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History of Senegal

The history of Senegal is divided into a number of periods, encompassing the prehistoric era, the precolonial period and the contemporary era. The earliest evidence of human life is found in the valley of the Falémé in the south-east; the presence of man in the Lower Paleolithic is attested by the discovery of stone tools characteristic of Acheulean such as hand axes reported by Théodore Monod at the tip of Fann in the peninsula of Cap-Vert in 1938, or cleavers found in the south-east. There were found stones shaped by the Levallois technique, characteristic of the Middle Paleolithic. Mousterian Industry is represented by scrapers found in the peninsula of Cap-Vert, as well in the low and middle valleys of the Senegal and the Falémé; some pieces are explicitly linked to hunting, like those found in Tiémassass, near M'Bour, a controversial site that some claim belongs to the Upper Paleolithic, while other argue in favor of the Neolithic. In the Senegambia, the period when humans became hunters and producers are all well represented and studied.

This is when ceramics emerged. But gray areas remain. Although the characteristics and manifestations of civilization from the Neolithic have been identified their origins and relationship have not yet defined. What can be distinguished is: The dig of Cape Manuel: the Neolithic deposit Manueline Dakar was discovered in 1940. Basalt rocks including ankaramite were used for making microlithic tools such as planes; such tools have been found at Gorée and the Magdalen Islands, indicating the activity of shipbuilding by nearby fishermen. The dig of Bel-Air: Neolithic Bélarien tools made out of flint, are present in the dunes of the west, near the current capital. In addition to axes and pottery, there is a statuette, the Venus Thiaroye The dig of Khant: the Khanty creek, located in the north near Kayar in the lower valley of the Senegal River, gave its name to a Neolithic industry which uses bone and wood; this deposit is on the list of closed monuments of Senegal. The dig the Falémé located in the south-east of Senegal, has uncovered a Neolithic Falemian tools industry that produced polished materials as diverse as sandstone, shale and flint.

Grinding equipment and pottery from the period are well represented at the site. The Neolithic civilization of the Senegal River valley and the Ferlo are the least well known due to not always being separated. In the case of Senegal, the periodization of prehistory remains controversial, it is described as beginning with the age of metallurgy, thus placing it between the first metalworking and the appearance of writing. Other approaches exist such as that of Guy Thilmans and his team in 1980, who felt that any archeology from pre-colonial could be attached to that designation or that of Hamady Bocoum, who speaks of "Historical Archaeology" from the 4th century, at least for the former Tekrur. A variety of archaeological remains have been found: On the coast and in river estuaries of the Senegal, Saloum and Casamance rivers, burial mounds with clusters of shells referred to as middens. 217 of these clusters have been identified in the Saloum Delta alone, for example in Joal-Fadiouth, Mounds in the Saloum Delta have been dated back as far as 400 BCE, part of the Saloum Delta is now a World Heritage Site.

Funerary sites or tumuli were built there during the 8th to 16th centuries. They are found in the north near Saint-Louis, in the estuary of the Casamance; the West is rich in burial mounds of sand that the Wolof refer to as mbanaar, which translates to "graves", A solid gold pectoral of mass 191 g has been discovered near Saint-Louis. In a huge area of nearly 33,000km² located in the center-south around the Gambia there have been found alignments of boulders known as the Stone Circles of Senegambia which were placed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage sites in 2006. Two of these sites are located within the territory of Senegal: Sine Ngayène and Sine Wanar, both located in the Department of Nioro Rip. Sine Ngayène has 52 stone circles including a double circle. At Wanar, they number the stones are smaller. There are stone-carved lyre in Y - or A-shaped; the existence of proto-historic ruins in the middle Senegal River valley was confirmed in the late 1970s. Pottery, perforated ceramic discs or ornaments have been unearthed.

Excavations at thé site of Sinthiou Bara, near Matam, have proved fruitful. They have revealed, for example, the flow of trans-Saharan trade from distant parts of North Africa; the region of modern Senegal was a part of the larger region called Upper Guinea by European traders. In the absence of written sources and monumental ruins in this region, the history of the early centuries of the modern era must be based on archaeological excavations, the writing of early geographers and travelers, written in Arabic and data derived from oral tradition. Combining these data suggests that Senegal was first populated from the north and east in several waves of migration, the last being that of the Wolof, the Fulani and the Serer. Africanist historian Donald R. Wright suggests that Senegambian place-names indicate "that the earliest inhabitants might be identified most with one of several related groups—Bainunk, Beafada... To these were added Serer, who moved southward during the first millennium A. D. from the Senegal River valley, Mande-speaking peoples, who arrived still from the east."

