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History of South Korea

The history of South Korea formally begins with its establishment on 15 August 1948. Korea was administratively partitioned in 1945, at the end of World War II; as Korea was under Japanese rule during World War II, Korea was a belligerent against the Allies by virtue of being Japanese territory. The unconditional surrender of Japan led to the division of Korea into two occupation zones, with the United States administering the southern half of the peninsula and the Soviet Union administering the area north of the 38th parallel; this division was meant to be temporary and was first intended to return a unified Korea back to its people after the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, Republic of China could arrange a single government for the peninsula. The two parties were unable to agree on the implementation of Joint Trusteeship over Korea; this led in 1948 to the establishment of two separate governments – the Communist-aligned Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the West-aligned First Republic of Korea – each claiming to be the legitimate government of all of Korea.

On June 25, 1950 the Korean War broke out. After much destruction, the war ended on July 27, 1953 with the 1948 status quo being restored, as neither the DPRK nor the First Republic had succeeded in conquering the other's portion of the divided Korea; the peninsula was divided by the Korean Demilitarized Zone and the two separate governments stabilised into the existing political entities of North and South Korea. South Korea's subsequent history is marked by alternating periods of autocratic rule. Civilian governments are conventionally numbered from the First Republic of Syngman Rhee to the contemporary Sixth Republic; the First Republic, arguably democratic at its inception, became autocratic until its collapse in 1960. The Second Republic was democratic, but was overthrown in less than a year and replaced by an autocratic military regime; the Third and Fifth Republics were nominally democratic, but are regarded as the continuation of military rule. With the Sixth Republic, the country has stabilized into a liberal democracy.

Since its inception, South Korea has seen substantial development in education and culture. Since the 1960s, the country has developed from one of Asia's poorest to one of the world's wealthiest nations. Education at the tertiary level, has expanded dramatically, it is said to be one of the "Four Tigers" of rising Asian states along with Singapore and Hong Kong. Emperor Hirohito announced the surrender of the Empire of Japan to the Allied Powers on 15 August 1945. General Order No. 1 for the surrender of Japan prescribed separate surrender procedures for Japanese forces in Korea north and south of the 38th parallel. After Japan's surrender to the Allies, division at the 38th parallel marked the beginning of Soviet and U. S. occupation the South, respectively. This division was meant to be temporary, to be replaced by a trusteeship of the United States, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, Republic of China which would prepare for Korean independence; the trusteeship had been discussed at the Yalta Conference in February 1945.

U. S. forces landed at Incheon on September 8, 1945 and established a military government shortly thereafter. Lieutenant General John R. Hodge, their commander, took charge of the government. Faced with mounting popular discontent, in October 1945 Hodge established the Korean Advisory Council; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, which had operated from China, sent a delegation with three interpreters to Hodge, but he refused to meet with them. Hodge refused to recognize the newly formed People's Republic of Korea and its People's Committees, outlawed it on 12 December. A year an interim legislature and interim government were established, headed by Kim Kyu-shik and Syngman Rhee respectively. Political and economic chaos - arising from a variety of causes - plagued the country in this period; the after-effects of the Japanese exploitation remained in the South, as in the North. In addition, the U. S. military was unprepared for the challenge of administering the country, arriving with no knowledge of the language, culture or political situation.

Thus many of their policies had unintended destabilizing effects. Waves of refugees from North Korea and returnees from abroad added to the turmoil. In December 1945 a conference convened in Moscow to discuss the future of Korea. A 5-year trusteeship was discussed, a US-Soviet joint commission was established; the commission met intermittently in Seoul but deadlocked over the issue of establishing a national government. In September 1947, with no solution in sight, the United States submitted the Korean question to the UN General Assembly; the resolution from the UN General Assembly called for a UN-supervised general election in Korea, but after the North rejected this proposition, a general election for a Constitutional Assembly took place in the South only, in May 1948. A constitution was adopted, setting forth a presidential form of government and specifying a four-year term for the presidency. According to the provisions of the Constitution, an indirect presidential election took place in July.

Rhee Syngman, as head of the new assembly, assumed the presidency and proclaimed the Republic of Korea on August 15, 1948. On 15 August 1948, the Republic of Korea was formally established, with Syngman Rhee as the first president. With the establishment of Rhee's government, de jure sovereignty passed into the new government. On September 9, 1948, a communist

Chaar Maharathi

Chaar Maharathi is a 1985 Hindi-language Indian feature film directed by S. Waris Ali and starring Mithun Chakraborty in the lead role; the film is a revenge saga. Mithun Chakraborty Tina Munim Amjad Khan Om Shivpuri Kader Khan "Prem Sikhai Ke Premi" - Asha Bhosle, Mohammad Aziz "Hamar Jiyara Khui Gava" - Asha Bhosle "Sa Re Ga Ma Pa" - Mahendra Kapoor, Anwar Kumar Sonik, Mohindra Pal "Too Hai Mera Krishna Kanhaiya" - Aarti Mukherjee

Kōwaguchi Station

Kōwaguchi Station is a train station in the town of Mihama, Chita District, Aichi Prefecture, operated by Meitetsu. Kōwaguchi Station is served by the Meitetsu Kōwa Line, is located 25.8 kilometers from the starting point of the line at Ōtagawa. The station has two opposed side platforms; the platforms are short, can handle trains of only six carriages or less. The station has automated ticket machines, Manaca automated turnstiles and is unattended.. Kōwaguchi Station was opened on July 1932 as a station on the Chita Railway; the Chita Railway became part of the Meitetsu group on February 2, 1943. In 2007, the Tranpass system of magnetic fare cards with automatic turnstiles was implemented. In fiscal 2018, the station was used by an average of 306 passengers daily. Kawawaguchi Shioshiri Hunting Ground List of Railway Stations in Japan Media related to Kōwaguchi Station at Wikimedia Commons Official web page

