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History of Sweden

The history of Sweden starts when the Northern polar ice cap started receding. The first traces of human visitation is from ca 12000 BC. Written sources about Sweden before 1000 AD are rare and short written by outsiders, not until the 14th century are there any longer historical texts produced in Sweden. Swedish history, in contrast with pre-history, is thus taken to start in the 11th century, when the sources are common enough that they are possible to be contrasted with each other; the modern Swedish state was formed over a long period of consolidation. Historians have set different standards for when it can be considered complete, but a somewhat unified country, with power concentrated to one monarchical dynasty and some common laws were present from the second part of the second half of the 13th century. At this time, Sweden consisted of most of what is today the southern part of the country, as well as parts of what is modern Finland. Over the following centuries, Swedish influence would expand into the North and East if borders were ill-defined or nonexistent.

In the late 14th century, Sweden was becoming intertwined with Denmark and Norway uniting in the Kalmar Union. During the following century, a series of rebellions served to lessen Sweden's ties to the union, sometime leading to a separate Swedish king being elected; the fighting reached a climax following the Stockholm Bloodbath in 1520, a mass execution of Swedish noblemen and burgers orchestrated by Christian II of Denmark. One of the few members of the most powerful noble families not present, Gustav Vasa, was able to raise a new rebellion and was crowned King in 1523, his reign proved lasting, marked the end of Sweden's participation in the union. Gustav Vasa furthermore encouraged Protestant preachers breaking with the papacy and establishing the Lutheran Church in Sweden, seizing Catholic Church property and wealth. During the 17th century, after winning wars against Denmark-Norway and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sweden emerged as a great power by taking direct control of the Baltic region.

Sweden's role in the Thirty Years' War determined the political as well as the religious balance of power in Europe. The Swedish state expanded enormously, into the modern Baltic states, northern Germany, several regions that, to this day, are part of Sweden. Before the end of the 17th century, a secret alliance was formed between Denmark-Norway, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Russia against Sweden; this coalition acted at the start of the 18th century as Denmark-Norway and the Commonwealth launched surprise attacks on Sweden. In 1721, Russia and its allies won the war against Sweden; as a result, Russia was able to annex the Swedish territories of Estonia, Livonia and Karelia. This put an end to the Swedish Empire, crippled her Baltic Sea Power. Sweden joined in the Enlightenment culture of the day in the arts, architecture and learning. Between 1570 and 1800, Sweden experienced two periods of urban expansion. Finland was lost to Russia in a war in 1808–1809. In the early 19th century and the remaining territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost.

Sweden's last war was the Swedish–Norwegian War. Sweden was victorious in this war which lead to the Danish king being forced to cede Norway to Sweden. Norway was after losing the war forced to enter into a personal union with Sweden that lasted until 1905. Since 1814, Sweden has been at peace, adopting a non-aligned foreign policy in peacetime and neutrality in wartime. During World War I, Sweden remained neutral. Post-war prosperity provided the foundations for the social welfare policies characteristic of modern Sweden. During World War II, Sweden once again remained neutral. Sweden was one of the first non-participants of World War II to join the United Nations. Apart from this, the country attempted to stay out of alliances and remain neutral during the entire Cold War; the social democratic party held government for 44 years. The 1976 parliamentary elections brought a liberal/right-wing coalition to power. During the Cold War, Sweden was suspicious of the superpowers, recognizing that the decisions made by them were affecting smaller countries without always consulting those countries.

With the end of the Cold War, that suspicion has lessened somewhat, although Sweden still chooses to remain nonaligned. Sweden, like its neighboring country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province of Bohuslän and around Gamleby and Västervik in northern part of the county of Kalmar called "Tjust"; the earliest images can, however, be found in the province of Jämtland, dating from 5000 BC. They depict wild animals such as elk, reindeer and seals; the period 2300–500 BC was the most intensive carving period, with carvings of agriculture, ships, domesticated animals, etc. Petroglyphs with themes have been found in Bohuslän. For centuries, the Swedes were merchant seamen well known for their far-reaching trade. During the 11th and 12th centuries, Sweden became a unified Christian kingdom that included Finland; until 1060, the kings of Uppsala ruled most of modern Sweden except the southern and western coastal regions, which remained under Danish rule until the 17th century.

