Dervish movement (Somali)
The Somali Dervish movement was an armed resistance to the colonial powers – the British – in the Horn of Africa, between 1899 and 1920. It was led by the Salihiyya Sufi Muslim poet and militant leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan known as Sayyid Mohamed, who aimed for the removal of the colonial state and foreign infidels, the defeat of the Ethiopian forces supporting the colonial powers, the creation of a Muslim state. Hassan established a ruling council called the Khususi consisting of Islamic clan leaders and elders, added an adviser from the Ottoman Empire named Muhammad Ali and thus created a multiclan nationalist liberation movement in what emerged as Somalia; the Dervish movement attracted between 5,000 and 6,000 youth from different clans over 1899 and 1900, acquired firearms and attacked the Ethiopian army in the Jigjiga region. The Ethiopian army retreated giving the Dervishes their first success; the Dervish movement declared the British colonial administration as their enemy. To end the movement, the British pursued a divide and rule strategy and sought the competing clans as coalition partners against the Dervish movement.
The British provided these clans with supplies, triggering inter-clan warfare. The British launched punitive attacks between 1900 and 1904 to root out the Dervish army; the Dervish movement suffered losses in the field, regrouped into smaller units and resorted to militant guerrilla warfare. Hasan and his loyalist Dervishes moved into the Italian controlled Somaliland in 1905, where Hasan signed the Illig treaty and thereafter strengthened his movement. In 1908, the Dervishes entered the British region again and began inflicting major losses to the colonial powers in the interior regions of the Horn of Africa; the British retreated to the coastal regions, leaving the interior regions to the chaotic clan warfare. The World War I shifted the attention of the colonial forces elsewhere and upon its end, in 1920, the British launched a massive land and sea attack on the Taleh forts strongholds of the Dervish movement; this decimated the Dervishes, though their leader Mohammed Abdullah Hassan survived the British attack.
His death in 1921 due to malaria or influenza ended the Dervish movement. The Dervish movement temporarily created a mobile Somali "proto-state" in early 20th-century with fluid boundaries and fluctuating population, it was one of the bloodiest and longest militant movements in sub-Saharan Africa during the colonial era, one that overlapped with the World War I. The battles between various sides – those between the Dervish and the British and between the clans – over two decades killed nearly a third of northern Somalia's population and ravaged the local economy. Scholars variously interpret the demise of the militant Dervish movement in Somalia; some consider the "Sufi Islamic" ideology as the driver, others consider economic crisis to the nomadic lifestyle triggered by the occupation and "colonial predation" ideology as the trigger for the Dervish movement, while post-modernists state that both religion and nationalism created the Dervish movement. According to Abdullah A. Mohamoud, the traditional society of Somalia followed a decentralized structure and a nomadic lifestyle dependent on livestock and pastureland.
It was predominantly Muslim. As the European colonial powers expanded their reach in the Horn of Africa, they in cooperation with the Ethiopian army and emperor Menelik, partitioned Somalia and created a centralized form of government; this upset pastureland-based livelihood. The colonial powers were Christians, states Mohamoud, which created additional suspicions amongst the religious elite of the Somalis; the Ethiopian troops were a bane for the Somalis as they were the traditional raiders and plunderers of their grazing herds. The arrival of the colonial powers and the consequent partitioning of the land affected the Somalis where Sufi poets such as Faarax Nuur wrote about the traumatic circumstances inflicted on the Somalis by the British and the Italians; the Dervish movement originated in these circumstances, as a resistance against the colonial designs. The Dervish movement was led by a Sufi poet and religious nationalist leader named Mohammed Abdullah Hassan known as Sayid Maxamad Cabdulle Xasan.
