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History of Sudan

In the eastern Sudan appears around 4000 the Butana Group. These people produced simple decorated pottery, lived in round huts and were most herdsmen, but consumed land snails and there is evidence for some agriculture; the Gash Group is another prehistory culture known from several places. These people lived from farming and cattle breeding. Mahal Teglinos was an important place about 10 hectare large. In the center were excavated mud brick built houses. Seals and seal impressions attest a higher level of administration. Burials in an elite cemetery were marked with rough tomb stones. In the second millennium followed the Jebel Mokram Group, they lived in simple round huts. Cattle breeding was most the economical base. Northern Sudan's earliest historical record comes from ancient Egyptian sources, which described the land upstream as Kush, or "wretched." For more than two thousand years the Old Kingdom of Egypt, had a dominating and significant influence over its southern neighbour, afterward, the legacy of Egyptian cultural and religious introductions remained important.

Over the centuries, trade developed. Egyptian caravans carried grain to Kush and returned to Aswan with ivory, incense and carnelian for shipment downriver. Egyptian governors valued gold in Nubia and soldiers in the pharaoh's army. Egyptian military expeditions penetrated Kush periodically during the Old Kingdom, yet there was no attempt to establish a permanent presence in the area until the Middle Kingdom, when Egypt constructed a network of forts along the Nile as far south as Samnah in Lower Egypt to guard the flow of gold from mines in Wawat, the area between the First and Second Cataracts. Around 1720 BC, Canaanite nomads called the Hyksos took over Egypt, ended the Middle Kingdom, severed links with Kush, destroyed the forts along the Nile River. To fill the vacuum left by the Egyptian withdrawal, a culturally distinct indigenous Kushite kingdom emerged at al-Karmah, near present-day Dongola. After Egyptian power revived during the New Kingdom, the pharaoh Ahmose I incorporated Kush as an Egyptian ruled province governed by a viceroy.

Although Egypt's administrative control of Kush extended only down to the Fourth Cataract, Egyptian sources list tributary districts reaching to the Red Sea and upstream to the confluence of the Blue Nile and White Nile rivers. Egyptian authorities ensured the loyalty of local chiefs by drafting their children to serve as pages at the pharaoh's court. Egypt expected tribute in gold and slaves from local Kushite chiefs. Once Egypt had established political and military mastery over Kush, priests merchants and artisans settled in the region; the Egyptian language became used in everyday activities. Many rich Kushites built temples for them; the temples remained centres of official religious worship until the coming of Christianity to the region during the sixth century. When Egyptian influence declined or succumbed to foreign domination, the Kushite elite regarded themselves as central powers and believed themselves as idols of Egyptian culture and religion. By the 11th century BC, the authority of the New Kingdom dynasties had diminished, allowing divided rule in Egypt, ending Egyptian control of Kush.

With the withdrawal of the Egyptians, there ceased to be any written record or information from Kush about the region's activities over the next three hundred years. In the early eighth century BC, Kush emerged as an independent kingdom ruled from Napata by an aggressive line of monarchs who extended their influence into Egypt. Around 750 BC, a Kushite king called Kashta conquered Upper Egypt and became ruler of Thebes until 740 BC, his successor, subdued the Nile Delta and conquered Egypt, thus initiating the Twenty-fifth Dynasty. Piye founded a line of kings who ruled Thebes for about a hundred years; the dynasty's interference with Assyria's sphere of influence in the Near East caused a confrontation between Egypt and the powerful Assyrian state, which controlled a vast empire comprising much of the Middle East, Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from their homeland in Upper Mesopotamia. Taharqa, the last Kushite pharaoh, was defeated and driven out of the Near East by Sennacherib of Assyria.

Sennacherib's successor Esarhaddon went further, launching a full-scale invasion of Egypt in 674 BC, defeating Taharqa and conquering the land. Taharqa fled back to Nubia, native Egyptian princes were installed by the Assyrians as vassals of Esarhaddon. However, Taharqa was able to return some years and wrest back control of a part of Egypt as far as Thebes from the Egyptian vassal princes of Assyria. Esarhaddon died in his capital Nineveh while preparing to return to Egypt and once more eject the Kushites. Esarhaddon's successor Ashurbanipal sent a general with a small army which again defeated and ejected Taharqa from Egypt. Taharqa died in Nubia two years later, his successor, attempted to regain Egypt. He defeated Necho I, the puppet ruler installed by Ashurbanipal, taking Thebes in the process; the Assyrians sent a powerful army southwards. Tantamani was routed, the Assyrian army sacked Thebes to such an extent it never recovered. A native ruler, Psamtik I was placed on the throne, as a vassal of Ashurbanipal, thus ending the Kushite/Nubian Empire.

