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History of Rwanda

Human occupation of Rwanda is thought to have begun shortly after the last ice age. By the 16th century, the inhabitants had organized into a number of kingdoms. In the 19th century, Mwami Rwabugiri of the Kingdom of Rwanda conducted a decades-long process of military conquest and administrative consolidation that resulted in the kingdom coming to control most of what is now Rwanda; the colonial powers and Belgium, allied with the Rwandan court. A convergence of anti-colonial, anti-Tutsi sentiment resulted in Belgium granting national independence in 1962. Direct elections resulted in a representative government dominated by the majority Hutu under President Grégoire Kayibanda. Unsettled ethnic and political tensions were worsened when Juvénal Habyarimana, Hutu, seized power in 1973. In 1990, the Rwandan Patriotic Front, a rebel group composed of 10,000 Tutsi refugees from previous decades of unrest, invaded the country, starting the Rwandan Civil War; the war ground on, as the Hutu feared losing their gains.

The assassination of Habyarimana was the catalyst for the eruption of the 1994 genocide, in which hundreds of thousands of Tutsis and some moderate Hutus were killed including the prime minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana. The Tutsi RPF conquered Rwanda, thousands of Hutu were imprisoned pending the establishment of the Gacaca courts. Millions of Hutu fled as refugees, contributing to large refugee camps of Hutu in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo, where there were refugees from other countries; these were disbanded by an RPF-sponsored invasion in 1996 that replaced the new Congolese president as the result of the First Congo War. A second invasion to replace the new Congolese president initiated the Second Congo War, the deadliest war since World War II and one involving many African nations including Rwanda; the territory of present-day Rwanda has been green and fertile for many thousands of years during the last ice age, when part of Nyungwe Forest was fed by the alpine ice sheets of the Rwenzoris.

It is not known when the country was first inhabited, but it is thought that humans moved into the area shortly after that ice age, either in the Neolithic period, around ten thousand years ago, or in the long humid period which followed, up to around 3000 BC. The earliest inhabitants of the region are thought to have been the Twa, a group of Pygmy forest hunters and gatherers, whose descendants still live in Rwanda today. Archaeological excavations conducted from the 1950s onwards have revealed evidence of sparse settlement by hunter gatherers in the late stone age, followed by a larger population of early iron age settlers; these groups were found to have manufactured artifacts, including a type of dimpled pottery, iron tools and implements. Hundreds of years ago, the Twa were supplanted by the immigration of a Bantu group, the ancestors of the agriculturalist ethnic group, today known as the Hutus; the Hutu began to clear forests for their permanent settlements. The exact nature of the third major immigration, that of a predominantly pastoralist people known as Tutsi, is contested.

Oral histories of the Kingdom of Rwanda trace the origins of the Rwandan people back nearly 10,000 ago to a legendary king named Gihanga, to whom metalworking and other modernizing technologies are commonly attributed. By the 15th century, many of the Bantu-speakers, including both Hutu and Tutsi, had organized themselves into small states. According to Ogot, these included at least three; the oldest state, which has no name, was established by the Renge lineages of the Singa clan and covered most of modern Rwanda, besides the northern region. The Mubari state of the Zigaba clan covered an extensive area; the Gisaka state in southeast Rwanda was powerful, maintaining its independence until the mid-19th century. However, the latter two states are unmentioned in contemporary discussion of Rwandan civilization. In the 19th century, the state became far more centralized, the history far more precise. Expansion continued; this expansion was less about military conquest and more about a migrating population spreading Rwandan agricultural techniques, social organization, the extension of the political control of a Mwami.

Once this was established camps of warriors were established along the vulnerable borders to prevent incursions. Only against other well developed states such as Gisaka and Burundi was expansion carried out by force of arms. Under the monarchy the economic imbalance between the Hutus and the Tutsis crystallized, a complex political imbalance emerged as the Tutsis formed into a hierarchy dominated by a Mwami or'king'; the King was treated as a semi-divine being, responsible for making the country prosper. The symbol of the King was the sacred drum; the Mwami's main power base was in control of over a hundred large estates spread through the kingdom. Including fields of banana trees and many head of cattle, the estates were the basis of the rulers' wealth; the most ornate of the estates would each be home to one of the king's wives, monarchs having up to twenty. It was between these estates that his retinue would travel. All the people of Rwanda were expected to pay tribute to the Mwami. Beneath the Mwami was a Tutsi ministerial council of great chiefs, some of them were the chiefs of cattle, chiefs of land and last but not least the military chiefs.