According to Said M. Mohamed, he was born in Sacmadeeqo sometime between 1856 and 1864 to a father, a religious teacher, he studied in Somali Islamic seminaries and went on Hajj to Mecca where he met Shaykh Muhammad Salah of the Salihiya Islamic Tariqah, which states The Encyclopedia Britannica was a "militant and puritanical Sufi order". The preachings of Salah to Hasan had roots in Saudi Wahhabism, it considered it a religious duty "to wage a holy war against all other forms of Islam, the Western and Christian presence in the Muslim world, a religious revival", state Richard Shultz and Andrea Dew; when Hasan returned to the Horn of Africa, the Somali tradition states that he saw Somali children being converted to Christianity by missionaries in the British colony. Hasan began preaching against the British colonization, he was opposed by the British powers who called him the'mad mullah', his Sufi teachings were opposed by the rival Qadiriya Tariqah – another traditional Sufi group of the region, states Said M. Mohamed.
Another version of the early events link the illegal sale of a gun to Hasan by a corrupt Somali officer in 1899, who reported his gun as stolen rather than purchased by Hasan. The British demanded the gun's return, while Hasan replied that the British should leave the country, a sentiment he had claimed in 1897 when he declared himself "the l
Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in Northeast Africa. It extends hundreds of kilometers into the Arabian Sea and lies along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden; the area is the easternmost projection of the African continent. Referred to in ancient and medieval times as the land of the Barbara and Habesha, the Horn of Africa denotes the region containing the countries of Djibouti, Eritrea and Somalia, it covers 2 million km2 and is inhabited by 115 million people. Regional studies on the Horn of Africa are carried out, among others, in the fields of Ethiopian Studies as well as Somali Studies; this peninsula is known by various names. In ancient and medieval times, the Horn of Africa was referred to as the Bilad al Barbar, it is known as the Somali peninsula, or in the Somali language, Geeska Afrika, Jasiiradda Soomaali or Gacandhulka Soomaali. In other languages that are local or adjacent to the Horn of Africa, it is known as የአፍሪካ ቀንድ yäafrika qänd in Amharic, القرن الأفريقي al-qarn al-'afrīqī in Arabic, Gaaffaa Afriikaa in Oromo and ቀርኒ ኣፍሪቃ in Tigrinya.
The Horn of Africa is sometimes shortened to HOA. The Horn of Africa is quite designated the "Horn", while inhabitants are sometimes colloquially referred to as Horn Africans. Sometimes the term Greater Horn of Africa is used, either to be inclusive of neighbouring northeast African countries, or to distinguish the broader geopolitical definition of the Horn of Africa from narrower peninsular definitions. Ancient Greeks and Romans referred to the Somali peninsula as Regio Aromatica or Regio Cinnamonifora due to the aromatic plants, or Regio Incognita owing to its unchartered territory. Shell middens 125,000 years old have been found in Eritrea, indicating the diet of early humans included seafood obtained by beachcombing. According to both genetic and fossil evidence, archaic Homo sapiens evolved into anatomically modern humans in the Horn of Africa between 200,000 and 100,000 years ago and have dispersed from the Horn of Africa; the recognition of Homo sapien idaltu and Omo Kibish as anatomically modern humans would justify the description of contemporary humans with the subspecies name Homo sapiens sapiens.
Because of their early dating and unique physical characteristics idaltu and kibish represent the immediate ancestors of anatomically modern humans as suggested by the Out-of-Africa theory. Today at the Bab-el-Mandeb straits, the Red Sea is about 12 miles wide, but 50,000 years ago it was much narrower and sea levels were 70 meters lower. Though the straits were never closed, there may have been islands in between which could be reached using simple rafts. According to linguists, the Horn of Africa is the original homeland of the proto-Afroasiatic language as it is considered the region the Afroasiatic language family displays the greatest diversity, a sign viewed to represent a geographic origin; the Horn of Africa is the place where the haplogroup E1b1b originated from, Christopher Ehret and Shomarka Keita have suggested that the geography of the E1b1b lineage coincides with the distribution of the Afroasiatic languages. Genetic analysis done on the Afroasiatic speaking population further found that a pre-agricultural back-to-Africa migration into the Horn of Africa occurred through Egypt 23,000 years ago and it brought a non-African ancestry dubbed Ethio-Somali in the region.