Egypt's succeeding dynasty failed to reassert full control over Kush. Around 590 BC, however, an Egyptian army sacked Napata, compelling the Kushite court to move to a

Ormi Patras

Ormi Patras is a Greek women's club based in Patras. It was founded in 2003 through the fusion of Thriamvos Patras, Poseidonas Patras and Foinikas Patras, it is a major protagonist in the Greek women's handball championship. Ormi Patras has won 4 Greek cups. In 2015, Ormi Patras withdrew from the championship due to financial problems. Women's handball National titles: 10 Greek Championship: 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Greek Cup: 2007, 2009, 2010, 2012 Honours Greek Championship runner up: 2004, 2006, 2013, 2015 Greek Cup runner up: 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 Anna Stratou, Eugenia Karagiorga, Athanasia Strataki, Irini Papazoglou, Olesia Semenchenko, Xristina Anthitsi, Edina Suto, Catalina Gheorghe, Rugile Niparaviciene, Jurate Zilinskaite President: Antonis Skiathas General Manager: Andreas Kogas Coach: Jani Ivan Cop Coach Assistant: Legouras Christos Team's official website

Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching

Ancient Greek has been pronounced in various ways by those studying Ancient Greek literature in various times and places. This article covers those pronunciations. Among speakers of Modern Greek, from the Byzantine Empire to modern Greece and the Greek diaspora, Greek texts from every period have always been pronounced by using the contemporaneous local Greek pronunciation; that makes it easy to recognize the many words that have remained the same or similar in written form from one period to another. Among Classical scholars, it is called the Reuchlinian pronunciation, after Johann Reuchlin. Greek textbooks for secondary education give a summary description of the reconstructed pronunciation of Ancient Greek; that includes the differentiation between the various accents. However, there is no mention of the ancient aspirate pronunciation of θ, φ and χ, which are different from the modern fricative pronunciation; the theology faculties and schools related to or belonging to the Eastern Orthodox Church use the Modern Greek pronunciation to follow the tradition of the Byzantine Empire.

The study of Greek in the West expanded during the Renaissance, in particular after the fall of Constantinople in 1453, when many Byzantine Greek scholars came to Western Europe. Greek texts were universally pronounced with the medieval pronunciation that still survives intact. From about 1486, various scholars judged that the pronunciation was inconsistent with the descriptions that were handed down by ancient grammarians, they suggested alternative pronunciations; this work culminated in Erasmus's dialogue De recta Latini Graecique sermonis pronuntiatione. The system that he proposed is called the Erasmian pronunciation; the pronunciation described by Erasmus is similar to that regarded by most authorities as the authentic pronunciation of Classical Greek. However, Erasmus did not use it himself. In 1540, John Cheke and Thomas Smith became Regius Professors at Cambridge, they independently proposed a reconstructed pronunciation of both Greek and Latin, similar to Erasmus’ scheme, it became adopted in schools.

Soon after the Cheke and Smith reforms, English underwent the Great Vowel Shift, which changed the phonetic values assigned to the English "long vowels", in particular. The same changes affected the English pronunciation of Greek, which thus became further removed from both Ancient Greek and from the Greek, pronounced in other western countries. A further peculiarity of the English pronunciation of Ancient Greek occurred as a result of the work of Isaac Vossius, he maintained in an anonymously-published treatise that the written accents of Greek did not reflect the original pronunciation. Moreover, Henninus published Dissertatio Paradoxa, which claimed that accentuation in Ancient Greek must follow the same principles as in Latin, a view, now universally considered to be erroneous, it is accepted that the accented syllable in Ancient Greek is the one carrying the written accent, but most authorities consider that it was a pitch accent, rather than the Modern Greek stress accent. Henninius's has affected the pronunciation taught in schools in the UK and the Netherlands but has been resisted in the United States and other countries.