Batware b'intebe, while below them was a group of lesser Tutsi chiefs, who for the large part governed the country in districts, each district having a cattle chief and a land chief. The cattle chief collected tribute in livestock, t

Andrea Begley

Andrea Begley is a singer-songwriter from Pomeroy, Northern Ireland, most notable for winning the second series of the BBC talent search The Voice UK, beating the favourite to win, Leah McFall. She is the niece of Irish country music singer Philomena Begley. Having grown up performing in all-Ireland fleadhanna and singing competitions, Begley began songwriting and performing in open mic and other events in Belfast following completion of a law degree, in 2008. In 2012, she took part in the pilot episode of RTE 2 song-writing competition show, The Hit, with her original composition The Message being selected by producer Steve Lillywhite for the final eight. Andrea Begley auditioned for The Voice UK, with The Script's Danny O'Donoghue choosing her for his team. After being crowned the winner, she was signed to Capitol Records and moved to London to record her debut album, her winning single, a cover of "My Immortal" by Evanescence, entered the UK Singles Chart at number 75 that week. The single went on to peak to number 30 on UK Singles Chart and number 70 on the Irish Singles Chart.

Her debut studio album The Message was released on 21 October 2013. On 21 October 2013 Begley released her debut studio album The Message, which includes "My Immortal", her winning single from The Voice UK, "Dancing in the Dark". On 23 October 2013 the album was at number 10 on The Official Chart Update. On 24 October 2013 the album entered the Irish Albums Chart at number 61. On 27 October 2013 the album entered the UK Albums Chart at number 7, her cover of A-ha's "Take On Me" was uploaded to YouTube by Shane O'Connor, who combined it with animation by Ecole Supérieure des Métiers Artistiques students Camille Chaiz, Hugo Jean, Juliette Jourdan, Marie Pillier, Kevin Roger to create a spoof version of a John Lewis ad. The video has had over a quarter of a million views as of 24 November, 2019. In 2014, Begley moved back to Ireland and has continued to tour, including two Irish tours with aunt Philomena Begley, in 2018 and 2019, she has released a number of singles independently, with her second studio album, "Soul of a Songbird", being released on 6th December, 2019..

Begley is sighted as a result of Glaucoma, which she developed at the age of 5 following a diagnosis of juvenile arthritis at age 3 and a half. Since she has had around 23 operations, leaving her with about 10 per cent vision. From the age of 19, she has volunteered with the Royal National Institute of Blind people, is chair of the RNIB network committee in Northern Ireland, she is a motivational speaker, delivering talks on her own experiences of sight loss and issues around visual impairment and disability to organisations and businesses across the UK and Ireland. The victory of Begley in The Voice raised the ire of competing coach, who stormed off the set at the time her victory was announced. He took to Twitter to express his outrage, saying "You should feel the audiences vibration in the room tonight after the publics vote…its #unexplainable…so sad…perplexed Andrea is amazing…dontGETmeWRONG…but we know who has the incredible voice". Begley expressed understanding at his disappointment, saying "Will spoke to me and he wishes me well, but everybody wants their act to win.

But at the end of the day, the audience voted me, so that's it."In response to online criticism focused on Andrea's disability, members of the public and spokespersons for disability charities spoke out in support of Begley. Rosaleen Dempsey and youth services manager for the Royal National Institute of Blind People Northern Ireland, of which Begley is a committee member, told the Belfast Telegraph: "We've all seen the disparaging remarks about Andrea's sensational win on Saturday night, but the fact remains, she received the most votes because the majority of voters loved her voice. RNIB NI would like to congratulate Andrea and we're confident that with her fabulous voice and tenacious personality, she will go far." A spokeswoman for Disability Action said, "Andrea has demonstrated her huge talent over the past number of weeks and we wish her every success in the future. Anyone commenting negatively in relation to Andrea's disability should think about the positive attitude that Andrea has and deal with their own prejudices."

Begley's autobiography, "I Didn't See That Coming", was published by BBC Books in October 2013. Of the title, Begley said, "I was conscious with the book I wanted to give it a tongue-in-cheek title... For me, I think the most important thing is making people comfortable with, I think the more comfortable I am with it and the more I can sort of, you know, make a bit of a joke and have a bit of a laugh with it I think makes other people comfortable with it."