Together with northern Somalia, the Red Sea coast of Sudan and Eritrea is considered the most location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt, whose first mention dates to the 25th century BCE. Dʿmt was a kingdom located in Eritrea and northern Ethiopia, which existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. With its capital at Yeha, the kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, made iron tools and weapons. After the fall of Dʿmt in the 5th century BCE, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the 1st century, the Aksumite Kingdom, able to reunite the area; the Kingdom of Aksum was an ancient state located in the Eritrean highlands and Ethiopian highlands, which thrived between the 1st and 7th centuries CE. A major player in the commerce between the Roman Empire and Ancient India, Aksum's rulers facilitated trade by minting their own currency; the state established its hegemony over the declining Kingdom of Kush and entered the politics of the kingdoms on the Arabian peninsula extending its rule over the region with the conquest of the Himyarite Kingdom.
Under Ezana, the kingdom of Aksum became the first major empire to adopt Christianity, was named by Mani as one of the four great powers of his time, along with Persia and China. Northern Somalia was an important link in the Horn, connecting the region's commerce with the rest of the ancient world. Somali sailors and merchants were the main suppliers of frankincense and spices, all of which were valuable luxuries to the Ancient Egyptians, Mycenaeans and Romans; the Romans began to refer to the region as Regio Aromatica. In the classical era, several flourishing Somali city-states such as Opone and Malao competed with the Sabaeans and Axumites for the rich Indo-Greco-Roman trade; the birth of Islam opposite the Horn's Red Sea co
Land of Punt
The Land of Punt was an ancient kingdom. A trading partner of Egypt, it was known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, ebony and wild animals; the region is known from ancient Egyptian records of trade expeditions to it. It is possible that it corresponds to Opone as known by the ancient Greeks, while some biblical scholars have identified it with the biblical land of Put or Havilah. At times Punt is referred to as Ta netjer, the "Land of the God"; the exact location of Punt is still debated by historians. Most scholars today believe Punt was situated to the southeast of Egypt, most in the coastal region of modern Djibouti, northeast Ethiopia and the Red Sea littoral of Sudan, it is possible that the territory covered both the Horn of Africa and Southern Arabia. Puntland, the Somali administrative region situated at the extremity of the Horn of Africa, is named in reference to the Land of Punt; the earliest recorded ancient Egyptian expedition to Punt was organized by Pharaoh Sahure of the Fifth Dynasty.
However, gold from Punt is recorded as having been in Egypt as early as the time of Pharaoh Khufu of the Fourth Dynasty. Subsequently, there were more expeditions to Punt in the Sixth, Eleventh and Eighteenth dynasties of Egypt. In the Twelfth Dynasty, trade with Punt was celebrated in popular literature in the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor. In the reign of Mentuhotep III, an officer named Hannu organized one or more voyages to Punt, but it is uncertain whether he traveled on these expeditions. Trading missions of the 12th dynasty pharaohs Senusret I, Amenemhat II and Amenemhat IV had successfully navigated their way to and from the mysterious land of Punt. In the Eighteenth Dynasty of Egypt, Hatshepsut built a Red Sea fleet to facilitate trade between the head of the Gulf of Aqaba and points south as far as Punt to bring mortuary goods to Karnak in exchange for Nubian gold. Hatshepsut made the most famous ancient Egyptian expedition that sailed to Punt. During the reign of Queen Hatshepsut in the 15th century BC, ships crossed the Red Sea in order to obtain bitumen, carved amulets and other goods transported overland and down the Dead Sea to Elat at the head of the gulf of Aqaba where they were joined with frankincense and myrrh coming north both by sea and overland along trade routes through the mountains running north along the east coast of the Red Sea.
