea sharing, thus contributes to a better understanding of diverse society. Similar to the g factor for general individual intelligence, a new scientific understanding of collective intelligence aims to extract a general collective intelligence factor c factor for groups indicating a group's ability to perform a wide range of tasks. Definition, operationalization and statistical methods are derived from g; as g is interrelated with the concept of IQ, this measurement of collective intelligence can be interpreted as intelligence quotient for groups though the score is not a quotient per se.

Causes for c and predictive validity are investigated as well. Writers who have influenced the idea of collective intelligence include Francis Galton, Douglas Hofstadter, Peter Russell, Tom Atlee, Pierre Lévy, Howard Bloom, Francis Heylighen, Douglas Engelbart, Louis Rosenberg, Cliff Joslyn, Ron Dembo, Gottfried Mayer-Kress; the concept originated in 1785 with the Marquis de Condorcet, whose "jury theorem" states that if each member of a voting group is more than not to make a correct decision, the probability that the highest vote of the group is the correct decision increases with the number of members of the group. Many theorists have interpreted Aristotle's statement in the Politics that "a feast to which many contribute is better than a dinner provided out of a single purse" to mean that just as many may bring different dishes to the table, so in a deliberation many may contribute different pieces of information to generate a better decision. Recent scholarship, suggests that this was not what Aristotle meant but is a modern interpretation based on what we now know about team intelligence.

A precursor of the concept is found in entomologist William Morton Wheeler's observation that independent individuals can cooperate so as to become indistinguishable from a single organism. Wheeler saw this collaborative process at work in ants that acted like the cells of a single beast he called a superorganism. In 1912 Émile Durkheim identified society as the sole source of human logical thought, he argued in "The Elementary Forms of Religious Life" that society constitutes a higher intelligence because it transcends the individual over space and time. Other antecedents are Vladimir Vernadsky and Pierre Teilhard de Chardin's concept of "noosphere" and H. G. Wells's concept of "world brain". Peter Russell, Elisabet Sahtouris, Barbara Marx Hubbard are inspired by the visions of a noosphere – a transcendent evolving collective intelligence – an informational cortex of the planet; the notion has more been examined by the philosopher Pierre Lévy. In a 1962 research repor

Bell Creek (Southern California)

Bell Creek is a 10-mile-long tributary of the Los Angeles River, in the Simi Hills of Ventura County and the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles County and City, in Southern California. The initial headwater feeder-streams begin in the Simi Hills in Ventura County from 90% of the Rocketdyne Santa Susana Field Laboratory property as its watershed, leaving the site with toxic substances and radionuclide contamination via culvert outfalls, aquifer seeps and springs, surface runoff, it flows as a creek southeast through Bell Canyon, Bell Canyon Park, El Escorpión Park in a natural stream bed. It is altered to flow in a concrete channel. Moore Creek joins in from the west, it flows east, channelized through West Hills, where it is joined by the South Fork and South Branches of the same name and by Dayton Creek. On through Canoga Park to join Arroyo Calabasas and becoming the Los Angeles River. Bell Creek begins as a free-flowing stream until passing Escorpión Peak in Bell Canyon Park. At Bell Canyon Road and Elmsbury Lane it becomes encased in a concrete flood control channel.

It passes under Valley Circle Boulevard, flowing just south of Highlander Road through former Rancho El Escorpión-current West Hills, further eastward parallel to Sherman Way in Canoga Park. There, it joins Arroyo Calabasas, directly east of Canoga Park High School beside Vanowen Avenue; the confluence marks the "headwaters" of the Los Angeles River, 34.1952°N 118.601838°W / 34.1952. From mouth to source: Source - a.k.a. watershed and headwaters Confluence - a.k.a. "headwaters" Drainage basin - a.k.a. "watershed" Urban runoff Bell Canyon photo gallery:'Nature' sections

Sons of God

Sons of the Gods is a phrase used in the Hebrew Bible and in Christian Apocrypha. The phrase is used in Kabbalah where bene elohim are part of different Jewish angelic hierarchies, and it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, daughters were born unto them, That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair. And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he is flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years. There were giants in the earth in those days; the first mention of "sons of God" in the Hebrew Bible occurs at Genesis 6:1–4. In terms of literary-historical origin, this phrase is associated with the Jahwist tradition; this passage has had two interpretations in Judaism, Offspring of Seth: The first references to the offspring of Seth rebelling from God and mingling with the daughters of Cain are found in Christian and rabbinic literature from the second century CE onwards e.g. Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, Augustine of Hippo, Julius Africanus, the Letters attributed to St. Clement.