Thus, by the mid-19th century, the pronunciation of Ancient Greek in British schools was quite different from Modern Greek, from the reconstructed pronunciation of Ancient Greek and from the pronunciation used in other countries. The Classical Association, promulgated a new pronunciation as described by W. Sidney Allen in 1987, based on the reconstructed ancient pronunciation, now in use in British schools; the reforms in the pronunciation of Ancient Greek in schools have not affected the pronunciation of individual Greek-derived words in English itself, there is now considerable variation in the English pronunciation of the names of Ancient Greek historical or mythological personages or places. The situation in German education may be representative of that in many other European countries; the teaching of Greek is based on a Erasmian model, but in practice, it is skewed towards the phonological system of German or the other host language. Thus, German-speakers do not use a fricative for θ but give it the same pronunciation as τ, but φ and χ are realised as the fricatives and ~.

Ζ is pronounced as an affricate, but a voiceless one, like German z. However, σ is voiced, according like s in German before a vowel. Ευ and ηυ are both pronounced, following the German eu, äu. Ει and αι are not distinguished, both pronounced, like the similar German ei, ai, ει is sometimes pronounced. No attempt is made to reproduce the accentuation contrast between acute and circumflex accents. While the deviations are acknowledged as compromises in teaching, awareness of other German-based idiosyncrasies is less widespread. German-speakers try to reproduce vowel-length distinctions in stressed syllables, but they fail to do so in non-stressed syllables, they are prone to use a reduction of e-sounds to; the distinctive length of double vs. single consonants is not observed, German patterns of vowel lengt

Fine Arts Building (Chicago)

The ten-story Fine Arts Building known as the Studebaker Building, is located at 410 S Michigan Avenue across from Grant Park in Chicago in the Chicago Landmark Historic Michigan Boulevard District. It was built for the Studebaker company in 1884–5 by Solon Spencer Beman, extensively remodeled in 1898, when Beman removed the building's eighth story and added three new stories, extending the building to its current height. Studebaker constructed the building as a carriage sales and service operation with manufacturing on upper floors; the two granite columns at the main entrance, 3 feet 8 inches in diameter and 12 feet 10 inches high, were said to be the largest polished monolithic shafts in the country. The interior features Art Nouveau motifs and murals by artists such as Martha Susan Baker, Frederic Clay Bartlett, Oliver Dennett Grover, Frank Xavier Leyendecker, Bertha Sophia Menzler-Peyton dating from the 1898 renovation. True to its name, it houses artists' lofts, art galleries, theatre and recording studios and web design firms, musical instrument makers, other businesses associated with the arts.

It holds offices of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Jazz Institute of Chicago, the Grant Park Conservancy, the World Federalist Association, the Chicago Youth Symphony, the venerable Artists Cafe. The Fine Arts Building was designated a Chicago Landmark on June 7, 1978; the Studebaker Building houses the Studebaker Theatre known as Studebaker Hall, dedicated in 1898. It was the site of David Bispham's 1901 recital featuring the songs of Carrie Jacobs-Bond. Paul Whiteman and his orchestra gave the first public performance of Grand Canyon Suite here on November 22, 1931; the venue hosted some of the earliest live television shows including DuMont Television Network's Cavalcade of Stars hosted by comedian Jack Carter. In the 1970s the theater was partitioned into a multiplex movie theater. Renovations to return to live theater were begun in 2015, the theater was reopened in 2016, with a 740 seating capacity; the Studebaker Theatre was the location of the world premiere of A&A BALLET’s "The Art Deco Nutcracker."