A report of that five-ship voyage survives on reliefs in Hatshepsut's mortuary temple at Deir el-Bahri. Throughout the temple texts, Hatshepsut "maintains the fiction that her envoy" Chancellor Nehsi, mentioned as the head of the expedition, had travelled to Punt "in order to extract tribute from the natives" who admit their allegiance to the Egyptian pharaoh. In reality, Nehsi's expedition was a simple trading mission to a land, by this time a well-established trading post. Moreover, Nehsi's visit to Punt was not inordinately brave since he was "accompanied by at least five shiploads of marines" and greeted warmly by the chief of Punt and his immediate family; the Puntites "traded not only in their own produce of incense and short-horned cattle, but in goods from other African states including gold and animal skins." According to the temple reliefs, the Land of Punt was ruled at that time by King Parahu and Queen Ati. This well illustrated expedition of Hatshepsut occurred in Year 9 of the female pharaoh's reign with the blessing of the god Amun: Said by Amen, the Lord of the Thrones of the Two Land:'Come, come in peace my daughter, the graceful, who art in my heart, King Maatkare...
I will give thee Punt, the whole of it... I will lead your soldiers by land and by water, on mysterious shores, which join the harbours of incense... They will take incense as much, they will load their ships to the satisfaction of their hearts with trees of green incense, all the good things of the land.' While the Egyptians "were not well versed in the hazards of sea travel, the long voyage to Punt, must have seemed something akin to a journey to the moon for present-day explorers...the rewards of outweighed the risks." Hatshepsut's 18th dynasty successors, such as Thutmose III and Amenhotep III continued the Egyptian tradition of trading with Punt. The trade with Punt continued into the start of the 20th dynasty before terminating prior to the end of Egypt's New Kingdom. Papyrus Harris I, a contemporary Egyptian document that detailed events that occurred in the reign of the early 20th dynasty king Ramesses III, includes an explicit description of an Egyptian expedition's return from Punt: They arrived safely at the desert-country of Coptos: they moored in peace, carrying the goods they had brought.
They were loaded, in travelling overland, upon asses and upon men, being reloaded into vessels at the harbour of Coptos. They were sent arriving in festivity, bringing tribute into the royal presence. After the end of the New Kingdom period, Punt became "an unreal and fabulous land of myths and legends." However, Egyptians continued to compose love songs about Punt, "When I hold my love close, her arms steal around me, I'm like a man translated to Punt, or like someone out in the reedflats, when the world bursts into flower." At times, the ancient Egyptians called Punt Ta netjer, meaning "God's Land". This referred to the fact that it was among the regions of the Sun God, that is, the regions located in the direction of the sunrise, to the East of Egypt; these eas
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
The Adal Sultanate, or Kingdom of Adal, was a Muslim Somali kingdom and sultanate located in the Horn of Africa. It was founded by Sabr ad-Din II after the fall of the Sultanate of Ifat; the kingdom flourished from around 1415 to 1577. The sultanate and state were established by the local inhabitants of Zeila. At its height, the polity controlled most of the territory in the Horn region east of the Ethiopian Empire; the Adal Empire maintained a robust political relationship with the Ottoman Empire. Adal is believed to be an abbreviation of Havilah. Eidal or Aw Abdal, was the Emir of Harar in the eleventh century. In the thirteenth century, Arab writer Al Dimashqi refers to the Adal Sultanate's capital, Zeila, by its Somali name "Awdal"; the modern Awdal region, part of the Adal Sultanate, bears the kingdom's name. The Kingdom of Adal was centered around its capital, it was established by the local Somali tribes in the early 9th century. Zeila attracted merchants from around the world. Zeila is an ancient city and it was one of the earliest cities in the world to embrace Islam.
In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi, an Armenian Muslim scholar and traveller, wrote that the Kingdom of Adal was a small wealthy kingdom and that Zeila served as the headquarters for the kingdom, which dated back to the beginning of the century. Islam was introduced to the Horn region early on from the Arabian peninsula, shortly after the hijra. Zeila's two-mihrab Masjid al-Qiblatayn dates to about the 7th century, is the oldest mosque in Africa. In the late 9th century, Al-Yaqubi wrote that Muslims were living along the northern Somali seaboard; the polity was governed by local Somali dynasties established by the Adelites. Adal's history from this founding period forth would be characterized by a succession of battles with neighbouring Abyssinia. Yusuf bin Ahmad al-Kawneyn was born in Zeila during the Adal Kingdom period. Al-Kawneyn is a Somali Muslim saint, he is believed to be the founder and ancestor of the royal family known as the Walashma Dynasty, which governed both the Ifat Sultanate and the Adal Sultanate during the Middle Ages.
