History of Pakistan

The history of Pakistan encompasses the region of the Indus Valley, which spans the western expanse of the Indian subcontinent and the eastern Iranian plateau. The region served both as the fertile ground of a major civilization and as the gateway of South Asia to Central Asia and the Near East. Situated on the first coastal migration route of Homo sapiens out of Africa, the region was inhabited early by modern humans; the 9,000-year history of village life in South Asia traces back to the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh in Pakistan, the 5,000-year history of urban life in South Asia to the various sites of the Indus Valley Civilization, including Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The ensuing millennia saw the region of present-day Pakistan absorb many influences—represented among others in the ancient Buddhist sites of Taxila, Takht-i-Bahi, the 14th-century Islamic-Sindhi monuments of Thatta, the 17th-century Mughal monuments of Lahore. In the first half of the 19th century, the region was appropriated by the East India Company, after 1857, by 90 years of direct British rule, ending with the creation of Pakistan in 1947, through the efforts, among others, of its future national poet Allama Iqbal and its founder, Muhammad Ali Jinnah.

Since the country has experienced both civilian-democratic and military rule, resulting in periods of significant economic and military growth as well those of instability. Riwat is a Paleolithic site in upper Punjab. Riwat Site 55, shows a occupation dated to around 45,000 years ago; the Soanian is archaeological culture of the Lower Acheulean. It is named after the Soan Valley near modern-day Islamabad/Rawalpindi. In Adiyala and Khasala, about 16 kilometres from Rawalpindi, on the bend of the Soan River hundreds of edged pebble tools were discovered. No human skeletons of this age have yet been found. Mehrgarh is an important neolithic site discovered in 1974, which shows early evidence of farming and herding, dentistry; the site dates back to 7000–5500 BCE) and is located on the Kachi Plain of Balochistan. The residents of Mehrgarh lived in mud brick houses, stored grain in granaries, fashioned tools with copper ore, cultivated barley, wheat and dates, herded sheep and cattle; as the civilization progressed residents began to engage in crafts, including flint knapping, bead production, metalworking.

The site was occupied continuously until 2600 BCE. Between 2600 and 2000 BCE, region became more arid and Mehrgarh was abandoned in favor of the Indus Valley, where a new civilization was in the early stages of development; the Bronze Age in the Indus Valley began around 3300 BCE with the Indus Valley Civilization. Along with Ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilizations of the Old World, of the three the most widespread, covering an area of 1.25 million km2. It flourished in the basins of the Indus River, in what is today the Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Balochistan, along a system of perennial monsoon-fed, rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the seasonal Ghaggar-Hakra River in parts of northwest India. At its peak, the civilization hosted a population of 5 million spread across hundreds of settlements extending as far as the Arabian Sea to present-day southern and eastern Afghanistan, the Himalayas. Inhabitants of the ancient Indus river valley, the Harappans, developed new techniques in metallurgy and handicraft, produced copper, bronze and tin.

The Mature Indus civilisation flourished from about 2600 to 1900 BCE, marking the beginning of urban civilisation in the Indus Valley. The civilisation included urban centres such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro as well as an offshoot called the Kulli culture in southern Balochistan and was noted for its cities built of brick, roadside drainage system, multi-storeyed houses, it is thought to have had some kind of municipal organisation as well. During the late period of this civilisation, signs of a gradual decline began to emerge, by around 1700 BCE, most of the cities were abandoned. However, the Indus Valley Civilisation did not disappear and some elements of the Indus Civilisation may have survived. Aridification of this region during the 3rd millennium BCE may have been the initial spur for the urbanisation associated with the civilisation, but also reduced the water supply enough to cause the civilisation's demise, to scatter its population eastward; the civilization collapsed around 1700 BCE.

Through the excavation of the Indus cities and analysis of town planning and seals, it has been inferred that the Civilization had high level of sophistication in its town planning, arts and trade. The Vedic Period is postulated to have formed during the 1500 BCE to 800 BCE; as Indo-Aryans migrated and settled into the Indus Valley, along with them came their distinctive religious traditions and practices which fused with local culture. The Indo-Aryans religious beliefs and practices from the Bactria–Margiana Culture and the native Harappan Indus beliefs of the former Indus Valley Civilisation gave rise to Vedic culture and tribes; the initial early Vedic culture was a tribal, pastoral society centered in the Indus Valley, of what is today Pakistan. During this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed. Several early tribes and kingdoms arose during this period and internecine military conflicts between these various tribes was c