Frank Valentino

Francesco Valentino was an American operatic baritone. He is best remembered for his performances under Arturo Toscanini. Born Francis Valentine Dinhaupt in New York in 1907, Valentino and his family moved to Denver when he was 11 and he began to study music there. In 1926 he went to Italy to further his studies and made his debut at Parma as Germont the following year. An Italian producer decided his name was "too American" and christened him Francesco Valentino, a stage name that stuck throughout his career. During the late 1920s and 1930s, Valentino performed at the major European theaters including La Scala in Milan and Glyndebourne in England. Valentino returned to America in 1940 where he began an association with the Metropolitan Opera, appearing in 26 roles over 21 seasons and never missing a scheduled performance, his major roles included Figaro, Count di Luna and Rigoletto. He appeared with other major American companies including the San Francisco Opera and the Philadelphia Grand Opera Company.

Additionally, he performed in many concerts. In 1962 he retired from singing and joined the faculty of the Peabody Conservatory of Music and taught for 15 years until retiring in 1977. Valentino was married to Edith Taylor until her death in 1975. During his years at Peabody he lived in Severna Park, Maryland moving to Fairfax, Virginia where he died, of renal failure, at age 84, he was Roman Catholic. Frank Valentino.

Right to education

The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions, including the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights which recognizes a right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all, on particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher education. Today 75 million children across the world are prevented from going to school each day; as of 2015, 164 states were parties to the Covenant. The right to education includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education from the school and college levels. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligations of the students to avoid discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards of education and to improve the quality of education.

The right to education is reflected in international law in Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Articles 13 and 14 of the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights. Article 26 states: "Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made available and higher education shall be accessible to all on the basis of merit. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, it shall promote understanding and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children." The right to education has been reaffirmed in the 1960 UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education, the 1981 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, the 2006 Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights.

In Europe, Article 2 of the first Protocol of 20 March 1952 to the European Convention on Human Rights states that the right to education is recognized as a human right and is understood to establish an entitlement to education. According to the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, the right to education includes the right to free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to develop equitable access to higher education in particular by the progressive introduction of free higher education; the right to education includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education encompasses the obligation to eliminate discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum standards, to improve quality.

The European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg has applied this norm for example in the Belgian linguistic case. Article 10 of the European Social Charter guarantees the right to vocational education. Education consists of formal institutional instructions. International instruments use the term in this sense and the right to education, as protected by international human rights instruments, refers to education in a narrow sense; the 1960 UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education defines education in Article 1 as: "all types and levels of education, access to education, the standard and quality of education, the conditions under which it is given."In a wider sense education may describe "all activities by which a human group transmits to its descendants a body of knowledge and skills and a moral code which enable the group to subsist". In this sense education refers to the transmission to a subsequent generation of those skills needed to perform tasks of daily living, further passing on the social, cultural and philosophical values of the particular community.

The wider meaning of education has been recognised in Article 1 of UNESCO's 1974 Recommendation concerning Education for International Understanding, Co-operation and Peace and Education relating to Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. "the entire process of social life by means of which individuals and social groups learn to develop consciously within, for the benefit of, the national and international communities, the whole of their personal capabilities, attitudes and knowledge." The European Court of Human Rights has defined education in a narrow sense as "teaching or instructions... in particular to the transmission of knowledge and to intellectual development" and in a wider sense as "the whole process whereby, in any society, adults endeavour to transmit their beliefs and other values to the young."The Abidjan principles were passed in early 2019 and provide comprehensive guiding principles on the intersection between private education and the right to education The fulfilment of the right to education can be assessed using the 4 As framework, which asserts that for education to be a meaningful right it must be available, accessible and adaptable.

The 4 As framework was developed by the former UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, Katarina Tomasevski, but is not the standard used in every international

Thomas Couture

Thomas Couture was a French history painter and teacher. He taught such luminaries of the art world as Édouard Manet, Henri Fantin-Latour, John La Farge, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Karel Javůrek, J-N Sylvestre. Early life and education Couture was born at Senlis, France; when he was 11 his family moved to Paris, where he would study at the industrial arts school and at the École des Beaux-Arts. Art and teaching career He failed the prestigious Prix de Rome competition at the École six times, but he felt the problem was with the École, not himself. Couture did win the prize in 1837. In 1840 he began exhibiting historical and genre pictures at the Paris Salon, earning several medals for his works, in particular for his masterpiece, Romans During the Decadence. Shortly after this success, Couture opened an independent atelier meant to challenge the École des Beaux-Arts by turning out the best new history painters. Couture's innovative technique gained much attention, he received Government and Church commissions for murals during the late 1840s through the 1850s.

He never completed the first two commissions, the third met with mixed criticism. Upset by the unfavorable reception of his murals, in 1860 he left Paris, for a time returning to his hometown of Senlis, where he continued to teach young artists who came to him. In 1867 he thumbed his nose at the academic establishment by publishing a book on his own ideas and working methods called Méthode et entretiens d'atelier, it was translated to Conversations on Art Methods in 1879, the year he died. Asked by a publisher to write an autobiography, Couture responded: "Biography is the exaltation of personality—and personality is the scourge of our time." Death In 1879 he died at Villiers-le-Bel, Val-d'Oise, was interred in Père Lachaise Cemetery, Paris. O'Neill, J. ed.. "Index". Romanticism and The School of Nature: Nineteenth-century drawings and paintings from the Karen B. Cohen collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Media related to Thomas Couture at Wikimedia Commons Thomas Couture at Find a Grave Article on Thomas Couture