According to the 16th-century explorer Leo Africanus, the Adal Sultanate's realm encompassed the geographical area between the Bab el Mandeb and Cape Guardafui. It was therefore flanked to the west by the Abyssinian Empire. Adal is mentioned by name in the 14th century in the context of the battles between the Muslims of the Somali and Afar seaboard and the Abyssinian King Amda Seyon I's Christian troops. Adal had its capital in the port city of Zeila, situated in the northwestern Awdal region; the polity at the time was an Emirate in the larger Ifat Sultanate ruled by the Walashma dynasty. In 1332, the King of Adal was slain in a military campaign aimed at halting Amda Seyon's march toward Zeila; when the last Sultan of Ifat, Sa'ad ad-Din II, was killed by Dawit I of Ethiopia at the port city of Zeila in 1410, his children escaped to Yemen, before returning in 1415. In the early 15th century, Adal's capital was moved further inland to the town of Dakkar, where Sabr ad-Din II, the eldest son of Sa'ad ad-Din II, established a new Adal administration after his return from Yemen.
During this period, Adal emerged as a center of Muslim resistance against the expanding Christian Abyssinian kingdom. Adal would thereafter govern all of the territory ruled by the Ifat Sultanate, as well as the land further east all the way to Cape Guardafui, according to Leo Africanus. After 1468, a new breed of rulers emerged on the Adal political scene; the dissidents opposed Walashma rule owing to a treaty that Sultan Muhammad ibn Badlay had signed with Emperor Baeda Maryam of Ethiopia, wherein Badlay agreed to submit yearly tribute. This was done to achieve peace in the region. Adal's Emirs, who administered the provinces, interpreted the agreement as a betrayal of their independence and a retreat from the polity's longstanding policy of resistance to Abyssinian incursions; the main leader of this opposition was the Emir of the Sultanate's richest province. As such, he was expected to pay the highest share of the annual tribute to be given to the Abyssinian Emperor. Emir Laday Usman subsequently marched to Dakkar and seized power in 1471.
However, Usman did not dismiss the Sultan from office, but instead gave him a ceremonial position while retaining the real power for himself. Adal now came under the leadership of a powerful Emir who governed from the palace of a nominal Sultan. Adalite armies under the leadership of rulers such as Sabr ad-Din II, Mansur ad-Din, Jamal ad-Din II, Shams ad-Din and general Mahfuz subsequently continued the struggle against Abyssinian expansionism. Emir Mahfuz, who would fight with successive emperors, caused the death of Emperor Na'od in 1508, but he was in turn killed by the forces of Emperor Dawit II in 1517. After the death of Mahfuz, a civil war started for the office of Highest Emir of Adal. Five Emirs came to power in only two years, but at last, a matured and powerful leader called. When Garad Abogne was in power he was defeated and killed by Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad, In 1554, under his initiative, Harar became the capital of Adal; this time not only the young Emirs revolted, but the whole country of Adal rose against Sultan Abu Bakr, because Garad Abogne was loved by the people of the sultanate.
Many people went to join the force of a young imam called Ahmad ibn Ibrahim al-Ghazi, who claimed revenge for Garad Abogne. Al-Ghazi assumed power in Adal in 1527, however he did no
The giraffe is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants. Taxonomic classifications of one to eight extant giraffe species have been described, based upon research into the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, as well as morphological measurements of Giraffa, but the International Union for Conservation of Nature recognises only one species, Giraffa camelopardalis, the type species, with nine subspecies. Seven other species are extinct, prehistoric species known from fossils; the giraffe's chief distinguishing characteristics are its long neck and legs, its horn-like ossicones, its distinctive coat patterns. It is classified under the okapi, its scattered range extends from Chad in the north to South Africa in the south, from Niger in the west to Somalia in the east. Giraffes inhabit savannahs and woodlands, their food source is leaves and flowers of woody plants acacia species, which they browse at heights most other herbivores cannot reach.