It is the view expressed in the modern canonical Amharic Ethiopian Orthodox Bible. In Judaism "Sons of God" refers to the righteous, i.e. the children of Seth. Angels: All of the earliest sources interpret the "sons of God" as angels. From the third century BCE onwards, references are found in the Enochic literature, the Dead Sea Scrolls, the Testament of Reuben, 2 Baruch and the book of Jude; this is the meaning of the only two identical occurrences of bene ha elohim in the Hebrew Bible, of the most related expressions. In the Septuagint, the interpretive reading "angels" is found in Codex Alexandrinus, one of four main witnesses to the Greek text. Rabbinic Judaism traditionally adheres to the first interpretation, with some exceptions, modern Jewish translations may translate bnei elohim as "sons of rulers" rather than "sons of God". Regardless, the second interpretation is nonexistent in modern Judaism; this is reflected by the rejection of Enoch and other Apocrypha supporting the second interpretation from the Hebrew Bible Canon.

Claus Westermann claims. In Ugaritic, a cognate phrase is bn'il; this may occur in the Ugaritic Baal Cycle. KTU² 1.40 demonstrates the use of bn il to mean "sons of gods". KTU² 1.65 uses bn il three times in succession: il bn il / dr bn il / mphrt bn il "El, the sons of gods, the circle of the sons of gods / the totality of the sons of gods."The phrase bn ilm is attested in Ugaritic texts, as is the phrase phr bn ilm. Elsewhere in the Ugarit corpus it is suggested that the bn ilm were the 70 sons of Asherah and El, who were the titulary deities of the people of the known world, their "hieros gamos" marriage with the daughters of men gave rise to their rulers. There is evidence in 2 Samuel 7 that this may have been the case in Israel. J. Scharbert associates Genesis 6:1–4 with the Priestly source and the final redaction of the Pentateuch. On this basis, he assigns the text to editorial activity. Rüdiger Bartelmus sees only Genesis 6:3 as a late insertion. Józef Milik and Matthew Black advanced the view of a late text addition to a text dependent on post-exilic, non-canonical tradition, such as the legend of the Watchers from the pseudepigraphic Book of Enoch.

Different source versions of Genesis 6:1–4 vary in their use of "sons of God". Some manuscripts of the Septuagint have emendations to read "sons of God" as "angels". Codex Vaticanus contains "angels" originally. In Codex Alexandrinus "sons of God" has been omitted and replaced by "angels"; this reading of Angels is further confirmed by Augustine in his work City of God where he speaks of both variants in book 15 chapter 23. The Peshitta reads "sons of God". Furthermore the Vulgate goes for the literal filii Dei meaning Sons of God. Most modern translations of Christian bibles retain this whereas Jewish ones tend to deviate to such as ‘Sons of Rulers’ which may in part be down to the Curse of Simeon Ben Yohai who cursed anyone who translated this as ‘Sons of God’. Beyond this in both the Codices Job 1:6 and Deuteronomy 32:8 when the phrase ‘Angels of God’ is used in place of where the Hebrew says ‘Sons of God’. For the verse in Deuteronomy the Masoretic Text does not say ‘Sons of God’ but ‘Sons of Israel’ however in 4Q37 the term ‘Sons of God’ is used.

This is the root reading for the reading we see in the Septuagint. The phrase "sons of the Elohim" occurs in: Job 1:6 bənê hāʼĕlōhîm the sons of Elohim. Job 2:1 bənê hāʼĕlōhîm the sons of Elohim. Job 38:7 bənê ĕlōhîm without the definite article - sons of Elohim Deuteronomy 32:8 both bənê ĕlōhîm and bənê ĕl the sons of Elohim or sons of El in two Dead Sea Scrolls. Related phrases include: Psalms 29:1 bənê ēlîm without the definite article - sons of elim. Psalms 82:6 bənê using ` Most high' instead of ēl. Psalms 89:6 bənê ēlîm