History of Tanzania

The African Great Lakes nation of Tanzania dates formally from 1964, when it was formed out of the union of the much larger mainland territory of Tanganyika and the coastal archipelago of Zanzibar. The former was a colony and part of German East Africa from the 1880s to 1919, under the League of Nations, it became a British mandate, it served as a British military outpost during World War II, providing financial help and soldiers. In 1947, Tanganyika became a United Nations Trust Territory under British administration, a status it kept until its independence in 1961; the island of Zanzibar thrived as a trading hub, subsequently controlled by the Portuguese, the Sultanate of Oman, as a British protectorate by the end of the nineteenth century. Julius Nyerere, independence leader and "baba wa taifa" for Tanganyika, ruled the country for decades, while Abeid Amaan Karume, governed Zanzibar as its president and Vice President of the United Republic of Tanzania. Following Nyerere's retirement in 1985, various political and economic reforms began.

He was succeeded in office by President Ali Hassan Mwinyi. Tanzania is home to some of the oldest hominid settlements unearthed by archaeologists. Prehistoric stone tools and fossils have been found in and around Olduvai Gorge in northern Tanzania, an area referred to as "The Cradle of Mankind". Acheulian stone tools were discovered there in 1931 by Louis Leakey, after he had identified the rocks brought back by Hans Reck to Germany from his 1913 Olduvai expedition as stone tools; the same year, Louis Leakey found older, more primitive stone tools in Olduvai Gorge. These were the first examples of the oldest human technology discovered in Africa, were subsequently known throughout the world as Oldowan after Olduvai Gorge; the first hominid skull in Olduvai Gorge was discovered by Mary Leakey in 1959, named Zinj or Nutcracker Man, the first example of Paranthropus boisei, is thought to be over 1.8 million years old. Other finds including Homo habilis fossils were subsequently made. At nearby Laetoli the oldest known hominid footprints, the Laetoli footprints, were discovered by Mary Leakey in 1978, estimated to be about 3.6 million years old and made by Australopithecus afarensis.

The oldest hominid fossils discovered in Tanzania come from Laetoli and are the 3.6 to 3.8 million year old remains of Australopithecus afarensis—Louis Leakey had found what he thought was a baboon tooth at Laetoli in 1935, a fragment of hominid jaw with three teeth was found there by Kohl-Larsen in 1938–39, in 1974–75 Mary Leakey recovered 42 teeth and several jawbones from the site. Mumba Cave in northern Tanzania includes a Middle Stone Age to Later Stone Age archaeological sequence; the MSA represents the time period in Africa during which many archaeologists see the origins of modern human behavior. Reaching back about 10,000 years in the Later Stone Age, Tanzania is believed to have been populated by hunter-gatherer communities Khoisan-speaking people. Between 4,000 to 3,000 years ago, during a time period known as the Pastoral Neolithic, pastoralists who relied on cattle, sheep and donkeys came into Tanzania from the north. Two archaeological cultures are known from this time period, the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic and the Elmenteitan.

Luxmanda is the largest and southernmost-known Pastoral Neolithic site in Tanzania. About 2000 years ago, Bantu-speaking people began to arrive from western Africa in a series of migrations collectively referred to as the Bantu expansion; these groups brought and developed ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization. They absorbed many of the Cushitic peoples who had preceded them, as well as most of the remaining Khoisan-speaking inhabitants. Nilotic pastoralists arrived, continued to immigrate into the area through to the 18th century. One of Tanzania's most important Iron Age archeological sites is Engaruka in the Great Rift Valley, which includes an irrigation and cultivation system. Travellers and merchants from the Persian Gulf and Western India have visited the East African coast since early in the first millennium CE. Greek texts such as the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea and Ptolemy's Geography list a string of market places along the coast. Finds of Roman-era coins along the coast confirm the existence of trade, Ptolomey's Geography refers to a town of Rhapta as "metropolis" of a political entity called Azania.

Archaeologists have not yet succeeded in identifying the location of Rhapta, though many believe it lies buried in the silt of the delta of the Rufiji River. A long documentary silence follows these ancient texts, it is not until Arab geographical treatises were written about the coast that our information resumes. Remains of those towns' material culture demonstrate that they arose from indigenous roots, not from foreign settlement, and the language, spoken in them, Swahili, is a member of the Bantu language family that spread from the northern Kenya coast well before significant Arab presence was felt in the region. By the beginning of the second millennium CE the Swahili towns conducted a thriving trade that linked Africans in the interior with trade partners throughout the Indian Ocean. From c. 1200 to 1500 CE, the town of Kilwa, on Tanzania's southern coast, was the wealthiest and most powerful of these towns, presiding over what some scholars consider the "golden age" of Swahili civilization.

In the early 14th century, Ibn Battuta, a Berber traveller fro


Extracellular superoxide dismutase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the superoxide dismutase protein family. SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of two superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen; the product of this gene is thought to protect the brain and other tissues from oxidative stress. The protein is secreted into the extracellular space and forms a glycosylated homotetramer, anchored to the extracellular matrix and cell surfaces through an interaction with heparan sulfate proteoglycan and collagen. A fraction of the protein is cleaved near the C-terminus before secretion to generate circulating tetramers that do not interact with the ECM. Among black garden ants, the lifespan of queens is an order of magnitude greater than of workers despite no systematic nucleotide sequence difference between them; the SOD3 gene was found to be the most differentially over-expressed gene in the brains of queen vs worker ants.

This finding raises the possibility that SOD3 antioxidant activity plays a key role in the striking longevity of social insect queens

Lochaber-Partie-Ouest, Quebec

Lochaber-Partie-Ouest is a township municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec, located within the Papineau Regional County Municipality. The township had a population of 856 in the 2016 Canadian Census; the township is predominantly agricultural, the main economic activity. In 1807, a group of about 400 Scottish Highlanders settled in the area, the same year the geographic township of Lochaber Gore was created, they came near Lochaber and other parts of northern Scotland. Settlement was difficult, because income from agriculture was lower than the costs of importing manufactured products from Montreal. With the arrival of the logging industry, the settlers were able to practice agriculture during the summer, while working in the lumberjack camps during the winter, or to work in the various sawmills that developed along the Blanche River near Thurso; the logging industry attracted many more settlers, including French Canadians, settlement was well underway at the turn of the 19th to 20th century.

The population became predominantly Francophone at the start of the 20th century. In 1891, the township municipality of Lochaber-Partie-Ouest was created when it was split off from Lochaber Township. Mother tongue: English as first language: 8.1 % French as first language: 90.1 % English and French as first language: 1.2 % Other as first language: 1.2 % List of former mayors: Michel Labrecque Jean-Pierre Girard Pierre Renaud Media related to Lochaber-Partie-Ouest at Wikimedia Commons