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Genome sequencing of endangered species

Genome sequencing of endangered species is the application of Next Generation Sequencing technologies in the field of conservative biology, with the aim of generating life history and phylogenetic data of relevance to the management of endangered wildlife. In the context of conservation biology, genomic technologies such as the production of large-scale sequencing data sets via DNA sequencing can be used to highlight the relevant aspects of the biology of wildlife species for which management actions may be required; this may involve the estimation of recent demographic events, genetic variations, divergence between species and population structure. Genome-wide association studies are useful to examine the role of natural selection at the genome level, to identify the loci associated with fitness, local adaptation, depression or disease susceptibility; the access to all these data and the interrogation of genome-wide variation of SNP markers can help the identification of the genetic changes that influence the fitness of wild species and are important to evaluate the potential respond to changing environments.

NGS projects are expected to increase the number of threatened species for which assembled genomes and detailed information on sequence variation are available and the data will advance investigations relevant to the conservation of biological diversity. The traditional approaches in the preservation of endangered species are captive breeding and the private farming. In some cases those methods led to great results. For example, by inbreeding only few individuals, the genetic pool of a sub-population remains limited or may decrease. Genetic analyses can remove subjective elements from the determination of the phyliogenetic relationship between organisms. Considering the great variety of information provided by living organisms, it is clear that the type of data will affect both the method of treatment and validity of the results: the higher the correlation of data and genotype, the greater is the validity to be; the data analysis can be used to compared different sequencing database and find similar sequences, or similar protein in different species.

The comparison can be done using informatic software based on alignment to know the divergence between different species and evaluate the similarities. Since whole-genome sequencing is very data-intensive, techniques for reduced representation genomic approaches are sometimes used for practical applications. For example, restriction site-associated DNA sequencing and double digest RADseq are being developed. With those techniques researchers can target different numbers of loci. With a statistical and bioinformatic approach scientists can make considerations about big genomes, by just focusing on a small representative part of it. While solving biological problems, one encounters multiple types of genomic data or sometimes an aggregate of same type of data across multiple studies and decoding such huge amount of data manually is unfeasible and tedious. Therefore, integrated analysis of genomic data using statistical methods has become popular; the rapid advancement in high throughput technologies allows researchers to answer more complex biological questions enabling the development of statistical methods in integrated genomics to establish more effective therapeutic strategies for human disease.

While studying the genome, there are some crucial aspects. Gene prediction is the identification of genetic elements in a genomic sequence; this study is based on a combination of approaches: de novo, homology prediction, transcription. Tools such as EvidenceModeler are used to merge the different results. Gene structure have been compared, including mRNA length, exon length, intron length, exon number, non-coding RNA. Analysis of repeated sequences has been found useful in reconstructing species divergence timelines. In order to preserve a specie, knowledge of the mating system is crucial: scientists can stabilize wild populations through captive breeding, followed by the release in the environment of new individuals; this task is difficult by considering the species with homomorphic sex chromosomes and a large genome. For example, in the case of amphibians, there are multiple transitions among male and/or female heterogamety. Sometimes variation of sex chromosomes within amphibian populations of the same specie were reported.

The multiple transitions among XY and ZW systems that occur in amphibians determine the sex chromosome systems to be labile in salamanders populations. By understanding the chromosomal basis of sex of those species, it is possible to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of those families and use more efficient strategies in their conservation. By using the ddRADseq method scientists find new sex-related loci in a 56 Gb genome of Cryptobranchidae family, their results support the hypothesis of female heterogamety of this species. These loci were confirmed through the bioinformatic analysis of presence/absence of that genetic locus in sex-knowing individuals, their sex was determined by ultrasound, laparoscopy and by measuring serum calcium level differences. The determination of those candidate sexual loci was performed considering valid both the female-heterogametic and the male-heterogametic. To evaluate the validity of those loci, they were amplified through PCR directly from samples of known-sex individuals.