They may be preyed on by lions, spotted hyenas and African wild dogs. Giraffes live in herds of related females and their offspring, or bachelor herds of unrelated adult males, but are gregarious and may gather in large aggregations. Males establish social hierarchies through "necking", which are combat bouts where the neck is used as a weapon. Dominant males gain mating access to females, which bear the sole responsibility for raising the young; the giraffe has intrigued various cultures, both ancient and modern, for its peculiar appearance, has been featured in paintings and cartoons. It is classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as Vulnerable to extinction, has been extirpated from many parts of its former range. Giraffes are still found in numerous national parks and game reserves but estimations as of 2016 indicate that there are 97,500 members of Giraffa in the wild. More than 1,600 were kept in zoos in 2010; the name "giraffe" has its earliest known origins in the Arabic word zarāfah borrowed from the animal's Somali name geri.
The Arab name is translated as "fast-walker". There were several Middle English spellings, such as jarraf and gerfauntz; the Italian form giraffa arose in the 1590s. The modern English form developed around 1600 from the French girafe. "Camelopard" is an archaic English name for the giraffe deriving from the Ancient Greek for camel and leopard, referring to its camel-like shape and its leopard-like colouring. Living giraffes were classified as one species by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, he gave it the binomial name. Morten Thrane Brünnich classified the genus Giraffa in 1772; the species name camelopardalis is from Latin. The giraffe is one of only two living genera of the family Giraffidae in the order Artiodactyla, the other being the okapi; the family was once much more extensive, with over 10 fossil genera described. Their closest known relatives are the extinct deer-like climacocerids. They, together with the family Antilocapridae, belong to the superfamily Giraffoidea; these animals may have evolved from the extinct family Palaeomerycidae which might have been the ancestor of deer.
The elongation of the neck appears to have started early in the giraffe lineage. Comparisons between giraffes and their ancient relatives suggest that vertebrae close to the skull lengthened earlier, followed by lengthening of vertebrae further down. One early giraffid ancestor was Canthumeryx, dated variously to have lived 25–20 million years ago, 17–15 mya or 18–14.3 mya and whose deposits have been found in Libya. This animal was medium-sized and antelope-like. Giraffokeryx appeared 15 mya in the Indian subcontinent and resembled an okapi or a small giraffe, had a longer neck and similar ossicones. Giraffokeryx may have shared a clade with more massively built giraffids like Sivatherium and Bramatherium. Giraffids like Palaeotragus and Samotherium appeared 14 mya and lived throughout Africa and Eurasia; these animals were longer with broader skulls. Paleotragus may have been its ancestor. Others find. Samotherium was a important transitional fossil in the giraffe lineage as its cervical vertebrae was intermediate in length and structure between a modern giraffe and an okapi, was more vertical than the okapi's.
Bohlinia, which first appeared in southeastern Europe and lived 9–7 mya was a direct ancestor of the giraffe. Bohlinia resembled modern giraffes, having a long neck and legs and similar ossicones and dentition. Bohlinia entered China and northern India in response to climate change. From there, the genus Giraffa evolved and, around 7 mya, entered Africa. Further climate changes caused the extinction of the Asian giraffes, while the African giraffes survived and radiated into several new species. Living giraffes appear to have arisen around 1 mya in eastern Africa during the Pleistocene; some biologists suggest. G. jumae was larger and more built while G. gracilis was smaller and more built. The main driver for the evolution of the giraffes is believed to have been the changes from extensive forests to more open habitats, which began 8 mya. During this time, tropical plants disappeared and were replaced by arid C4 plants, a dry savannah emerged across eastern and northern Africa and western India.