Probable descendants of Bafours were pushed southward by the Berber dynasty of Almoravids. Before the arrival of European settlers, the history of the Saharan region is characterized by the consolidation of settlements in large state entities


Not to be confused with Emergency, a TV program aired on GMA Network in the Philippines. Emergency! is an American television series that combines the medical drama and action-adventure genres. It was a joint production of Mark VII Universal Television, it debuted on NBC as a midseason replacement on January 15, 1972, replacing the two short-lived series The Partners and The Good Life, ran until May 28, 1977, with six additional two-hour television films during the next two years. The series stars Randolph Mantooth and Kevin Tighe as two rescuers, who work as paramedics and firefighters in the Los Angeles metropolitan area; the duo form a medical and rescue crew of the Los Angeles County Fire Department. They work in concert with the fictional Rampart General Hospital medical staff, with the firefighter engine company at Station 51. Emergency! was created and produced by Jack Webb and Robert A. Cinader, who had created the police dramas Adam-12 and Dragnet. Harold Jack Bloom is credited as a creator.

In the show's original TV-movie pilot, Webb was credited only as its director. The series aimed to be a realistic portrayal of emergency medical services. Pioneering EMS leader James O. Page served as a technical advisor, the two main actors underwent some paramedic training; the series aired at a time when ambulance coverage in the United States was expanding and changing, the role of a paramedic was emerging as a profession. The series is credited with popularizing the concepts of EMS and paramedics in American society, inspiring other states and municipalities to expand the service. Nearly 30 years after Emergency! debuted, the Smithsonian Institution accepted Emergency! Memorabilia into its National Museum of American History's public-service section, including the firefighters' helmets, turnouts and defibrillator; the vehicles of Station 51 are a part of the collection of the Los Angeles County Fire Museum. The series is set at the fictional Fire Station 51 of the Los Angeles County Fire Department, where one fire engine and one rescue truck are stationed.

The focus is on two young firefighter-paramedics John Roderick "Johnny" Gage, a young, immature man, always unlucky in love, Roy DeSoto, a more mature family man. They crew the rescue truck, Squad 51, and, in addition to providing emergency medical care carry out some technical rescues such as vehicle extrication; the paramedics coordinate with the competent and professional Emergency Room staff of Rampart General Hospital: head physician Dr. Kelly Brackett, head nurse Dixie McCall, neurosurgeon Dr. Joe Early, young intern Dr. Michael "Mike" Morton. Other regular characters are the firefighters of Station 51's "A" shift, some of whom were played by professional firefighters; these characters include Chester B. "Chet" Kelly, Marco Lopez and Mike Stoker. LACoFD Dispatcher Samuel Lanier portrayed himself in an uncredited voice role throughout the series, he is occasionally shown in a brief clip at the dispatch office just before a dispatch is heard in seasons. Lanier, an actual LACoFD Dispatcher, retired from the department shortly after Emergency! finished.

Lopez speaks Spanish, translates for the crew when a victim or onlooker spoke Spanish but no English. Unusually, Lopez and Hammer play characters named after themselves, though in two episodes, Hammer's character is played by John Smith. In each series, there is another; these are Captain Dick Hammer, Captain Hank Stanley and Captain Gene "Captain Hook" Hookrader in a couple of episodes. Actor John Anderson portrayed Captain Bob Roberts in one Season 4 episode, "Smoke Eater". Other recurring characters include Battalion Chiefs Conrad, Miller, McConnike, Los Angeles County Sheriff's Deputy/Carson Police Officer/Sergeant Vince, recurring ambulance attendants Albert "Al" and his assistant, George. Boyett was a regular on Adam-12, playing Sergeant MacDonald. Robert Fuller as Kelly Brackett, M. D. F. A. C. S. A. C. E. P. Julie London as Dixie McCall, R. N. Bobby Troup as Joe Early, M. D. F. A. C. S. A. C. E. P. Ron Pinkard as Mike Morton, M. D.. Randolph Mantooth as Firefighter Paramedic John Gage, L. A. County FD Squad 51 Kevin Tighe as Firefighter Paramedic Roy DeSoto, L.