Islam and astrology

Astrology refers to the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial bodies interpreted as having an influence on human affairs and the natural world. Islamic jurisprudence, the Quran, the Hadith and Qiyas layout the guidelines for the stance that Islam takes on the concept of Astrology; the determination on the concept is further subdivided into that, either halal or haram. Astrology has been an ever-present force in Islamic culture since the 8th Century. Within Islamic belief systems there exist opinions which both agree and disagree with the concept of celestial beings having an impact/influence on life forms. Whilst a vast majority of Islamic sects and scholars embody the belief that Astrology is fundamentally forbidden as per the authorities encapsulated in the Quran and Hadith, there remain some scholars which take the view that abstract forms of astrology have permeated in the worldly realm and that there thus exists a means by which the celestial beings have had some role in influencing historical events.

The earliest traces of Muslim individuals and therefore an Islamic stance against that of Astrology stems from individuals such as Abd al Jabbar. This stance differentiates from that posed by individuals such as Abu Mashar who sought to justify the causal influence of celestial beings on terrestrial life forms; this is further evidenced by the presence of historical texts such as Kitab al Daraj which are proof of the presence of astrology in early Islam. Yet before these individuals/texts there existed historians and theologians such as Al Hashimi who through philosophers such as Masha Allah sought to justify the role of Astrology in influencing Islamic adherents religion. Al Hashimi, citing upon the authority of Masha Allah looked to explore the possibility of the influence of stars on ones morality and religion in general. Masha Allah is further cited to point to the idea that the Prophet Muhammad's birth was a result of a coming together as such of celestial objectes otherwise known as a planetary conjunction.

Where both Masha Allah and Al Hashimi draw upon similarities however is their inherent stance in pointing to the planets and other celestial beings as being the primary means by which divine rule is exercised i.e. how God emanates control over all life forms. The vast criticism received by individuals such as Al Hashimi led such figures to suggest that determination of astrological claims could be computed without any interference with religion; the work of Al Hashimi points to the inherent presence of astrology in early Islam. Many interpretations of the Quran point to Astrology as that which goes against the fundamental principles preached by the Islamic religious tradition. Astrology points to the role of celestial beings in influencing terrestrial life and the everyday lives of individuals. Various excerpts from the Quran are interpreted to disprove this theory. Most evidently with regards to those of horoscopes, Islamic scholars take the statements of the Quran in Surah Al Jinn where it is suggested " the All-Knower of the ghayb, He reveals to none His ghayb, except to a Messenger whom He has chosen.

And He makes a band of watching guards to march before him and after him" to mean that any such presence of an extra terrestrial influence on mankind is not plausible and is therefore haram in Islam. This is further accentuated by tafsir of the verse which point to the fact that any being other than Allah cannot be attributed with knowledge of the unseen or for that matter unknown, it is in this that the use of horoscopes and the subsequent utilisation of astrology are disproved in Islam. Islam gives rise through the Quran to the use of Astrology in determining the time of the year as well as compass bearings; the Quran embodies this concept in pointing to celestial beings as'landmarks' adorned for adherents as a means by which they would guide themselves. The Quran, points to the primary purpose of Astrology as a means of providing physical guidance/navigation for an adherent considering its use in the capacity of horoscopes as forbidden; the Hadith is a reference to the instructions and practises of the Prophet Muhammad which adherents of the Islamic faith are encouraged to embody.

Prophet Muhammad made various claims regarding the legality/illegality of Astrology with regards to the Islamic religious tradition. Narrated by Abu Dawud, it is suggested that the Prophet Muhammad stated "Whoever seeks knowledge from the stars is seeking one of the branches of witchcraft…”. Where the Hadith distinctly points to a strong stance against Astrology and the consequent imposition of astrology as that, forbidden is in Sahih Bukhari, an authenticated source of the recounts of Prophet Muhammad; the Hadith suggests. It goes on to suggest that any adherent that believes that rain is a result of the doings of any other being; the Hadith makes specific mention to the stars in suggesting that as for those individuals who suggest rain originates as a result of a star, "that one is a disbeliever in me." This works to fundamentally embody the concept of astrology and the consequent belief in the idea that celestial beings have an influence on anything other th

Santacruz, Mumbai

Santacruz or Santa Cruz is a section of the municipality of Mumbai. The Santacruz Railway Station on the Mumbai Suburban Railway, the Domestic Terminal of the Mumbai Airport and one campus of the University of Mumbai are all located in Santacruz. Santacruz and its neighbouring suburb Khar fall under the H East and H West wards of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai; the locality had a population of 675,951 in 1991, over an area of 12.98 square kilometers, giving it a population density of 36,668 persons per square kilometer. The term Santa Cruz comes from the Portuguese words meaning "Holy Cross", a reference to a 150-year-old Cross located on Chapel lane within the compound of a home for destitute women run by Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity trust; that name was given to a church that existed on a site on the western side of the railway station along the current Swami Vivekanand Road, presently occupied by the Sacred Heart Boys High School and Sacred Heart Church. This original church was destroyed by the Marathas during their conquest of the Salsette Island from Portugal.