Called "A glossy rendition filled with "gorgeous, glitzy costumes" and an "impressive cast", the brand-new version of the holiday performance choreographed by Alexei Kremnev opened on December 1, 2017 with a great success. From 1912 to 1917, the Fine Arts Building housed the Chicago Little Theatre, an art theater credited with beginning the Little Theatre Movement in the United States. Not being able to afford rental on the building's 500-seat auditorium, co-producers Maurice Browne and Ellen Van Volkenburg rented a large storage space on the fourth floor at the back and built it out into a 91-seat house. Notes Media related to Fine Arts Building at Wikimedia Commons Fine Arts Building After the Final Curtain (Pre-renovation photographs of the Studebaker Theatre Studebaker Theater

Lamborghini Athon

The Lamborghini Athon is a concept car designed by Bertone for Lamborghini. The Lamborghini Athon is capable of being driven and is a functional production concept car. Under the hood of the Lamborghini Athon sits a 3.0 L DOHC V8 engine from the Lamborghini Silhouette, with two valves per cylinder capable of a max power of 260 hp at 7,500 rpm and 237 lb⋅ft of torque with a compression ratio of ten to one. The transmission contains an all synchromesh gearbox that consists of a five speed with a non-dual single dry plate hydraulically assisted clutch and an axle ration of 14/35. Note that the front suspension and rear suspension are independent of each other; the Bertone company SpA design includes an integral chassis and steel body. The suspension has independent wry coil springs and a telescopic shock absorbers; the Campagnolo cast magnesium pneumatically actuated brakes consist of a Girling ventilated discs. The fronts tires measure out to be 195/50 VR 15 Michelin and the rear tires are 275/40 VR 15 Michelin.

The Lamborghini Athon weighs in at 2,390 lbs and has an 80 L fuel tank capable of holding 21 gallons of fuel. In terms of performance, the Lamborghini Athon is able to reach a top speed of 170 mph and can go from 0 to 60 mph in 7.3 seconds. The RM Sotheby's company auctioned the Lamborghini Athon in Concorso d'Eleganza Villa d'Este on May 21, 2011; the Lamborghini Athon sold for $487,000 United States Dollars and its present-day estimated price value, according to RM Auctions, is between $213,000 to $312,000 United States Dollar. The Bertone company, a private company based in Italy, created the Lamborghini Athon to show their everlasting support for the Lamborghini company according to the Turin coachbuilder press release; the Lamborghini Athon was given its name because the car is a spider and made for fair-weather. Marc Deschamps, a Frenchman, lead the design process for the Lamborghini Athon, Bertone Studios first concept car, he was chosen to lead the design after Marcello Gandini left the position as the design coordinator in 1979 for Bertone.

The car was based on the silhouette sport type aesthetic and resembled some of the looks of the Lamborghini Urraco. Marc Deschamps honored the prior design of the Bertone's concept cars, he included "sculpted geometric volumes" that were defined by clear edges and cut lines. Marc Deschamps did not follow what is universally known as the tradition spider design of the car; the Lamborghini Athon, a proclaimed spider, has its cabin located in a forward position as opposed to the traditional mid-set cabin in a normal spider. Another detail that sets the Athon apart from the original aesthetics of a spider is the height and position of the rear deck compared to the height and positioning of the sloping hood; this design of the raised rear deck would be modeled after when the Bertone company would create the Jalpa Speedster. The design of Lamborghini Athon influenced the media and movie productions; the Athon was referenced when making the props for the following films: Tron, Total Recall, RoboCop. Marc Deschamp was inspired by Nuccio Bertone added a few more unique features the cars body.

For example, Marc Deschamps created the doors so they would have a noticeable gap between the doors and the door sills. Another thing to note is that Marc Deschamps designed the tail lights to have thin grooves in order to assure that they did not interfere with the solid rear end of the car. Something unique to note about the car is the design of the steering wheel and touch screen panels; the steering wheel was designed with a single spoke which did not affect the grip but was created to lighten the car giving the car better performance feats. Note that to the left of the steering wheel, there was a pod; the mounted pod was used as a place to hold the secondary controls. The touch screen panels were equipped with electronic readouts. Vegalie, an Italian supplier, created the instrumental design of the Lamborghini Athon, they made the windshield wipers, turn signals, as well as the indicator switches which are in close reach within the steering wheel. The Lamborghini Athon's design was created in honor of Fillipo Perini in honor of his devout love to the Lamborghini Silhouette aesthetic appearance.