A. County FD Squad 51 Tim Donnelly as Firefighter Chester B. "Chet" Kelly, L. A. County FD Engine 51 Marco Lopez as Firefighter Marco Lopez, L. A. County FD Engine 51 Mike Stoker as Firefighter Specialist Mike Stoker, L. A. County FD Engine 51 Dick Hammer as Captain Dick Hammer, L. A. County FD Engine 51 John Smith as Captain Hammer in episode "Hang-Up" 1st season, as Captain in episode "Crash" 1st season, L. A. County FD Engine 51 Michael Norell as Captain Henry "Hank" S

Sanctuary of Pandion

The Sanctuary of Pandion is the name sometimes given to the remains of a building located in the south-east corner of the Acropolis of Athens. Its foundations were found during the excavations for the construction of the Old Acropolis Museum; the 40m by 17m rectangular open-air building, dating to the fifth-century, was divided into two nearly equal parts by a wall. It was entered through a projecting portico on the western side; the name stems from the presumption that this was the location of the heroon of Pandion, the eponymous hero of the Attic tribe Pandionis, known to be located somewhere on the Acropolis. Jones, Nicholas F; the Associations of Classical Athens: The Response to Democracy: The Response to Democracy, Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 9780195352832. Pausanias, Pausanias Description of Greece with an English Translation by W. H. S. Jones, Litt. D. and H. A. Ormerod, M. A. in 4 Volumes. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Robertson, Noel, "Athena's Shrines and Festivals" in Worshipping Athena: Panathenaia and Parthenon, The University of Wisconsin Press.

The Sanctuary of Pandion Sanctuary of Pandion

Addington Racing

Addington Racing is a former NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series team. It was owned by Mike Addington and fielded Chevrolet Silverados from 1997 to 2002. Addington racing made its debut in 1997 as the No. 65 driven by Andy Houston. He finished eighteenth. Houston and Addington ran four more races that season, their best finish being an eleventh at Martinsville Speedway; the team switched to No. 60 in 1998, signed Houston full-time to compete for NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series Rookie of the Year honors. Despite running without a major sponsor, Houston collected a pole at The No Fear Challenge, a win at the Pennzoil/VIP Discount Tripleheader, finishing 13th in the points standings, he finished runner-up to Greg Biffle for Rookie of the Year. In 1999, CAT Rental Stores came on board to sponsor, he did not win a race, but finished eighth in points. During the season, Houston's father Tommy came out of retirement to run The Orleans 250 at Las Vegas Motor Speedway in a second truck, the No. 6. He finished 35th after suffering early ignition failure.

In 2000, Houston won at Homestead and Portland, finished third in points. After the season, Houston left for PPI Motorsports, Addington signed Travis Kvapil as driver. Kvapil had eighteen top-tens, finished fourth in points, earning him Rookie of the Year honors. Kvapil followed that season up with a win at Memphis in 2002, he left at the end of the season for Xpress Motorsports, CAT ended its sponsorship contract. After he was unable to locate a replacement sponsor, Addington closed the team down and liquidated its equipment

Battle of Drakenburg

The Battle of Drakenburg took place on 23 May 1547 to the north of Nienburg, between the Protestant army of the Schmalkaldic League and the imperial troops of Eric II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Calenberg. It resulted in an imperial defeat. Eric was forced to swim over the Weser River to save his own life; as a consequence, the imperialists left northern Germany, contributing to freedom of religion for Lutherans and Catholics in northern Germany. The Smalkaldic League had been defeated in the Schmalkaldic War by losing the Battle of Mühlberg on 24 April 1547; the signing of the Wittenberg Capitulation on 19 May dissolved the league. Nonetheless, the northern German members of the Smalkaldic League still resisted the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. In January 1547, the imperial colonel and mercenary leader Christoph von Wrisberg recruited men in Münsterland. Via the Prince-Bishoprics of Osnabrück and of Minden, which were still loyal to the emperor, Wrisberg's army marched to Bremen to begin besieging the city.

