History of Spain

The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1516, Habsburg Spain unified a number of disparate predecessor kingdoms. After the completion of the Reconquista, the Crown of Castile began to explore across the Atlantic Ocean in 1492, expanding into the New World and marking the beginning of the Golden Age under the Spanish Empire; the kingdoms of Spain were united under Habsburg rule in 1516, that unified the Crown of Castile, the Crown of Aragon and smaller kingdoms under the same rule. Until the 1650s, Habsburg Spain was among the most powerful states in the world. During this period, Spain was involved in all major European wars, including the Italian Wars, the Eighty Years' War, the Thirty Years' War, the Franco-Spanish War. In the 17th century, Spanish power began to decline, after the death of the last Habsburg ruler, the War of the Spanish Succession ended with the relegation of Spain, now under Bourbon rule, to the status of a second-rate power with a reduced influence in European affairs.

The so-called Bourbon Reforms attempted the renewal of state institutions, with some success, but as the century ended, instability set in with the French Revolution and the Peninsular War, so that Spain never regained its former strength. Spain after 1814 was destabilised as different political parties representing "liberal", "reactionary", "moderate" groups throughout the remainder of the century fought for and won short-lived control without any being sufficiently strong to bring about lasting stability; the former Spanish Empire overseas disintegrated with the Latin American wars of independence. Only Cuba and the Philippines and some small islands were left. A tenuous balance between liberal and conservative forces was struck in the establishment of a constitutional monarchy during the Restoration period but brought no lasting solution, the last governments of the monarchy changed into a dictatorial rule. Opposing the trend toward authoritarianism of regime changes during the interwar period in Europe, a democratic republic was proclaimed in Spain in 1931.

However, six years the country descended into the Spanish Civil War between the Republican and the Nationalist factions. The rebel victory in the conflict installed a dictatorship led by Francisco Franco, that lasted until 1975; the first post-war decade was violent and repressive both in a political, cultural and economical sense. The country experienced rapid early 1970s. Only with the death of Franco in 1975 did Spain return to the monarchy, this time headed by Juan Carlos I, to democracy. With a fresh Constitution voted in 1978, Spain entered the European Economic Community in 1986, the Eurozone in 1999; the financial crisis of 2007–08 ended a decade of economic boom and Spain entered a recession and debt crisis and remains plagued by high unemployment and a weak economy. The Iberian Peninsula was first inhabited by anatomically modern humans about 32,000 years BP; the earliest record of hominids living in Western Europe has been found in the Spanish cave of Atapuerca. Modern humans in the form of Cro-Magnons began arriving in the Iberian Peninsula from north of the Pyrenees some 35,000 years ago.

The most conspicuous sign of prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the northern Spanish cave of Altamira, which were done c. 15,000 BC and are regarded as paramount instances of cave art. Furthermore, archeological evidence in places like Los Millares and El Argar, both in the province of Almería, La Almoloya near Murcia suggests developed cultures existed in the eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula during the late Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Around 3000 BC, the nomadic shepherds known as the Yamna or Pit Grave culture conquered the peninsula using new technologies and horses while killing all local males according to DNA studies. Spanish prehistory extends to the pre-Roman Iron Age cultures that controlled most of Iberia: those of the Iberians, Tartessians and Vascones and trading settlements of Phoenicians and Greeks on the Mediterranean coast. Before the Roman conquest the major cultures along the Mediterranean coast were the Iberians, the Celts in the interior and north-west, the Lusitanians in the west, the Tartessians in the southwest.

The seafaring Phoenicians and Greeks successively established trading settlements along the eastern and southern coast. The first Greek colonies, such as Emporion, were founded along the northeast coast in the 9th century BC, leaving the south coast to the Phoenicians; the Greeks are responsible for the name Iberia after the river Iber. In the 6th century BC, the Carthaginians arrived in Iberia, struggling first with the Greeks, shortly after, with the newly arriving Romans for control of the Western Mediterranean, their most important colony was Carthago Nova. The peoples whom the Romans met at the time of their invasion in what is now known as Spain were the Iberians, inhabiting an area stretching from the northeast part of the Iberian Peninsula through the southeast; the Celts inhabited the inner and north-west part of the peninsula. In the inner part of the peninsula, where both groups were in contact, a mixed culture arose, the Celtiberians; the Ce

1069 Planckia

1069 Planckia, provisional designation 1927 BC, is a background asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt 39 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 28 January 1927, by astronomer Max Wolf at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in Germany; the asteroid was named after German physicist Max Planck. Planckia is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population, it orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.8–3.5 AU once every 5 years and 6 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 14 ° with respect to the ecliptic; the body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg in February 1927, or 10 days after its official discovery observation. This minor planet was named after noted German physicist Max Planck, on the commemoration of his 80th birthday, he was a professor of the founder of quantum mechanics. In 1918, he received the Nobel prize in Physics; the official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955. He is honored by a lunar crater Planck.

In the SMASS classification, Planckia is a stony S-type asteroid. Between 2000 and 2010, several rotational lightcurves of Planckia were obtained from photometric observations by Brian Warner, Jérôme Caron and René Roy. Lightcurve analysis gave a consolidated rotation period of 8.665 hours with a brightness amplitude between 0.14 and 0.42 magnitude. According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Planckia measures between 35.657 and 44.34 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1771 and 0.219. The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1982 and a diameter of 39.35 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 9.4. Lightcurve Database Query, at Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Geneva Observatory, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1069 Planckia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1069 Planckia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Joe Bradshaw (footballer)

Joe Bradshaw was an English football player and manager. As a player, he started out at Woolwich Polytechnic before turning professional at Woolwich Arsenal, where his father, Harry Bradshaw, was manager. After his father left to manage Fulham in 1904, Bradshaw had brief spells at West Norwood and Southampton before rejoining his father at his new club, he had stints at Chelsea, Queens Park Rangers and Southend United. His brother, William played for Woolwich Arsenal and Fulham under their father, he became player-manager of Southend United in 1912, winning promotion to the Southern League First Division, seeing the club through World War I. In 1919 he moved to Swansea Town and spent seven years there, winning the Third Division South title in 1924–1925, before being tempted by one of his former clubs, his reign at Fulham was not auspicious - overseeing relegation to the Third Division South and failing to regain promotion. In 1929 he moved to Bristol City, whom he managed for three years