After a century of civil wars, a new royal family emerged, which strengthened the power of the crown at the expense of the nobility, while giving th

Lily (Japanese singer)

Saeko Kamata, most known as Lily, was a Japanese singer-songwriter and actress. Albums1972: Tamanegi 1973: Dulcimer 1974: Taeko 1974: Lily Live 1975: Love Letter 1976: Auroila 1977: Lili Shizumu 1978: Magenta 1980: Minami Jūjisei 1982: Modern Romance 1983: Say 1989: Rescue You 1995: Ai 1995: Lily in PAB Singles1972: "Nigaoe" 1972: "Quiz no Shōkin" 1973: "Kokoro ga Itai" 1974: "Watashi wa Naite Imasu" 1974: "Kaze no Itami" 1975: "Shiawase Sagashi" 1975: "Tsuki no Serenade" 1976: "Ie e Oideyo" 1976: "Namida no Nai Machi" 1976: "Miss Carone Turbat" 1977: "Kirei ni Naritai" 1978: Sawagashī Rakuen" 1978: "E・S・P" 1978: "Bed de Tabako o Suwanaide" 1979: "Oyashirazu" 1980: "Namida no Daisan Keihin" 1981: "Namida no Driving" 1982: "Modern Romance"モダン・ロマンス 1982: "Sara Sara" 1983: "Wooman" 1983: "Sayonara Alice" 1986: "Kaze no Ballerina" 1988: "Sayonara Loniliness" 1989: "Rescue You" 1995: Demo Sayonara ga Ienai Compilations1986: I Want You - Scene 1974-1986 1996: Twin Best Lily 2004: Golden Best Lily Kinpachi-sensei Kakashi Deadly Outlaw: Rekka Vital Linda Linda Linda Shinobi: Heart Under Blade Mushishi Gu-Gu Datte Neko de Aru Ikigami I Wish Moteki April Fools Gonin Saga A Bride for Rip Van Winkle Tsuioku Close-Knit Lily on IMDb

The Entente: Battlefields WW1

The Entente: Battlefields WW1 is a real-time strategy video game developed by Lesta Studio and published in 2003 by Buka Entertainment. A Western version was releaesd by Encore, Inc. in 2004. It simulates World War I from the perspective of the five main combatants: Russia, Germany and the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, it is similar in many ways to other real-time strategy games, focusing on economy and military paths to victory. The single player battles in The Entente are the standard battles of the game; the first option for single player games are the missions. They are battles of the Great War that don’t fit any of the campaigns on the Eastern Front; the second option is the combatants’ own campaigns. These represent some of the main battles; the final option is random maps. Similar to the Cossacks series random and death matches, these games start with the player having a single building and several workers; the victory condition for these games is to destroy the enemy completely. Games can be played over the Internet using LAN with up to eight players.

The Entente: Battlefields World War I sports an array of different units from all aspects of the First World War and can be broken up into several different types-infantry, vehicles and planes. Infantry are ranks of foot soldiers supported by several officers, although specialist infantry such as machine gunners, flame throwers, elite foot soldiers, mortar teams, mounted infantry can be used. Artillery allows the player to wipe out key enemy positions like buildings and large blocks of units; the basic artillery units in the game are howitzers and guns such as the 105mm Schneider and the 80mm Gun. Vehicles include tanks such as the Whippet and the A7V that can be used to support infantry and trucks can transport infantry. Anti-aircraft guns are effective against planes; the most destructive units in the game are ships. These include destroyers such as the Russian Narvik, cruisers and merchant ships. Most of the ships in the game can produce considerable amounts of firepower; the Entente includes several of the most famous aircraft of the era such as the SPAD XIII and Fokker D.

I, reconnaissance planes such as the Etrich Taube and light and heavy bombers such the Maurice Farman S.11 and Sikorsky Ilya Muromets. An invention of the First World War, poison gas is a final weapon; the gas cloud will kill any infantry enemy units in the gas cloud for a few minutes until it disappears. Resources are collected in The Entente to fund the construction of buildings; the six resources in The Entente are food, iron, gold and electricity. The resources in the list can be gathered by workers working in farms, iron mines, gold mines, oil rigs, electric power stations