In April the 19-year-old Duke Eric II joined the besieging army, which numbered 12,000 men with Eric's reinforcements. In May, Eric was informed that a Protestant army was pillaging and plundering his Principality of Calenberg and that this army was on its way to Bremen to liberate the city; because the unsuccessful siege had taken months, using up the supplies, killing a quarter of his Landsknechte, creating the danger of a mutiny, Eric decided to abandon the siege. The imperial troops left from Bremen on 22 May, marching to attack the Protestant army; the units of the two military leaders Eric and Christoph von Wrisberg travelled along the Weser separately, one on each bank. Wrisberg's troops lagged behind, because the sand paths caused problems; the young and ambitious duke did not wait for the latecomers and had his mercenaries march more quickly. After Eric was informed of the approach of the enemy near Drakenburg, he ordered his soldiers to get into battle formation, he had about 6,000 Landsknechte, an unknown number of horsemen, seventeen cannons at his disposal.

He positioned them east of Drakenburg towards Heemsen on an open field. He chose a corrugated terrain with sand dunes of up to 15 metres in height, he regarded this as an ideal secure position to meet the enemy from. His cannons would have an open field of fire as a result of their more elevated position. Additionally, his troops had the advantage of having both the wind behind them, his troops did not, have any avenue for evasion or retreat, since the battlefield was bordered by swamps and the Weser River. Elector John Frederick I of Saxony had led the Protestant army shortly before his capture in the Battle of Mühlberg; the army had only consisted of several Fähnlein of Landsknechte led by Albrecht VII, Count of Mansfeld. It had marched from Saxony via Nordhausen and Brunswick to aid the besieged city of Bremen. Troops from Brunswick, Hildesheim and Magdeburg had joined the army. Thus, the army consisted of a total of 26 Fähnlein, or 6,500 men, giving them a slight numeric advantage; the Protestant troops came from the east and reached Eric's troops, who were entrenched on the dunes.

The Smalkaldic attackers availed themselves of a tactic attributed to Brun von Bothmer, a captain from Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. He knew the area well as he lived there as a child and proposed a pincer movement with a second offensive at the Catholics' rear. Bothmer led about one thousand mounted arquebusiers to attack from the north covertly. Both parties began the battle with simultaneous assaults. In doing so, Eric's battle formation faltered. Additionally, the Protestant cavalry divided the imperial forces by riding in between the hills. In the chaos, Eric's cavalry fled; the Catholic forces' escape route had been cut off by the Smalkaldic forces as well as the nearby swampland. The only escape was the Weser River, flooded with spring runoff. 1,000 imperial mercenaries drowned while looking for a ford. Duke Eric II survived; the units under the command of Wrisberg reached the battlefield on 23 May, but the battle was over. Because of their numeric inferiority they retreated towards Verden. About ten kilometers north of the battlefield, the soldiers encountered the Tross of the Protestants near Hassel.

It was only protected by equivalent to about one Fähnlein. The imperial forces overpowered the weak Smalkaldic forces, seizing their war chest of about 100,000 gold guilder, which they gave to Emperor Charles V; as a result of the Battle of Drakenberg, the Imperial army of Eric II ceased to exist. The Protestant victory contributed to the stability and freedom of religion for Lutherans and Catholics in northern Germany; the two surviving leaders, Christoph von Wrisberg and Eric II, despised each other for the rest of their lives, accusing each other of being responsible for the defeat. Drakenburg: Heimatverein: Geschichte des Fleckens Drakenburg. 1997. ISBN 3-9802780-8-5 Freiherr Karl von Bothmer: Die Schlacht vor der Drakenburg am 23. Mai 1547, ein historisch militärische Studie, 1938, Hildesheim Vor über 450 Jahren am 23. Mai 1547: Die Schlacht bei Drakenburg Pál Zsigmond Pach, Ágnes Várkonyi R. ed.. History of Hungary 1526-1686. Budapest: Akadémia Kiadó. ISBN 963-05-0929-6

Abu Salim prison

Abu Salim prison is a maximum security prison in Tripoli, Libya. The prison was notorious during the rule of Muammar Gaddafi for alleged mistreatment and human rights abuses, including a massacre in 1996 in which Human Rights Watch estimated that 1,270 prisoners were killed. In 2011, when the NTC invited investigators from CNN and other organizations it found only what appeared to be animal bones at that site and announced further investigations. Amnesty International has called for an independent inquiry into deaths that occurred there on 29 June 1996, an incident which some have referred to as the Abu Salim prison massacre. Human Rights Watch believes. HRW calls the prison a "site of egregious human rights violations." Human Rights Watch stated in a report that they were unable to independently verify the allegations of a massacre. The claims cited by Human Rights Watch are based on the testimony of a single former inmate, Hussein Al Shafa’i, who stated that he did not witness a prisoner being killed: "I could not see the dead prisoners who were shot..."

