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Shard Villa

Shard Villa is a historic house at Shard Villa and Columbus Smith Roads in Salisbury, Vermont. Built in 1872, it is an elaborate and sophisticated example of Second Empire architecture, built by Columbus Smith, a prominent international lawyer, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989. The property has been used for many years as an elder care facility, is one of the oldest such facilities in continuous operation in the state. Shard Villa stands in a rural area of northwestern Salisbury, just west of the junction of Shard Villa and Columbus Smith Roads. Standing on over 4 acres, a portion of a once larger country estate, are a cluster of buildings, including the main house, carriage barn, dairy barn, horse barn, smokehouse. On a height of land north of the house stands a mausoleum, the family burial site of Columbus Smith and members of his family; the house is a 2-1/2 story limestone structure, with a full third floor under its mansard roof. Its most prominent feature is the three-story mansarded tower at the center of the east-facing front facade, topped by a low balustrade and featuring projecting small round windows in the flared mansard roof.

Windows are paired round-arch one-over-one sash, with elaborate moulded surrounds that only break the facade's symmetry. The interior has elaborate woodwork and fixtures, is decorated with murals painted by Italian artist Sergio Pezzoli. A 20th-century brick ell extends behind the original main block; the property was developed as a country estate beginning in 1872 by Columbus Smith, a lawyer renowned at the time for his experience in international inheritance law. It was the first major commission of Burlington architect Warren Thayer, with exterior detailing by Clinton G. Smith, another prominent regional builder-architect; the estate was landscaped by Robert Morris Copeland, an early landscape architect, although only some elements of his original design now survive. The house design is similar to Plate 19 of Woodward and Thompson's Woodward's National Architect, published in 1869; the interior murals were commissioned by Smith in 1886, with the artist, Sergio Pezzoli, brought over from Italy to live in the villa while creating them.

The name of the villa derives from Columbus Smith's first major international client, the family of Frances Mary Shard, a Vermont native who married a wealthy Englishman, whose only surviving heirs were a family from nearby Ripton. In 1922, the property was adapted for use as an elderly care facility, at which time the brick addition was made to the rear of the main house. National Register of Historic Places listings in Addison County, Vermont Shard Villa web site

Battle of Junik

The Battle of Junik was a battle fought during the Kosovo War between the ethnic Albanian paramilitary organization known as the Kosovo Liberation Army and the security forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia over the town of Junik in western Kosovo. Junik was occupied by the KLA early in the war and became a centre of arms smuggling from northern Albania due to its strategic location; the town was besieged by the Yugoslav Army and Ministry of Internal Affairs on 28 July 1998, was the site of intense clashes for nearly three weeks afterwards. On 16 August, it was stormed by the Special Anti-Terrorist Unit, the special operations component of the MUP, forcing the remaining KLA fighters to flee into the surrounding hills and forests. Four MUP personnel and two VJ soldiers were killed according to contemporary reports; the KLA suffered between 100 fatalities. In addition, there were eight Kosovo Albanian civilian fatalities, a further 12,000 Kosovo Albanian civilians were displaced by the fighting.

After Junik's fall, the United States express concern that government forces had planted landmines around the town. In direct response to the town's capture, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1199 on 23 September 1998, calling for an end to hostilities in Kosovo. Following World War II, Kosovo was given the status of an autonomous province within the Socialist Republic of Serbia, one of six constitutional republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. After the death of Yugoslavia's long-time leader Josip Broz Tito in 1980, Yugoslavia's political system began to unravel. In 1989, Belgrade abolished self-rule in Kosovo, as well as Serbia's other autonomous province, Vojvodina, as part of Serbian President Slobodan Milošević's "anti-bureaucratic revolution". Though inhabited predominantly by ethnic Albanians, Kosovo was of great historical and cultural significance to the Serbs. Prior to the mid-19th century, Serbs had formed a majority in the province, but by 1990 represented only about 10 percent of the population.

Alarmed by their dwindling numbers, the province's Serbs began to fear they were being "squeezed out" by the Albanians. As soon as Kosovo's autonomy was abolished, a minority government run by Serbs and Montenegrins was appointed by Milošević to oversee the province, enforced by thousands of armed paramilitaries from Serbia-proper. Albanian culture was systematically repressed and hundreds of thousands of Albanians working in state-owned companies lost their jobs. In 1996, a ragtag group of Albanian nationalists calling themselves the Kosovo Liberation Army began attacking the Yugoslav Army and the Serbian Ministry of Internal Affairs in Kosovo, their goal was to separate the province from the rest of Yugoslavia, which following the secession of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina in 1991–92, became a rump federation made up of Serbia and Montenegro. At first the KLA carried out hit-and-run attacks: 31 in 1996, 55 in 1997, 66 in January and February 1998 alone; the group gained popularity among young Kosovo Albanians, many of whom favoured a more aggressive approach and rejected the non-violent resistance of politician Ibrahim Rugova.