Gauss–Laguerre quadrature

In numerical analysis Gauss–Laguerre quadrature is an extension of the Gaussian quadrature method for approximating the value of integrals of the following kind: ∫ 0 + ∞ e − x f d x. In this case ∫ 0 + ∞ e − x f d x ≈ ∑ i = 1 n w i f where xi is the i-th root of Laguerre polynomial Ln and the weight wi is given by w i = x i 2 2. To integrate the function f we apply the following transformation ∫ 0 ∞ f d x = ∫ 0 ∞ f e x e − x d x = ∫ 0 ∞ g e − x d x where g:= e x f. For the last integral one uses Gauss-Laguerre quadrature. Note, that while this approach works from an analytical perspective, it is not always numerically stable. More one can consider integrands that have a known x α power-law singularity at x=0, for some real number α > − 1, leading to integrals of the form: ∫ 0 + ∞ x α e − x f d x. In this case, the weights are given in terms of the generalized Laguerre polynomials: w i = Γ x i n! 2 2, where x i are the roots of L n. This allows one to efficiently evaluate such integrals for polynomial or smooth f when α is not an integer.

Salzer, H. E.. "Table of zeros and weight factors of the first fifteen Laguerre polynomials". Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society. 55: 1004–1012. Doi:10.1090/S0002-9904-1949-09327-8. Concus, P.. "Tables for the evaluation of ∫ 0 ∞ x β exp ⁡ f d x by Gauss-Laguerre quadrature". Mathematics of Computation. 17: 245–256. Doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1963-0158534-9. Shao, T. S.. "Table of zeros and Gaussian Weights of certain Associated Laguerre Polynomials and the related Hermite Polynomials". Mathematics of Computation. 18: 598–616. Doi:10.1090/S0025-5718-1964-0166397-1. JSTOR 2002946. MR 0166397. Ehrich, S.. "On stratified extensions of Gauss-Laguerre and Gauss-Hermite quadrature formulas". Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics. 140: 291–299. Doi:10.1016/S0377-042700407-1. Matlab routine for Gauss–Laguerre quadrature Generalized Gauss–Laguerre quadrature, free software in Matlab, C++, Fortran

Mary Sibande

Mary Sibande is a South African artist, based in Johannesburg. Her art consists of sculptures, paintings and design. Sibande uses these mediums and techniques to help depict the human form and explore the construction of identity in a postcolonial South African context. In addition, Sibande focuses on using her work to show her personal experiences through Apartheid, her art attempts to critique stereotypical depictions of women black women. Sibande was raised by her grandmother, her mother was a domestic worker herself, her father was in the South African Army. She got to know him when she was a teenager; because her mother was a domestic worker she pays homage to domestic workers with her artworks. Artworks such as the ones from her exhibit, "Long Live the Dead Queen". Sibande would describe her childhood as being perfect. Many families couldn’t afford to send their kids there but I was fortunate that my mum was able to. I guess that pushed me in a certain direction." Sibande received her diploma in Fine Arts from the Technikon Witwatersrand in 2004.

She obtained a B-tech degree from the University of Johannesburg in 2007." At first Sibande wanted to be a fashion designer and art was more of an afterthought. Her aspirations of being a fashion designer are still prominent throughout all of her works; the usage of fashion and design are all over and displayed beautifully throughout every single one of her sculptures. In 2001, Sibande moved in with her mother to Johannesburg where she was studied at Witwatersrand Technikon. Sibande has used her work to expose many different things, from postcolonial South Africa to stereotypes of women as well as stereotypes regarding black women in South Africa, her work contains multiple types of mediums such as sculpture, design and theatrics. Sibande’s painting and sculpture uses the human form to explore the construction of identity in a postcolonial South African context, but attempts to critique stereotypical depictions of women black women, her work has been exhibited in the South African Pavilion at the 2010 Venice Biennale, her work Long Live the Dead Queen was found in murals all over the city of Johannesburg in 2010.

In 2016, her work. Sibande has used her artwork to focus on giving voiceless people their voice back; some have said that her work confronts the inkling of a disempowered African female and that her work aims to crack the morse code associated with western ideals of beauty and how they can appeal to black women. Sibande was determined to be a fashion designer and said, "There were no museums and galleries in the town I grew up in. Sibande has used her love for design to incorporate in her works, she has focused her fashion design for every piece of wardrobe her sculptures wear. In her "Conversation with Madam CJ Walker" exhibit, her knowledge and skill of cloth and fashion design are apparent, her design and fashion work are very thought about. The fabrics and color Sibande chooses to use have different meaning and impacts on her work. In a journal article for the UNISA and Durban Art Gallery article an author named Carol Brown spoke about the usage of fabric in Sibande's work, she states that "The fabric used to produce uniforms for domestic workers is an recognizable sight in domestic spaces in South Africa, by applying it to Victorian dress she attempts to make a comment about history of servitude and colonization as it relates to the present in terms of domestic relationships."

