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History of Syria

The history of Syria covers events which occurred on the territory of the present Syrian Arab Republic and events which occurred in the region of Syria. The present Syrian Arab Republic spans territory, first unified in the 10th century BCE under the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the capital of, the city of Assur, from which the name "Syria" most derives; this territory was conquered by various rulers, settled in by different peoples. Syria is considered to have emerged as an independent country for the first time on 24 October 1945, upon the signing of the United Nations Charter by the Syrian government ending France’s mandate by the League of Nations to "render administrative advice and assistance to the population" of Syria, which came in effect on April 1946. On 21 February 1958, Syria merged with Egypt to create the United Arab Republic after plebiscitary ratification of the merger by both countries’ nations, but seceded from it in 1961, thereby recovering its full independence. Since 1963, the Syrian Arab Republic has been ruled by the Ba’ath Party, run by the Assad family since 1970.

Syria is fractured between rival forces on the course of the Syrian Civil War. The oldest remains found in Syria date from the Palaeolithic era. On 23 August 1993 a joint Japan-Syria excavation team discovered fossilized Paleolithic human remains at the Dederiyeh Cave some 400 km north of Damascus; the bones found in this massive cave were those of a Neanderthal child, estimated to have been about two years old, who lived in the Middle Palaeolithic era. Although many Neanderthal bones had been discovered this was the first time that an complete child's skeleton had been found in its original burial state. Archaeologists have demonstrated. Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent, since 10,000 BCE it was one of the centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world; the Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of the Mureybet culture. In the early Neolithic period, people used vessels made of stone and burnt lime. Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidence of early trade relations.

The cities of Hamoukar and Emar flourished during Bronze Age. The ruins of Ebla, near Idlib in northern Syria, were discovered and excavated in 1975. Ebla appears to have been an East Semitic speaking city-state founded around 3000 BCE. At its zenith, from about 2500 to 2400 BCE, it may have controlled an empire reaching north to Anatolia, east to Mesopotamia and south to Damascus. Ebla traded with the Mesopotamian states of Sumer and Assyria, as well as with peoples to the northwest. Gifts from Pharaohs, found during excavations, confirm Ebla's contact with Egypt. Scholars believe the language of Ebla was related to the fellow East Semitic Akkadian language of Mesopotamia and to be among the oldest known written languages. From the third millennium BCE, Syria was occupied and fought over successively by Sumerians, Akkadians, Egyptians, Hurrians, Mitanni and Babylonians. Ebla was conquered into the Mesopotamian Akkadian Empire by Sargon of Akkad around 2330 BCE; the city re-emerged, as the part of the nation of the Northwest Semitic speaking Amorites, a few centuries and flourished through the early second millennium BCE until conquered by the Indo-European Hittites.

The Sumerians and Assyrians of Mesopotamia referred to the region as Mar. Tu or The land of the Amurru from as early as the 24th century BCE. Parts of Syria were controlled by the Neo-Sumerian Empire, Old Assyrian Empire and Babylonian Empire between the 22nd and 18th centuries BCE; the region was fought over by the rival empires of the Hittites, Egyptians and Mitanni between the 15th and 13th centuries BCE, with the Middle Assyrian Empire left controlling Syria. When the Middle Assyrian Empire began to deteriorate in the late 11th century BCE, Canaanites and Phoenicians came to the fore and occupied the coast, Arameans and Suteans supplanted the Amorites in the interior, as part of the general disruptions and exchanges associated with the Bronze Age Collapse and the Sea Peoples. During this period the bulk of Syria became known as Eber Aramea. From the 10th century BCE the Neo-Assyrian Empire arose, Syria was ruled by Assyria for the next three centuries, until the late 7th century BCE, was still known as Eber-Nari and Aram throughout the period.

It is from this period that the name Syria first emerges, but not in relation to modern Syria, but as an Indo-European corruption of Assyria, which in fact encompassed the modern regions of northern Iraq, north east Syria, south east Turkey and the northwestern fringe of Iran. After this empire collapsed, Mesopotamian dominance continued for a time with the short lived Neo-Babylonian Empire, which ruled the region for 70 or so years. In 539 BCE, Cyrus the Great, King of Achaemenid Persians, took Syria as part of his empire. Due to Syria's location on the Eastern Mediterranean coast, its navy fleet, abundant forests, Persians showed great interest in easing control while governing the region. Thus, the indigenous Phoenicians paid a much lesser annual tribute, only 350 talent compared to Egypt's tribute of 700 talents. Furthermore, Syrians were allowed to rule their own cities in that they continued to adhere their native religions, establish their own businesses, build colonies all over the Mediterranean coast.

