History of Sri Lanka

The history of Sri Lanka is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions, comprising the areas of South Asia, Southeast Asia and Indian Ocean. The earliest human remains found on the island of Sri Lanka date to about 35,000 years ago; the proto-historical period begins in the 3rd century, based on Prakrith chronicles like the Mahavamsa and the Culavamsa. They describe the history since the arrival of Sinhalese from Northern India The earliest documents of settlement in the Island are found in these chronicles; these chronicles cover the period since the establishment of the Kingdom of Tambapanni in the 6th century BCE by the earliest ancestors of the Sinhalese. The first Sri Lankan ruler of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, Pandukabhaya, is recorded for the 4th century BCE. Buddhism was introduced in the 3rd century BCE by Arhath Mahinda; the first Tamil ruler of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, Ellalan, an invader, is recorded for the 2nd century BCE. The island was divided into numerous kingdoms over the following centuries, intermittently united under Chola rule.

Sri Lanka was ruled by 181 monarchs from the Anuradhapura to Kandy periods. From the 16th century, some coastal areas of the country were controlled by the Portuguese and British. Between 1597 and 1658, a substantial part of the island was under Portuguese rule; the Portuguese lost their possessions in Ceylon due to Dutch intervention in the Eighty Years' War. Following the Kandyan Wars, the island was united under British rule in 1815. Armed uprisings against the British took place in the 1818 Uva Rebellion and the 1848 Matale Rebellion. Independence was granted in 1948 but the country remained a Dominion of the British Empire until 1972. In 1972 Sri Lanka assumed the status of a Republic. A constitution was introduced in 1978; the Sri Lankan Civil War began in 1983, including an armed youth uprising in 1971 and 1987–1989, with the 25-year-long civil war ending in 2009. Evidence of human colonization in Sri Lanka appears at the site of Balangoda. Balangoda Man arrived on the island about 34,000 years ago and has been identified as Mesolithic hunter-gatherers who lived in caves.

Several of these caves, including the well-known Batadombalena and the Fa Hien Cave, have yielded many artifacts from these people, who are the first known inhabitants of the island. Balangoda Man created Horton Plains, in the central hills, by burning the trees in order to catch game. However, the discovery of oats and barley on the plains at about 15,000 BCE suggests that agriculture had developed at this early date. Several minute granite tools, remnants of charred timber, clay burial pots date to the Mesolithic. Human remains dating to 6000 BCE have been discovered during recent excavations around a cave at Warana Raja Maha Vihara and in the Kalatuwawa area. Cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka and has been found in Ancient Egypt as early as 1500 BCE, suggesting early trade between Egypt and the island's inhabitants, it is possible. James Emerson Tennent identified Tarshish with Galle; the protohistoric Early Iron Age appears to have established itself in South India by at least as early as 1200 BCE, if not earlier.

The earliest manifestation of this in Sri Lanka is radiocarbon-dated to c. 1000–800 BCE at Anuradhapura and Aligala shelter in Sigiriya. It is likely that further investigations will push back the Sri Lankan lower boundary to match that of South India. Archaeological evidence for the beginnings of the Iron Age in Sri Lanka is found at Anuradhapura, where a large city–settlement was founded before 900 BCE; the settlement was about 15 hectares in 900 BCE. A similar site from the same period has been discovered near Aligala in Sigiriya; the hunter-gatherer people known as the Wanniyala-Aetto or Veddas, who still live in the central and north-eastern parts of the island, are direct descendants of the first inhabitants, Balangoda Man. They may have migrated to the island from the mainland around the time humans spread from Africa to the Indian subcontinent. Indo Aryan migrants developed a unique hydraulic civilization named Sinhala, their Achievements include the construction of the largest reservoirs and dams of the ancient world as well as enormous pyramid-like stupa architecture.