Sibande has used photography to construct her artworks. In 2013 she had seven enlarged photographs of her work displayed on the streets of French suburbs such as Ivry-sur-Seine, Vitry-sur-Seine and Choisy-le-Roi. Photography has not only played a big part on her big public displays but in her day-to-day work. Sibande takes into consideration how her work will be photographed, reflected in how she presents and structures her works and installations. Many of her shows include both a display of her sculptures as well as photographs she's taken of her work or installations. At first, she would make little figures out of clay and, about the full extent of artworks at the time. In the end, she would with the art route. I can now marry the two worlds – fashion and fine art aren’t far off from each other." On Sibande background and knowledge with sculpture became an extensive one. With exhibits such as her "Long Live the Dead Queen Series" in 2013, one is able to see the beginning of her character "Sophie", one of her best known and reappearing character in her sculptures.

Sophie, the main feature in all of her works is a sculpture. Sophie is like her alter-ego. Sibande's sculpture draws energy from the long history of female domestic workers, during the apartheid and post-apartheid; the sculpture, attempts to critique the long history of oppression in South Africa regarding black women in South Africa. Sibande's work is well known for both theatrics; the theatrics of her work plays a big role in how she showcases and portrays her characters as well as her messages. In an article by Leora Farber the author makes an analysis that many other critiques have said, "Sibande’s theatrical quotations of the language of dress and use of dramatic poses may be related to photographic representations of the Victorian female hysteric in various stages of a hysterical attack, in that they bot

Goal! Goal! Goal!

Goal! Goal! Goal! is a football/soccer video game developed by Visco and edited by SNK in 1995 for the Neo-Geo console. The game represents a simplified football/soccer World cup, which consists of eliminating 7 teams to win the final victory; the first 3 are announced simulating a group stage prior to the direct elimination stage. The other 4, as part of that stage. In that second stage, all the classified selections are shown and which are advancing and which are staying along the way; each match lasts 2 minutes, stopping the time each time the ball is not in play, contrary to the official rules of this sport. When the clock reaches zero, there will be 12 extra seconds not shown as injury time; as in many football/soccer games that are not simulators, in case of draw is needed to continue with an additional credit, decide whether to repeat the game or opt for a penalty shootout. The game presents 28 national teams, which have 3 characteristics that differentiate them from each other, which are shown when choosing each one: Shooting and Speed.

The countries represented are, in order of position on the selection screen: America refers to the United States, while Korea refers to South Korea. There are 6 types of formations to choose from, the chosen one cannot be changed throughout the game, they appear as follows on the screen: Goal! Goal! Goal! at GameFAQs Goal! Goal! Goal! at Killer List of Videogames Goal! Goal! Goal! at MobyGames

Lowell, Wisconsin

Lowell is a village in Dodge County, United States, along the Beaver Dam River. The population was 340 at the 2010 census; the village is located within the Town of Lowell. Lowell is located at 43°20′20″N 88°49′13″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 1.05 square miles, of which, 1.00 square mile of it is land and 0.05 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 340 people, 136 households, 89 families living in the village; the population density was 340.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 163 housing units at an average density of 163.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 99.4% White, 0.3% African American, 0.3% Native American. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.5% of the population. There were 136 households of which 31.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.0% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.6% were non-families.

27.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. The median age in the village was 42.3 years. 21.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.6% male and 49.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 366 people, 142 households, 93 families living in the village; the population density was 368.1 people per square mile. There were 153 housing units at an average density of 153.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 96.17% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 1.09% Asian, 1.64% from other races, 0.82% from two or more races. 3.28 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 142 households out of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 27.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.18. In the village, the population was spread out with 30.3% under the age of 18, 5.7% from 18 to 24, 32.2% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 10.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 104.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $43,594, the median income for a family was $46,750. Males had a median income of $35,694 versus $23,333 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,393. About 4.8% of families and 9.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.7% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. Milton H. Erickson, psychiatrist Charles A. Kading, Wisconsin politician John Lowth, Wisconsin politician