Syria's satraps used to resid

Sympathy (Rare Bird song)

"Sympathy" is a song by the English progressive rock band Rare Bird. It became the band's only UK chart entry when it peaked at number 27 in the UK Singles Chart in 1970; the song reached No. 1 in Italy and in France, selling 500,000 copies in France and over one million globally. A 1970 cover version of the track by The Family Dogg reached number two in the Netherlands. In 1992, a version by Marillion reached number 17 in the UK; the song has been covered by Toyah in 1985, sampled by Faithless in 2002. The cover art features a painting by Marc Harrison titled The Birdwoman Of Zartacla. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

Emperor YĆ«ryaku

Emperor Yūryaku was the 21st Emperor of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. He is remembered as a patron of sericulture. No firm dates can be assigned to this Emperor's life or reign, but he is conventionally considered to have reigned from 456 to 479. Yūryaku was a 5th-century monarch; the reign of Emperor Kinmei, the 29th Emperor, is the first for which contemporary historiography is able to assign verifiable dates. According to the Kojiki, this Emperor is said to have ruled from the Thirteenth Day of the Eleventh Month of 456 until his death on the Seventh Day of the Eight Month of 479. According to Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, Yūryaku was named Prince Ōhatsuse Wakatake at birth. Yūryaku is a name posthumously assigned to him by a much era, he was the fifth and youngest son of Emperor Ingyō. After his elder brother Emperor Ankō was murdered, he won the struggle against his other brothers and became the new Emperor. Yūryaku's contemporary title would not have been tennō, as most historians believe this title was not introduced until the reigns of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.

Rather, it was Sumeramikoto or Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Ōkimi, meaning "the great king who rules all under heaven". Alternatively, Hanzei might have been referred to as ヤマト大王/大君 or the "Great King of Yamato", he had three wives. His successor, Prince Shiraka, was his son by his wife Kazuraki no Karahime. In 463, Yūryaku Tennō invited the thunder god of the Mimuro hill to come to the Imperial Palace, ordered Chiisakobe no muraji Sugaru to fetch the deity, he obliged, thinking the supernatural being would have no reason to refuse the invitation, rode carrying a halberd with a red banner, symbolising his office of royal messenger. Soon enough, the thunder stroke, Sugaru enlisted the help of priests to enshrine the kami into a portable carriage, to be brought in the Emperor's presence, as a great serpent. But, said Emperor neglected to practice proper ritual purification and religious abstinence; the thunder kami showed his displeasure through thundering and threatening fiery eyeballs, Emperor Yūryaku fled into the interior of the Palace while covering his eyes.

The great serpent was returned to Mimuro, the Emperor made many offerings to appease the angry deity. This story is recorded in Nihongi and mentioned by William George Aston, in "Shinto, the Ancient Religion of Japan" as well as several other books. According to the Nihongi, Yūryaku was of ungovernable and suspicious temperament, committed many acts of arbitrary cruelty; the actual site of Yūryaku's grave is not known. The Emperor is traditionally venerated at a memorial Shinto shrine in Habikino, designated by the Imperial Household Agency as Yūryaku's mausoleum, it is formally named Tajihi no Takawashi-no-hara no misasagi. Empress: Princess Kusaka-no-hatabihime, Emperor Nintoku's daughter Consort: Katsuragi no Karahime, Katsuragi no Tsubura no Ōomi's daughter Third Son: Prince Shiraka Emperor Seinei Princess Takuhatahime, SaiōConsort: Kibi no Wakahime, Kibi no Kamitsumichi no omi's daughter Prince Iwaki Prince Hoshikawa no Wakamiya Consort: Wani no ominagimi, Kasuga no Wani no omi Fukame's daughter Princess Kasuga no Ōiratsume, married to Emperor Ninken According to the Book of Song, a King Bu from Japan dispatched envoys to the Emperor of Liu Song, a minor Chinese dynasty, in both 477 and 478.

Communications included a notice that the previous ruler, an older brother, had died, that Bu had ascended to the throne. The King'Bu' in this document is believed to refer to Emperor Yūryaku, due to the fact that the character used to write the name is found in the name by which Emperor Yūryaku was called during his lifetime: Ōhatsuse Wakatakeru no Mikoto; the inscriptions on the Inariyama and Eta Funayama Sword supports the idea that Bu is an equivalent of Emperor Yūryaku. The Chinese historical records state that Bu began his rule before 477, was recognized as the ruler of Japan by the Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang dynasties, continued his rule through to 502; the Emperor's interest in poetry is amongst the more well-documented aspects of his character and reign. Poems attributed to him are included in the Man'yōshū, a number of his verses are preserved in the Kojiki and the Nihonshoki. Emperor of Japan List of Emperors of Japan Eta Funayama Sword Five kings of Wa Imperial cult Inariyama Sword Aston, William George..

Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A. D. 697. London: Kegan Paul, Trubner. OCLC 448337491 Batten, Bruce Loyd.. Gateway to Japan: Hakata in war and peace, 500–1300. Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-2971-1. Gukanshō: The Future and the Past. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-03460-0; the Manyōshū: The Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkokai Translation of One Thousand Poems. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-08620-2 Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Titsingh, Isaac.. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 5850691 Varley, H. Paul.. Jinnō Shōtōki: A Chronicle of Gods an