Some researchers have hypothesised that this new ha
The term Afroasiatic Urheimat refers to the hypothetical place where speakers of the proto-Afroasiatic language lived in a single linguistic community, or complex of communities, before this original language dispersed geographically and divided into separate distinct languages. This speech area is known as the Urheimat. Afroasiatic languages are today distributed in parts of Western Asia; the contemporary Afroasiatic languages are spoken in the Near East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, parts of the Sahara/Sahel. The various hypotheses for the Afroasiatic Urheimat are distributed throughout this territory. However, there is argument as to which part of the contemporary Afroasiatic speech area corresponds with the original homeland; the earliest written evidence of an Afroasiatic language is an Ancient Egyptian inscription dated c. 3400 BC. Symbols on Gerzean pottery resembling Egyptian hieroglyphs date back to c. 4000 BC, suggesting a still earlier possible date. This gives us a minimum date for the age of Afroasiatic.
However, Ancient Egyptian is divergent from proto-Afroasiatic, considerable time must have elapsed in between them. Estimates of the date at which the proto-Afroasiatic language was spoken vary widely, they fall within a range between 7,500 BC and 16,000 BC. According to Igor M. Diakonoff, proto-Afroasiatic was spoken c. 10,000 BC. According to Christopher Ehret, proto-Afroasiatic was spoken c. 11,000 BC at the latest, as early as c. 16,000 BC. These dates are older than dates associated with most other protolanguages. Culturally this falls within the period of the Halfan culture. Supporters of a non-North or north East African origin for Afroasiatic are common among those with a background in Semitic or Egyptological studies, or amongst archaeological proponents of the "farming/language dispersal hypothesis" according to which major language groups dispersed with early farming technology in the Neolithic; the leading linguistic proponent of this idea in recent times is Alexander Militarev. Arguments for and against this position depend upon the contested proposal that farming-related words can be reconstructed in Proto-Afroasiatic, with farming technology being thought to have spread from the Levant into North Africa and the Horn of Africa.
Militarev, who linked proto-Afroasiatic to the Levantine Natufian culture, that preceded the spread of farming technology, believes the language family to be about 10,000 years old. He wrote that the "Proto-Afrasian language, on the verge of a split into daughter languages", meaning, in his scenario, into "Cushitic, Egyptian and Chadic-Berber", "should be dated to the ninth millennium BC", but an Asiatic origin need not be associated with the migration of agricultural populations: according to linguists, words for dog reconstruct to Proto-Afroasiatic as well as words for bow and arrow, which according to archaeologists spread across North Africa once they were introduced from the Near East i.e. Ounan points. A scenario that fits the linguistic evidence is one in which Afroasiatic languages were introduced into Africa together with advanced hunting techniques before the subsequent introduction of agriculture; the Horn of Africa the area of Ethiopia and Eritrea, has been proposed by some linguists as the origin of the language group because it includes the majority of the diversity of the Afroasiatic language family and has diverse groups in close geographic proximity, sometimes considered a telltale sign for a linguistic geographic origin.
Within this hypothesis there are several variants: Christopher Ehret has proposed the western Red Sea coast from Eritrea to southeastern Egypt. While Ehret disputes Militarev's proposal that Proto-Afroasiatic shows signs of a common farming lexicon, he suggests that early Afroasiatic languages were involved in the earlier development of intensive food collection in the areas of Ethiopia and Sudan. In other words, he proposes an older age for Afroasiatic than Militarev, at least 15,000 years old and older, believes farming lexicon can only be reconstructed for branches of Afroasiatic. But, the appearance of linguistic terms such as dog and arrow in Proto-Afroasiatic makes a date earlier than 9,500 BC unlikely since dogs only appear at the earliest in the archaeological record after 12,000 BC in the Near East, arrowheads only appear after 9,500 BC in Africa as a result of introduction from the Near East. Although at Lake Turkana microlithic arrowheads appear in southern Africa and with the Aterian culture suggests that arrowheads may have been an invention originating in Africa taken into the Near East by a pre-Afroasiatic late glacial migration.
At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, may suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons. After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited continent, including the New World, except for Australia. However, these finds predate by far any proposed date for the evolution of Afroasiatic. In the next phase, unlike many other authors Ehret proposed an initial split between northern and Omotic; the northern group includes Semitic and Berber (agreeing with others such as Di