This phase of Sri Lankan culture may have seen the introduction of early Buddhism. --> Early history recorded in Buddhist scriptures refers to three visits by the Buddha to the island to see the Naga Kings, snakes that can take the form of a human at will. The earliest surviving chronicles from the island, the Dipavamsa and the Mahavamsa, say that Yakkhas and Devas inhabited the island prior to the migration of Indo Aryan Sinhalese; the Pali chronicles, the Dipavamsa, Mahavamsa and the Chulavamsa, as well as a large collection of stone inscriptions, the Indian Epigraphical records, the Burmese versions of the chronicles etc. provide information on the history of Sri Lanka from about the 6th century BCE. The Mahavamsa, written around 400 CE by the monk Mahanama, using the Deepavamsa, the Attakatha and other written sources available to him, correlates well with Indian histories of the period. Indeed, Emperor Ashoka's reign is recorded in the Mahavamsa; the Mahavamsa account of the period prior to Asoka's

Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans is an unofficial appendant body to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the United States and Canada. It is recognized as the "playground for Odd Fellowship" by the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and is known for engaging in public and private hijinks and spectacle, all in the name of good, clean fun. AMOS is open to male Odd Fellows in good standing over the age of 18 but has a close relationship with Ladies of the Orient, only open to women; the two organizations meet at the same time and share in social events with each other. Like many other social appendant bodies to fraternal organizations, the rituals and initiations of AMOS have a Middle-Eastern theme and the official regalia is a fez; the Order has existed under multiple names. It was first founded in 1876 as the Order Order of Humility. In 1901, the Supreme Orient governing body was formed, now known as Supreme Sanctorum and the name of the organization changed to the Oriental Order of Humility and Perfection due to the addition of a second degree.

Over the next decade, the OOH&P merged with several other similar Odd Fellows appendant bodies formed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: the Imperial Order of Muscovites, the Pilgrim Knights of Oriental Splendor, the Veiled Prophets of Bagdad, the Ancient Mystic Order of Cabirians. The name of the combined body was first chosen to be the United Order of Splendor and Perfection and changed to the present name of Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans as efforts to bring more units from Odd Fellows appendant bodies into one entity continued. During the evolution of the Order and its constituent bodies, names and regalia have changed numerous times. Although the name of the organization implies a limitation to the United States and Canada, at one time there were subordinate sanctorums in Cuba and the Panama Canal Zone. There are two degrees conferred by AMOS; the first or "Humility Degree" is conferred by subordinate sanctorums. In this degree, reference is made to the story of Xerxes, a haughty Persian king, taught the lesson of Humility by one of his subjects.

Those who have received this degree are referred to as "Samaritans." After receiving the Humility Degree, a Samaritan is eligible to receive the second or "Perfection Degree", conferred at a Divisional or Supreme Convention. Those who have received this degree are referred to as "Sheiks." Local subordinate bodies are referred to as Sanctorums. Each Sanctorum selects its own name, of an Eastern or fanciful nature and is assigned a number. Sanctorums are further grouped into Districts and Divisions which are under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Sanctorum of the United States and Canada; the officers of a subordinate sanctorum are: After completing a term as Grand Monarch of his Sanctorum, a Sheik or Samaritan is referred to as a Past Grand Monarch and is eligible to hold higher office, such as District Deputy Supreme Monarchos. Supreme elected offices include the Supreme Monarchos, Supreme Khalifah, Supreme Counsellor, Supreme Prince, Supreme Secretary and Supreme Treasurer; the appointed offices include Supreme Vizier, Supreme Muezzin, Supreme Stentoros, Supreme Ali Baba among others.

Similar offices exist on a Divisional level as well. AMOS puts on a wide variety of social and fraternal events in public and in private including conventional ones such as banquets and parties as well as more unusual ones, such as staging a mock trial for a member or performing as a kazoo band. One sanctorum was known to have its own live goat. Like the Odd Fellows lodges from whom AMOS draws its membership and members are involved with charitable works such as visiting and providing financial assistance to the sick or aged. Charitable works involving cognitive disabilities are a particular focus of charitable work performed by AMOS; the regalia of AMOS is a fez with the emblem of the group in the center, a pyramid with the names "Xerxes" and "AMOS" inscribed on it, surrounded by palm trees. Below the pyramid is a crescent moon and above it is an owl perched on a scimitar inscribed with "We Never Sleep," the motto of the Order. Below the logo are the letters "A. M. O. S." and above it is the name of the wearer’s sanctorum, Division, or "Supreme Sanctorum," depending on the rank of the member.

AMOS possesses a more complex series of fez and tassel colors than most fez-wearing fraternal organizations with the following different fez and tassel color combinations used: The first predecessor from which modern day AMOS derives is the Oriental Order of Humility, purportedly founded by Dr. E. A. Baxter in 1876 in NY and 1879 in Canada; the initial founding did not last and the Order had to be re-instituted in 1898. There is some confusion regarding whether the OOH was, in fact, an Odd Fellows appendant body, if it served as an appendant body for the Knights of Pythias, if it was open to men from multiple orders, or if there were multiple orders operating under the name Oriental Order of Humility. At least some instances of the OOH were known to relate to Xerxes as did incarnations. According to one source, the OOH was known as the Grand Oriental Order of Humility. There is some variation in known officer titles with the presiding officer alternatively referred to as the Worthy Grand Chief or as the Most Potent Grand Seignor and the other officers known as Noble Vizier, Reverend Friar, Reverend Monitor, Chief Herald, Seneschal.