When the railways began operations in October 1888, the local railway station was named after the Holy Cross, Santacruz as a locality came into beingThe British Government set up RAF Santacruz, a military airfield, in 1942. It was home to several RAF squadrons during World War II from 1942 to 1947; the Airport covered an area of about 1,160 hectares and had three runways. The airfield was transferred to the Indian Government for civilian use upon Independence, came to be known as Santa Cruz airport, the city's main airport. Construction of a new passenger terminal and apron began in 1950 and was commissioned in 1958. In the 1980s, a new international terminal was built at Sahar, to cater for the increasing number of passenger movements and types of aircraft; the original terminal building still exists and has been given a new façade and host of interior upgrades. A second terminal complex has been built to supplement existing facilities. Santa Cruz is bordered by Vile Parle to the north, Khar to the south, Juhu to the west and Kurla, Bandra in the east.

It is broadly divided in two areas: Santa Cruz by the Mumbai Suburban Railway line. The Milan Subway and Khar Subway connect the two areas. Milan flyover has been built which has improved connectivity between Santacruz East and West; the Western express highway passes through Santacruz East. Because of its unique geography and connectivity, Santacruz is one of the prime locations in Mumbai. MMRDA has built a Skywalk for pedestrians stretching from Podar School Complex to Western Express Highway. Santa Cruz consists of Maratha Colony, Prabhat Colony, Agripada and Vakola, it consists of land belonging Airport Authority of India, which consists of the Mumbai Airport and Air India Colony. The main roads passing through Santa Cruz are the Western Express Highway, Nehru Road, Santacruz-Chembur Link Road and the Kalina-Kurla Link Road; the PIN codes of this area are 400055, 400029 and 400098. Located near Western Express Highway is the site of Sai Baba Temple, at the centre of the area where many devotees come to pray daily.

Baba Mandir is made of marble and seashells. On The Festival of Ramnavmi Utsav more than 10–20,000 people have visited on this day since 1992; the temple has been located at Achanak Krida Mandel / Siddhi Sai Seva Mandal. Vakola stretches from the Western Express Highway in the west to the Kalina Military Camp in the east. One of the interesting facts is that the oldest Sindhi colony Aaram Society was inaugurated by India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru in the year 1954 for the refugees who had escaped from Pakistan at 1947 still exists. Yashwant nagar, Dawri Nagar, Nagdevi Nagar, Vakola Bridge, Shivaji Nagar, Datta Mandir, Vakola Pipeline, Vakola Village and Vakola Masjid areas form most of Vakola, densely populated by Hindus, Buddhists and Jains; these communities, though tending to cluster together, live in relative harmony with each other, the area of Vakola was among the worst affected during the Bombay riots of 1993. Vakola village is home to one of the indigenous communities of the East Indians.

Known as Vankola for three centuries, the village formed part of the Kalina Parish, founded in 1606. It was in 1914 that through the initiative of Fr. C. A. Abreo at Kalina Church, that a chapel was contemplated to be built at Vankola. Mr. John Rodrigues popularly known as Jamboo donated the land, the Chapel was completed and dedicated to St. Anthony and blessed on 1 January 1921. All the villagers had relatives either at Kalliana or at Vile Parle; the Church was remodeled in 1977 to suit the changed liturgical norms. Today, St. Anthony's Church is one of the largest parishes in the Archdiocese of Mumbai in terms of the Catholic population, estimated to include around 23,000 persons. To the south of the Vankola village were a few fields and marshy lands reaching right up to the Mithi River at Bandra East that contained a lot of wildlife, birds of all kinds and small animals. Vankola village being on a small rise, the land sloped downwards towards the marshes. All social activity of the people was centered at Kalina Village, connected to Vakola by a small road skirting the Rye Hills which now houses the Military Camp.

This small road is used a short cut to Kalina. Anand Nagar is a large d