His impact as a designer for Lamborghini is seen in the Lamborghini Athon's front sloping hood. The Lamborghini Athon was forcefully given to the Bertone company as the Lamborghini company was in the process of liquidation and going through financial difficulty; the Lamborghini Athon was retired in the Bertone museum located in Rubiana, Italy directly after it showcased in the Turin Auto Show. Bertone removed the car from its museum and made it displayed for the public at a few select shows. Although it has had minor repairs to some of the mechanical components of the car, the Lamborghini Athon was never restored; because of it having never been restored, the Lamborghini Athon is offered in its original condition. The Athon was created during Lamborghini's financial crisis, which threatened to end with the company's liquidation; as a result, the Athon's greatest impact on the company would have to be when Bertone put it in their museum. The press associated with this move brought more attention to the Athon and Lamborghini as a company

King of the Romanians

The King of the Romanians or King of Romania, was the title of the monarch of the Kingdom of Romania from 1881 until 1947, when the Romanian Workers' Party proclaimed the Romanian People's Republic following Michael I's forced abdication. The state had been internationally recognized as a principality since 1862, after the creation of the United Principalities, a personal union between Moldavia and Wallachia, at that time vassal states of the Ottoman Empire. Alexander I became domnitor after the official unification of the two separate states, being elected prince of both states in 1859, he was deposed in 1866 by a broad coalition of the main political parties, after which parliament offered the throne to Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen who subsequently became the new "Domnitor of Romania". Romania's independence from the Ottoman Empire was recognized in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In an expression of full sovereignty, the principality was elevated to a kingdom in 1881, with Carol I becoming King of the Romanians.

Carol I died in 1914, was succeeded by his nephew, Ferdinand I. In 1927, Ferdinand I died, the country was left in the care of a regency headed by Prince Nicholas of Romania, during the reign of Ferdinand's young grandson, Michael I, his father having renounced the throne in 1925. Carol II, unlike Carol I, in the beginning had no desire to rule Romania, was out of the country exploring the rest of Europe with his mistress. Michael's first reign would be short lived at only three years, until his father Carol II came back to contest the title at the behest of a dissatisfied political faction that staged a sudden'coup d'état'. After a ten-year rule, Carol II was forced to give up his crown in the wake of an outcry over the Second Vienna Award, which forced Romania to surrender northern Transylvania to Hungary. After the war, he married Elena Lupescu; the couple settled in Portugal, the "playboy king" never returned to Romania. The kingdom of Romania was a constitutional monarchy for most of its existence with the exception of 1938–1944, during the dictatorships of Carol II and Ion Antonescu.

On 23 August 1944, Michael I restored the last democratic royal Constitution of 1923. However, during his second reign, Michael I reigned as an extraconstitutional king, without a parliamentary vote. Parliament was suspended and reinstated only in 1946. Michael I was crowned and anointed by the Orthodox Patriarch, Nicodim Munteanu, in the Patriarchal Cathedral of Bucharest, on the day of his second accession, 6 September 1940; however Michael I could not exercise much authority besides some prerogatives such as being the Supreme Head of the Army and designating a plenipotentiary prime minister Conducător. On 23 August 1944, with the Soviet Army deep inside Romania's territory, Michael I deposed the German-allied dictator Ion Antonescu at the urging of the opposition parties and aligned the country with the Allies. Helped by the presence of Soviet forces, communists took control of the administration. On 30 December 1947, King Michael I was forced to sign his abdication; the same day, Parliament proclaimed the country a people's republic.

The young former king and former queen mother Elena were forced to leave Romania on January 3, 1948, in the royal train, at the request of the communist-dominated government. Royal properties were nationalized that year. After the Revolution of 1989, the former king visited Romania to an enthusiastic reception in the streets of Bucharest. However, the country preserved its republican character; the former king was recognized by the Parliament. His grandson visits different organizations in Romania. Princess Margareta and her husband bestow royal orders in name of the former king for selected Romanians; the royal house is still popular and in 2014 Prime Minister Victor Ponta promised a referendum on whether or not to reinstate the monarchy if he were re-elected. A square was named in honor of King "Mihai" in 2012. Following the death of the former king in 2017, the positive reaction of the crowds to the Royal Family at his funeral, Romanian politicians have discussed whether to hold a referendum to restore the monarchy, with around half the population believing monarchy to be a better organisational form than a republic.

This is a graphical lifespan timeline of Kings and Pretenders to the Romanian throne. The kings, the heirs and the pretenders are listed in chronological order