The subordinate bodies were sometimes referred to as Huts. The ritual was far less developed than that used in incarnations co

Mesaieed Industrial Area

Mesaieed Industrial Area is an industrial area in Al Wakrah Municipality in the State of Qatar 40 kilometres south of Doha. It is a locality of the city of Mesaieed and was a designated district of Mesaieed Municipality before the municipality was merged with Al Wakrah Municipality. Both Mesaieed and its industrial area are administered by a subdivision of Qatar Petroleum called "Mesaieed Industry City Management", established in 1996. Mesaieed was established in 1949 as a tanker terminal by Qatar Petroleum on a uninhabited site along the coast, it was chosen by the company because of its proximity to the working population in Doha and Al Wakrah and because of the depth of its waters. It was the only deepwater port in Qatar for more than 20 years; the first industrial facilities prepared on site were oil pumps and oil storage tanks. A new site for a NGL plant was prepared by Qatar Petroleum in 1974. Three years the site caught fire and was disbanded. Further development by the government was undertaken on Mesaieed from 1975 to 1978.

They installed industrial facilities, mechanical equipment and developed the road system at an estimated cost of $200 mn. It was administered wholly by Qatar Petroleum at the time of its inception; the government had agreed to the company's request to allow it full jurisdiction over the area and, until the 1960s, the government had prioritized the development of Doha rather than its natural gas industry. The rapid growth of oil revenues in the 1960s and the accession of Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani in 1972 resulted in the government assuming a portion of control over the area. In 1970, the first government-prepared industrial site in Mesaieed was created for QAFCO. In June 2016, it was announced that Qatar Petroleum would transfer portions of Mesaieed Industrial Area to the Economic Zones Company Qatar, effective January 2017. Among the portions ceded to Manateq were the cement area, the light industries area and the medium industries area. All the industry concentrated in the area constitutes the core of Qatar's industry.

The area accommodates the main plants of the following companies: Qatar Petroleum QP Refinery Qatar Lubricants Co. Qatar Fertiliser Co. Qatar Fuel Additives Co. Qatar Petrochemical Co. Qatar Steel Co. Qatar Vinyl Co. Qatar Chemicals Co. Qatar Aluminium Mesaieed port authority Container terminal CT7 In 1969, a decision was reached to construct Qatar's first flour mill in Mesaieed. In 1972, the facilities became operational with a capacity of 50 tonnes per day. Qatalum, an aluminium smelter plant, was launched in April 2010 in Mesaieed, it is a joint venture between Norsk Hydro. Its annual capacity in September 2011 was 585,000 metric tons of primary aluminium. A 1350 MW natural gas power plant has been built to ensure a stable supply of electricity. NGL operations began on site in the 1970s; the oil refineries in the industrial area have a combined capacity of 137,000 barrels per day. Urea and ammonia production is regulated by Qatar Fertiliser Company, the only fertilizer producer in the country; the company was established in 1969 by emiri decree.

The construction of its processing facilities was completed by 1973. It had a daily production capacity of 900 tonnes of ammonia, with two-thirds of this being used in the manufacture of 1000 tonnes of urea, it was staffed by employees of Norsk Hydro in its initial years, with whom it had signed a long-term cooperation agreement. An airstrip was constructed in the 1950s. In its initial years, Mesaieed had imported its machinery through the port of Zekreet. During the 1950s and 1960s, a port was developed in Mesaieed. There are two metro stations under construction in the Mesaieed Industrial Area. Both were launched in Phase 2B and will be part of Doha Metro's Red Line South, they are located in the Mesaieed Light Industries area and the Mesaieed Heavy Industries area, respectively. As of the 2010 census, the settlement comprised 57 establishments. There were 123 people living in the settlement, of which 100% were male and 0% were female. Out of the 123 inhabitants, 99% were 20 years of age or older and 1% was under the age of 20.

The literacy rate stood at 89.4%. Employed persons made up 100% of the total population. Females accounted for 0% of the working population, while males accounted for 100% of the working population