It received a significant boost in 1997 when civil unrest in neighbouring Albania led to thousands of weapons from the Albanian Army's depots being looted. Many of these weapons ended up in the hands of the KLA, which had substantial resources due to its involvement in the trafficking of drugs and people, as well as through donations from the Albanian diaspora; the group's popularity skyrocketed after the VJ and MUP attacked the compound of KLA leader Adem Jashari in March 1998, killing him, his closest associates and most of his extended family. The attack motivated thousands of young Kosovo Albanians to join the KLA, fueling the Kosovar uprising that erupted in the spring of 1998. Junik is a town in western Kosovo, bordering on Dečani to Đakovica to the south. Following World War II, it became a municipality in its own right, but in 1962, it was dissolved and its territory divided between its neighbours. By 1998, Junik was inhabited by Kosovo Albanians; the area was home to 700 Serbs. Junik was of great strategic importance.

This resulted in the town becoming the KLA's main conduit for weapons smuggling and distribution in western Kosovo early in the war. The area's mountainous terrain was ideal for evading attacks by the VJ and MUP, as a result, the KLA established its western Kosovo headquarters in the town. Junik was among the first towns caught up in the fighting between Yugoslavia's security forces and the KLA, becoming a flashpoint of the KLA's so-called First Offensive in April 1998; the attack on the Jashari compound prompted the West to re-impose sanctions against Yugoslavia, lifted following the signing of the Dayton Agreement in early 1996. By mid-June, the KLA was claiming to be in control of 40 percent of Kosovo. Clashes between the KLA and the Yugoslav authorities in and around Junik commenced on 29 May 1998. By the following month all of Junik's 7,000 inhabitants were displaced. An additional 5,000 Kosovo Albanians from the surrounding areas who had sought shelter in the town were dislocated. Around this time, the Yugoslav Air Force carried out a number of airstrikes in Junik and its vicinity.

The KLA was believed to be in control of 40 percent of Kosovo by this point but was prone to losing newly seized land as as it had acquired it. On 24 June

Palladian architecture

Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. What is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of his original concepts. Palladio's work was based on the symmetry and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the style known as "Palladianism", it continued to develop until the end of the 18th century. In Britain, Palladianism was in vogue during the 17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the English Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but directly influenced from Britain, in Prussia. Count Francesco Algarotti may have written to Lord Burlington from Berlin that he was recommending to Frederick the Great the adoption in Prussia of the architectural style Burlington had introduced in England, but Knobelsdorff's opera house on the Unter den Linden boulevard, based on Campbell's Wanstead House, had been constructed from 1741.

In the century, when the style was falling from favour in Europe, it had a surge in popularity throughout the British colonies in North America, highlighted by examples such as Drayton Hall in South Carolina, the Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island, the Morris-Jumel Mansion in New York City, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis and Thomas Jefferson's Monticello and Poplar Forest in Virginia. The style continued to be utilized in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was employed in the design of public and municipal buildings. From the latter half of the 19th century it was rivalled by the Gothic revival in the English-speaking world, whose champions such as Augustus Pugin, remembering the origins of Palladianism in ancient temples, deemed it too pagan for Anglican and Anglo-Catholic worship. However, as an architectural style it has continued to evolve. Buildings designed by Palladio are all in Venice and the Veneto, with an rich grouping of palazzi in Vicenza.

They include villas, churches such as the Basilica del Redentore in Venice. In Palladio's architectural treatises he followed the principles defined by the Roman architect Vitruvius and his 15th-century disciple Leon Battista Alberti, who adhered to principles of classical Roman architecture based on mathematical proportions rather than the rich ornamental style characteristic of the Renaissance. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. If on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. In such cases porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico; this can most be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. A loggia would be placed at second floor level over the top of a loggia below, creating what was known as a double loggia.

Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment. Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building. Palladio would model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades; the temple influence in a cruciform design became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are built with three floors: a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. Above this, the piano nobile accessed through a portico reached by a flight of external steps, containing the principal reception and bedrooms, above it is a low mezzanine floor with secondary bedrooms and accommodation; the proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3:4 and 4:5, the different rooms within the house were interrelated by these ratios. Earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade. Palladio considered the dual purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners.

These symmetrical temple-like houses have symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals, agricultural stores. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades, were designed not only to be functional but to complement and accentuate the villa, they were, however, in no way intended to be part of the main house, it is the design and use of these wings that Palladio's followers in the 18th century adapted to become an integral part of the building. Palladio's The Four Books of Architecture was first published in 1570, This architectural treatise contains descriptions and illustrations of his own architecture along with the Roman building that inspired him to create the style. Palladio reinterpreted Rome's ancient architecture and applied it to all kinds of buildings from grand villas and public buildings to humble houses and farm sheds; the Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features in Palladio's work and is a trademark of his early career.