This final step led to the demonstration of female-heterogametic of several divergent populations of Cryptobranchidae family. A recent study used whole-genome sequencing data to demonstrate the sister lineage between the Dryas monkey and vervet monkey and their divergence with additional bidirectional gene flow approxima

Nikolai Gogol bibliography

This is a list of the works by Nikolai Gogol, followed by a list of adaptations of his works: Decoration of Vladimir of the Third Class, unfinished comedy. Marriage, comedy; the Gamblers, comedy. The Government Inspector translated as The Inspector General. Leaving the Theater, essay Preface, to first volume of Evenings on a Farm Preface, to second volume of Evenings on a Farm Selected Passages from Correspondence with Friends, collection of letters and essays. Meditations on the Divine Liturgy Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, volume I of short story collection:The Fair at Sorochintsï St John's Eve May Night, or the Drowned Maiden The Lost Letter: A Tale Told by the Sexton of the N... Church Evenings on a Farm Near Dikanka, volume II of short story collection:Christmas Eve A Terrible Vengeance Ivan Fyodorovich Shponka and His Aunt A Bewitched Place Mirgorod, short story collection in two volumes:The Old World Landowners Taras Bulba Viy The Tale of How Ivan Ivanovich Quarreled with Ivan Nikiforovich Arabesques, short story collection:The Portrait A Chapter from an Historical Novel Nevsky Prospect The Prisoner Diary of a Madman The Nose, short story The Carriage, short story Rome, fragment The Overcoat, short story Dead Souls, intended as the first part of a trilogy.

Gogol's short stories composed between 1830 and 1835 are set in Ukraine, are sometimes referenced collectively as his Ukrainian tales. His short stories composed between 1835 and 1842 are set in Petersburg, are sometimes referenced collectively as his St Petersburg tales. Ode to Italy, poem Hanz Küchelgarten, narrative poem published under the pseudonym "V. Alov" 1913: The Night Before Christmas, a 41-minute film by Ladislas Starevich which contains some of the first combinations of stop motion animation with live action 1926: The Overcoat, a Soviet silent film directed by Grigori Kozintsev and Leonid Trauberg 1945: The Lost Letter, the Soviet Union's first feature-length traditionally animated film 1949: The Inspector General, a musical comedy and loose adaptation directed by Henry Koster and starring Danny Kaye. 1951: The Night Before Christmas, an animated feature film directed by the Brumberg sisters 1952: Il Cappotto, an Italian film directed by Alberto Lattuada 1959: The Overcoat, a Soviet film directed by Aleksey Batalov 1960: Black Sunday, an Italian horror film directed by Mario Bava and based on the Nikolai Gogol story "Viy".

1962: Taras Bulba, a Yugoslavian/American film directed by J. Lee Thompson 1963: The Nose, a short film by Alexandre Alexeieff and Claire Parker using pinscreen animation 1967: Viy, a horror film made on Mosfilm and based on the Nikolai Gogol story of the same name. 1984: Dead Souls, directed by Mikhail Shveytser 1997: The Night Before Christmas, a 26-minute stop-motion-animated film 2014: Viy 3D, a fantasy film 20??: The Overcoat, an upcoming film by acclaimed animator Yuri Norstein, being worked on since 1981 The Portrait, an upcoming English-language feature film adaptation 1874: Vakula the Smith, an opera by Pyotr Tchaikovsky 1880: May Night, an opera by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov 1885: Cherevichki, Tchaikovsky's revision of Vakula the Smith 1906: Zhenitba, an unfinished opera begun in 1868 by Modest Mussorgsky 1917: The Fair at Sorochyntsi, an unfinished opera begun in 1874 by Modest Mussorgsky and first completed by César Cui - many different versions exist 1930: The Nose, a satirical opera by Dmitri Shostakovich 1976: Dead Souls, an opera by Russian nationalist composer Rodion Shchedrin 2011: Gogol, an opera by Russian composer Lera Auerbach commissioned by Vienna's Theater an der Wien 2006: Dead Souls, a BBC radio adaptation Golub, Spencer.

1998. "Gogol, Nikolai." In The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Ed. Martin Banham. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 431-432. ISBN 0-521-43437-8; the Portrait - Official Film Website