The figure of over 1200 killed was arrived at by Al Shafa’i calculating the number of meals he prepared when he was working in the prison's kitchen. Al Shafa'i stated "I was asked by the prison guards to wash the watches that were taken from the bodies of the dead prisoners..."Libyan Government rejected the allegations about a massacre in Abu Salim. In May 2005, the Internal Security Agency head of the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya told Human Rights Watch that the prisoners captured some guards and stole weapons from the prison cache; the prisoners and guards died as security personnel tried to restore order, the government opened an investigation on the order of the Minister of Justice. The Libyan official stated that more than 400 prisoners escaped Abu Salim in four separate break-outs prior to and after the incident: in July 1995, December 1995, June 1996 and July 2001. Among the escapees were men who fought with Islamist militant groups in Afghanistan and Iraq. Journalist Lindsey Hilsum explored the topic in her 2012 book "Sandstorm".

She met with a number of families. She describes the massacre number as an uncertain estimate for several reasons, she describes eyewitness accounts of a mass shooting. The families of the disappeared and killed formed a loose association and held numerous protests in Benghazi. Lawyer Fathi Terbil helped represent them, he was arrested several times for his trouble. Saif al-Islam Gaddafi tried to resolve the issue via his Gaddafi International Foundation for Charity Associations circa 2007; the Libyan government said in 2009 controlled by the same people as at the time of the event, that the killings took place amid confrontation between the government and rebels from the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group, that some 200 guards were killed too. In January 2011, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya confirmed that it was carrying out an investigation into the incident along with international investigators. Statements made in an interview with the BBC by the captured Mansour Dhao, a prominent figure in the Gaddafi regime, provides further evidence for the massacre.

When the Arab Spring occurred in Tunisia and Egypt, lawyer Fathi Terbil was amongst the first arrested by Libyan authorities trying to stave off a revolution. The Abu Salim families gathered to protest his imprisonment, this gathering contributed to the revolution in Libya. Abdullah Senussi, Gaddafi's intelligence chief suspected by many to have been involved in the 1996 massacre tried to ask Terbil to make the protests stop. On 25 September 2011, soon after the previous government had been overthrown, the governing National Transitional Council said that a mass grave had been discovered outside the prison. Khalid al-Sherif, a military spokesman for the NTC, said that the grave was located based on information from captured former regime officials, he stated: "We have discovered the truth about what the Libyan people have been waiting for many years, it is the bodies and remains of the Abu Salim massacre." Ibrahim Abu Shim, a member of the committee looking for mass graves, said that investigators believed 1,270 people were buried in the grave but the NTC needed help from the international community to find and identify the remains as they lacked the sophisticated equipment needed for DNA testing.

However, when the NTC invited investigators from CNN and other organizations it found only what appeared to be animal bones at that site and announced further investigations. Before the civil war, the lawyer Abdul Hafiz Ghoga took the legal representation for the families of people killed in the massacre and negotiated with Gaddafi about compensations. During the uprise Ghoga became speaker of the National Transitional Council, in April 2011 vice president, held this position until January 2012. Ahmed al-Senussi, a current member of the NTC, was held here by Gaddafi until his release in 2001. Tawfiq Algazwani, a former Libyan citizen, imprisoned for leading a Human Rights protest in Benghazi; the next day Gaddafi's forces arrested him and took him to Tripoli where he was taken into Abu Salem and imprisoned for 10 years, when he was released he immigrated to Ireland, now in Benghazi and Tripoli. Tawfiq now lives in Dublin and has two kids. Tawfiq was released in the 80's and immigrated to Ireland in 1988.

On 24 January 2010, the Libyan authorities blocked access to YouTube after it featured videos of demonstrations in the Libyan city of Benghazi by families of detainees who were killed in Abu Salim pris