There are two different versions of the motif: properly the simpler one is called a Venetian window, a more elaborate and specific one a Palladian window or "Palladian motif"

Joseph Tezanos

Joseph L. Tezanos, born José Tezanos. is the first American of Hispanic descent to join the United States Coast Guard's reserve officer ranks. During World War II Tezanos served as a gunner's mate aboard LST-20 during the invasions of Kiska, Tarawa Atoll, Kwajalein Atoll, in the Gilbert Islands, but it was his heroic participation in ad hoc rescue efforts on May 21, 1944 following a devastating explosion of ammunition back at Pearl Harbor that earned him a Navy & Marine Corps Medal for distinguished heroism. It was following the receipt of this medal that Tezanos was sent to a four-month officer training school. Following his commissioning Tezanos spent a year as a junior officer aboard the transport J. T. Dickman, he was demobilized in attending college and graduate school. Upon graduation he became a successful international businessman. All the vessels of the Coast Guard's Sentinel class cutters will be named after heroic Coast Guard sailors, or heroes from the Coast Guard's precursor services.

The eighteenth cutter in this class will be the USCGC Joseph Tezanos

Ministry of Works (United Kingdom)

The Ministry of Works was a department of the UK Government formed in 1940, during World War II, to organise the requisitioning of property for wartime use. After the war, the Ministry retained responsibility for Government building projects. In 1962 it was renamed the Ministry of Public Building and Works, acquired the extra responsibility of monitoring the building industry as well as taking over the works departments from the War Office, Air Ministry and Admiralty; the Chief Architect of the Ministry from 1951 to 1970 was Eric Bedford. In 1970 the Ministry was absorbed into the Department of the Environment, although from 1972 most former Works functions were transferred to the autonomous Property Services Agency. Subsequent reorganisation of PSA into Property Holdings was followed by abolition in 1996 when individual Government departments took on responsibility for managing their own estate portfolios; the tradition of building specific structures for military or governmental use began to break down at the time of World War I, when the unprecedented need for armaments prompted the rapid construction of factories in English locations where a skilled workforce was not recruited.

The department derived from the Office of Works responsible only for royal properties which became the Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Works. The Office of Works was founded in 1851 and became the Ministry of Works in 1940; this became the Ministry of Works & Planning, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government 1951-62, the Ministry of Public Buildings and Works before being subsumed in the Department of the Environment in 1970 and English Heritage in 1984. Architect Frank Baines guided the rapid development of estates of houses in a terraced style, for workers and their families in places close to the required factories and depots. Examples included the Well Hall garden suburb south of the Royal Arsenal, Aeroville near the Grahame-White aeroplane factory at Hendon, the Roe Green estate at Stag Lane in the London Borough of Brent. Considering the pace of their construction, these estates were picturesque and were subsequently considered superior in scenic terms to many estates of municipal housing that followed in the peacetime of the 1920s, guided by the Tudor Walters Committee report of 1919 and the Housing and Town Planning Act 1919.

Their styling owed much to the English garden suburb tradition and garden areas and front boundaries were more varied than on contemporary estates within military bases where state ownership endured over a longer period. By the late 20th century the Well Hall example had become known as the Progress Estate and legend has it that no two houses there are built to the same plan. From the 1880s the Office of Works was responsible for the upkeep of ancient monuments, a role taken on by the Department of the Environment and when responsibility for heritage matters was devolved, in 1977, by English Heritage and the other Home Country heritage organisations; as such it forms the basis for any research into official or historic structures ranging from post offices to palaces and all archaeological sites in state care, including Stonehenge. In conjunction with the Foreign Office it was responsible for the fabric of British embassies and consulates across the world. Apart from English Heritage, Historic Scotland and Cadw, its vast archive is dispersed throughout many other organisations including national Museums and Galleries, other government departments including the Government Art Collection and the now hived-off agencies covering Royal Parks and Palaces.

Every Record Office, every museum and every town council in the British Isles will hold files relating to the MOW who in 1947 enabled the first'Lists' defining and protecting historic buildings which now forms the heritage protection of over 400,000 sites. A detailed history of offices and staff remains to be written: the work of the completely anonymous civil servants who worked for this large government department is absent from published or online sources unless these manifold official activities impinge on current specialized research on the military, archaeological or architectural links; the Ministry of Works descended from a long line of offices with responsibilities for managing Royal and Governmental property. These are summarised below. 1378–1832 Office of Works. This office was established to oversee the building of the King's residences. 1832–1851 Office of Woods, Land Revenues and Buildings. The Office of Works continued to operate as the Works Department within the larger Office.

1851–1940 Office of Works. The Office was given a separate identity in order to bring it under the direct control of Parliament. 1940–1942 Ministry of Works and Buildings. The Ministry was formed during World War II as the Government's need for new buildings and the conversion of existing buildings became more urgent. 1942–1943 Ministry of Works and Planning. 1943–1962 Ministry of Works. See above. 1962–1970 Ministry of Public Building and Works. See above. BT Tower, London Ordnance Survey head office, Southampton First Commissioner of Works